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Beers, Chapter 8
Transcript of Beers, Chapter 8
After-Reading Strategies Likert Scales “require students to read a statement, decide how much they agree or disagree with it, and then mark or circle the term that indicates that level of agreement. Likert scales often focus on generalizations about characters, themes, conflicts, or symbolism” (p. 140). Semantic Differential Scales “place opposite character traits (strong/weak, optimistic/pessimistic, kind/cruel, brave/cowardly, selfish/unselfish, honest/dishonest, wise/foolish, happy/sad) at opposite ends of a scale, then ask students to decide how much of the trait a character possesses….The issue, as with the Likert scale, isn’t whether students mark the correct term, but why they make their choices” (p. 141). Somebody Wanted But So “offers students a framework as they create their summaries. Students read a story and then decide who the somebody is, what that somebody wanted, but what happened to keep something from happening, and so, finally, how everything works out” (p. 145). Retellings “is an oral summary of a text based on a set of story elements, such as setting, main characters, and conflicts. Students use retellings to help them be more specific in their summarizing, get more organized, discover main ideas and supporting details, and become aware of their audience, use of language, and personal responses to the readings” (p. 152). Text Reformulations a.k.a story recycling “is a strategy in which students transform a text into another type of text…[for example], expository text into narratives, poems into newspaper articles, or short stores into patterned stories such as ABC books…reformulations encourage students to identify main ideas, cause and effect relationships, themes, and main characters while sequencing, generalizing, and making inferences”
(p. 160). "It Says-I Say" is simply “a visual scaffold that helps students organize their thoughts as they move from considering what’s in the text to connecting that to their prior knowledge” (p. 165). Basically, it is “seeing how to think.” STRATEGY SNAPSHOTS Sketch to Stretch a strategy that requires students to work independently or with a partner “to create symbolic sketches of their interpretations of the text. On the back of the sketch, they write an explanation of their sketch” (pp. 172-173). Save the Last Word for Me is used after students read a text… “they choose passages they liked and copy each passage on a card. Then, on the reverse side of that card, they write why they liked that passage. [once completed]…they read their passages [and] Other students comment on what they liked or didn’t like about each passage. Then, the students who wrote it on his card gets to have the last word as he reads his reason for choosing that passage” (p. 173). Most Important Words is a strategy that asks students “to choose what they consider to be the most important word from the text they’ve just read. When they’ve made their choices, make sure they can point to places in the text where the word is used and explain why they chose that word as most important. Variations include having students find the most important chapter and most important passage” (pp. 173-174). Fix-Up Strategies are needed because “Readers sometimes get stuck when they read, not understanding a word or losing the train of thought. The difference between a good and a poor reader is that the good reader realizes that comprehension has broken down and knows what strategy to use to fix it. Many students do not realize they are not understanding what they read, so teachers must help them become so engaged in the text that when they veer off course, they realize it and immediately know how to correct it. Fix-it Strategies
• Make a connection between the text and your life, your
knowledge of the world, or another text.
• Make a prediction.
• Stop and think about what you have already read.
• Ask yourself a question and try to answer it.
• Reflect in writing on what you have read.
• Use print conventions.
• Retell what you’ve read.
• Notice patterns in text structure.
• Adjust your reading rate: slow down or speed up. GIST Generating Interactions between Schemata and Text The word gist is defined as "the main or essential part of a matter." The GIST strategy helps students read expository text and get the main idea. Students must then convey the gist of what they read in 20 words. The strategy is can be used with narrative text if students are asked to summarize after each chapter.