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A NEW NATION: THE UNITED STATES.
Transcript of A NEW NATION: THE UNITED STATES.
Forming the new nation.
North and South
The Civil War
The Treaty of Paris (1783)
Britain recognized the United States as an independent Nation.
War of Independence
All states agreed to work together in a National Congress. Each state sent representatives.
The Articles of confederation
Central government was very weak (no taxes, no army).
Each state behaved like an independent nations.
The Constitutional Convention
in Philadelphia (1787)
George Washington led their discussion
The Constitution of the United States
Federal System of Government
George Washington was elected the first president of the United States.
The Whiskey Rebellion
Washington sent an army on 15000 men to support the rights of the federal government.
The war of 1812: The Second War of Independence.
It was a 2-and-a-half-year military conflict between the United States and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, its North American colonies and its Indian allies. The United States declared the war on June 18.
British attempts to restrict United States trade
the impressment of the American merchants sailors into the Royal Navy.
British support of American Indian tribes against American expansion.
Causes of the war
The U.S suffered many costly defeats at the hands of British, Canadian, and Native American troops over the course of the war. However, American troops were able to repulse British Invasions in New York, Baltimore and New Orleands, boosting national confidence and fostering a new spirit of patriotism.
Westward Expansion and Regional Differences:
Extension of slavery
Latin America and the Monroe´s Doctrine:
Factionalism and political parties:
The Battle of the Bank:
To stabilize the currency and to stimulate trade.
for a few powerful men
1811 expired and not renewed
In hands of state-chartered banks
It couldn´t provide the country with a uniform currency
2nd bank chartered (20 years)
for the wealthy few
Jackson (against it)
vetoed to recharter the bank
crush the bank
He ordered no more government money be deposited.
The money already in its custdy be gradually withdrawn in the ordinary course of meeting the expenses of government
Wighs, Democrats and "Know Nothing".
Martin Van Buren (Jackson´s vicepresident) won the election
hard times - low wages
Democrats on the defensive
Wighs vs Democrats
Catholic immigrants triggered a backlash among native-born Protestant Americans
political changes that increased the political power of the foreign born.
Universal white-male suffrage
They planned a new constitution
Extension in the period required for naturalization from 5 to 21 years
Exclusion of the foreign-born and Catholics from public office
They managed to win control of legislatures in New York and Massachussets
About 90 U.S congressmen were linked to the party
Disagreements over slavery
Know Nothing of the South
Know Nothing of the North
convention to nominate candidates
42 Northern delegates walked out when a motion to support Missouri compromise was ignored.
the party died
Stirrings of Reform
The beginning of labor organization
The spread of suffrage: new concept of Education
Opposition to the sale and use of alcohol: Temperance movement
Prisons and care for the insane
unequal position in society
Promoted women´s rights publicly in the 1820s
A group of women emerged who would forge the first women´s rights movement.
Cady Stanton and Lucretia Mott organized a women´s rights convention at Seneca Falls, New York.
National Woman Suffrage Association.
Conditions along the Atlantic seaboard
Migration to the newer regions
division of old territories
drawing new boundaries
easy to acquire
after 1820: bought for $1,25 for about half a hectare
after 1862: Homestead Act
"GO WEST AND GROW WITH THE COUNTRY"
The grow of the nation
Conflict with the Indians (original inhabitants)
Commerce was cementing national unity
Protecting the manufacturers of America
Economic independence was essential as political independence
Henry Clay of Kentucky and John C. Calhoun of South Carolina
policy of protectionism
Raising the customs tariff
National system of roads and canals
Federal Highways Act of 1916.
John Marshall of Virginia became chief justice
Greater importance as a national issue:
"Slavery may be abolished by slow, sure and imperceptible degrees".
Jefferson, Madison and Monroe made similar statements.
The Northwest Ordinance had banned slavery in the Northwest Territory.
International slave trade was abolished.
new economic factors made slavery more profitable
Great cotton-growing industry in the South.
Slavery's extension in the South.
state was supplying the nation with about half its suggar supply.
Tobacco growers moved westward taking slavery with them.
Missouri applied to enter the Union.
Henry Clay arranged the so-called Missouri Compromise.
Victory for the South States.
Central and South America turned to revolution
Napoleon's conquest of Spain provided the signal for Latin Americans to rise in revolt.
Simon Bolivar, Francisco Miranda, Jose de San Martin and Miguel Hidalgo, all of Hispanic America, had won Independence from the mother country.
President Monroe recognized the new countries of Latin America.
Russia, Prussia and Austria formed the Holy Alliance
December of 1823: The Monroe Doctrine.
the era of good feelings
Tennessee and Penssylvania choose Andrew Jackson, with South Carolina Senator John C. Calhoun as his running mate. Kentucky selected Speaker of The House Henry Clay; Massachusetts, Secretary of State John Quincy Adams; and congressional caucus, Treasury Secretary William Crawford.
Adams won the electoral votes from New England and most of New York; Clay won Kentucky, Ohio and Missouri; Jackson won the Southeast, Illinois, Indiana, the Carolinas, Pennsylvania, Maryland and New Jersey; and Crawford won Virginia, Georgia and Delaware.
Jackson defeated Adams.
Members of the Electoral College were still selected by six state legislatures.
protect Northern manufacturers
citizens endorsed the states rights principle of "nullification".
Jackson sent 7 small naval vessels and a man-of-war to Charleston.
proclamation against the nullifiers. "the brink of insurrection and treason"
Clay´s tariff bill
all dutties in excess of 20% of the value of the goods imported were to be reduced by easy stages, so that by 1842, the dutties on all articles would reach the leveL of the moderate tariff of 1816.
rescinded its action
had demonstrated that a single state could force its will on Congress.
Declaration of Independence
"All men are equal"
1810: 1,2 million were black and slaves
Constant fighting between North and South about prohibition of slavery.
moral and religious reason
1808: illegal for ships to bring new slaves from Africa to the US
Slaves worked the land
Slavery permitted in Missouri and Arkansas.
It was banned in the west and North of Missouri.
conflict began over import duties.
Opposed the duties because they relied upon foreign manufactures for luxuries and necessities. Import duties would raise the prices of such goods.
Favored such duties because they protected their young industries against the competition of foreign manufactured goods.
John C. Calhoun (political leader):
Claimed the right to disobey any federal law if the state believed that the law harm its interest.
Senator Daniel Webster:
The "States´ Right Doctrine" could become a serious threat for the unity of the US.
New territories were given the right to decide for themselves if they allowed slavery.
Eli Whitney invented the cotton machine/ gin.
It improved the amount of cotton grown for the South.
The increased was achieved by bringing more slaves to plough and hoe the land and pick cotton.
Independent economy in the south.
Fugitive Slave Act
Easier for southerners to capture slaves who escaped from their masters and fled for safety states.
Prepared to wait for abolish slavery come to an end gradually and by agreement with the South owners.
Others wanted to end it immediately and without compromises.
William Lloyed Garrison
reported how cruelly black slaves were treated.
Kansas conflict "Bleeding Kansas"
Pro-slavery immigrants from the South.
Anti-slavery immigrants from the North.
Neither won the struggle to control Kansas.
Dread Scott (slave) asked the Supreme Court to declare him legally free.
Refused (Black slaves had no rights as American citizens)
Free states had no right to forbid slavery within their boundaries and slaves owners could put their slaves to work anywhere.
The Republic Party
opponents of slavery formed a new political group.
Government cannot endure permanently half slave, half free
Candidate in the presidential election
Brown fought to start a slave rebellion in Virginia.
Southerners believed it was a sign that North was preparing to use force to end slavery in the South.
South present a candidate against Lincoln
They will secede from the US if Lincoln became president.
The state of South Carolina voted to seced from the US.
11 states announced they were now independent nations.
CONFEDERATES STATES OF AMERICA
1861 at Fort Sumter in Charleston Bay.
Most significant battles:
1863: The Gettysburg´s battle (Pennsylvania)
The battle of Appomattox (Virginia)
Robert Lee (South leader)
Ulysses Grant (North)
1865: Robert Lee surrendered: Northern victory
A nation free from slavery.
President A. Lincoln was killed after the victory.
"Reunite the South with the rest of the Nation"
(Rebuild their war-battered homeland).
A. Lincoln was killed in 1865.
Andrew Johnson became president.
Congress passed the Civil Right Act, introduced the 14th Amendment to the Constitution.
It gave black full rights as citizens, including the right to vote.
Confederate states refused to accept the 14th Amendment.
They were under military rule.
(They refused to give black men the right to vote).
Accepted the 13th Amendment (completely abolish slavery). They could elect new state assemblies to run their affairs.
The negro is free, but this does not make him a citizen to social or political equality with the white men.
Black people in Inferior Position.
Remained unskilled, uneducated, landless, no money.
No legal protection or rights of their own.
They are still SLAVES
South hates reconstruction.
Ku Klux Klan
Supreme Court case: Plessy v. Ferguson.
Constitution made segregation legal:
Facilities and services of equal quality.
SEPARATE BUT EQUAL
Public transporters, theaters, hotels, eating places, parks, schools.
Broke of segregation: ended in prison or dead
1954: Brow v. Topeka.
Supreme Court ordered that all public schools should be opened to children all races.
Beginning to enforce the end of segregation in American life.
It was the foundation of the Civil Rights movement of 1950s and 1960s.
Martin Luther King cried ut on behalf of all black Americans.
THANKS FOR YOUR ATTENTION!