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John Dewey's Reflective THinking process

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Tiffany Rampey

on 9 October 2014

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Transcript of John Dewey's Reflective THinking process

Define the Problem
Analyze the Problem
Ask these two big questions:
How severe is the problem?
How many people are affected?
What are ramifications if unaddressed?
What are the causes of the problem?
Look into history
What were the contributing factors?
Establish Criteria for Solutions
With a group, decide upon (and write down) standards for reaching a solution
What are reasonable outcomes?
What exactly are you hoping to achieve?
Generate Potential Solutions
Write down all possible solutions without analysis
Ensure all possibilities are listed
Select the Best Solution
Discuss each solution using the criteria set out previously
Consider each potential solution equally
Ensure the group comes to a consensus regarding how to proceed
John Dewey's Reflective Thinking process
Who was John Dewey, and what did he believe?
In order to do this, students ,with the guidance of their teacher, should come up with a question that follows these guidelines:
Has an open-ended answer
Includes a phrase like "should" ie - What should our school do to address climate change?
Remain objective
Pose only one question
This requires both research and group work:
Use some of your prior knowledge
Supplement with research conducted by a group of individuals
Offer objective and unbiased information
This step:
encourages creativity
produces higher results
encourages participation and collaboration from all group members
Inside the Classroom
Authentic Learning
Example: How should students at Baker help with the victims of the Earthquake in Haiti?
This gives students a chance to offer their suggestions and feel the importance of their lives within the global community
Example: Students research the earthquake in Haiti. They learn about the science behind earthquakes, research different devastating earthquakes throughout history, and look at the direct implications in Haiti. They read news reports, and when appropriate and can conduct interviews of relief workers, Haitians with affected family members, etc.

Students are able to authentically learn about multiple disciplines through the research necessary for this topic.
Example: The Student Council might hold an all-school forum to discuss the issues at hand and ask for feedback from the student body in or to come up with intended outcomes for the project as a whole. The school can then use these outcomes and criteria as a shared vision when working toward a solution.
This allows for some students to take more of a leadership role, but also makes room for the democracy necessary when working with an authentic problem.
Example: The students in each classroom can work in small groups to come up with different ideas or possible solutions. Then, each class can create a master list to offer to the school as a whole. This would be a contribution to an all-school brainstorm from which the student body and student council could move forward.
This process ensures everyone is heard and each student understands that their voice is just as important as the next person's. Students are also forced to think through realistic ideas, being that their audience is the entire school community.
Example: The Student Council could filter through the all-school brainstorm with the intention of coming up with a handful of realistic options. These options can then be presented to the student body for defense and voting. The students would have an opportunity to concisely speak to their favorite option in an all-school forum before the votes are held.
This allows for students to speak to their passions and point things out to the general population that may have gone overlooked. The vote is important so that every student in the school understands their personal importance to the project.
View this short video to learn a bit about this revolutionary thinker in the world of Education. His views and practices affect teaching today in large, impactful ways.
So, what are some teaching tools that Dewey has left behind for the educators of the world? One of them is called the
Reflective Thinking Process.
Here are the steps:
Speaking of which, Here are my resources:

Image Credit

Video Credit

Website Credit

Book Credit
Lucas, Stephen. The Art of Public Speaking. New York: McGraw-Hill Companies, The, 2007. Print.
DEWEY, JOHN. 1956. The Child and the Curriculum and The School and Society. Chicago: Phoenix.
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