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History of Flight
Transcript of History of Flight
Icarus, the son of Dadaelus, made wings of wax and feathers. He flew too close to the sun. The wax melted and he fell to his death.
Around 400 BC, in China, kites were used in religious ceremonies, for fun and to test weather conditions.
Kites were important to the invention of flight as they were forerunners to balloons and gliders.
First "heavier-than-air" flying machine invented by humans, in the shape of an airfoil. Australian Aboriginal boomerangs have been found as old as 10,000 years old.
George Cayley worked to discover a way for man to fly.
He designed many different versions of the glider that used body movements as the controls.
Over 50 years, Cayley changed:
~shape of the wings so that air would move over the wings correctly.
~added a tail for stability.
~tried a biplane design to add strength.
~recognized the need for power to stay in the air longer.
Otto Lilienthal studied aerodynamics, by watching birds fly. He was able to make a glider with an airfoil design, but he had the pilot hang under the front of the glider.
Samuel Langley built a model plane using a steam powered engine. The model flew for a mile before running out of fuel.
He built a full sized aerodrome, but it crashed. He then gave up trying to fly.
The Wright brothers first contributed to the study of flight, by using kites. They used the kites to study how wind affected flight. They used this information to control flight by twisting their wings.
They spent 3 years testing different shaped gliders at Kitty Hawk, NC.
They used wind tunnels to test the shape of wings and tails.
In 1902, after perfecting the glider shape, they created a propulsion system that generated thrust.
Early engines generated almost 12 horsepower (= 2 hand propelled lawn mowers)
•Glider flew as a kite at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina
•It was their first experiments with man aboard.
•Over the course of the year, the Wright brothers flew 700-1000 attempts with this glider.
•The flights demonstrated the efficiency of their system of control and stability.
•The wind tunnel allowed them to calculate the performance of their flying machine.
1903 Wright Flyer
•1903 machine was 1902 glider equipped with motor and propellers
•First successful powered and controlled flight, December 17: 12 seconds, 120 ft
To the Future
Humankind was now able to fly! During the next century, many new airplanes and engines were developed to help transport people, luggage, cargo, military personnel and weapons. The 20th century's advances were all based on these 1st flights by the American brothers from Ohio!
Leonardo da Vinci made the first real studies of flight in the 1480's, with his Ornithopter. The wings mimiced bird and bat wings.
Charles Lindbergh make the first solo, non-stop, TransAtlantic flight.
Frank Whittle, a British inventor, develops the jet engine
Amelia Earhart was the first woman to fly solo, on a non-stop TransAtlantic flight.
Modern airliner, Boeing 247, flies for the first time.
Chuck Yeager pilots Bell X-1, the first aircraft to exceed the speed of sound
in level flight.
US Navy introduced F-4 Phantom
US Navy introduced the F-14 Tomcat
USAF introduced the F-117 Nighthawk
USAF reintroduces a new and improve F-16 Falcon
USAF introduced the F-35 Lightning II
USAF introduced the F-22 Raptor
1903 Wright Glider at Air and Space Smithsonian in Washington DC