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the Concept of 'Revolution': focus on THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

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Ryan Slavin

on 30 January 2015

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Transcript of the Concept of 'Revolution': focus on THE FRENCH REVOLUTION

THE FRENCH REVOLUTION
REVOLUTION THREATENS THE MONARCHY
VOCABULARY
- OLD REGIME:
The feudal system left over from the Middle Ages. It was organized in terms of three "estates" or groups.
CLERGY
MERCHANTS,
PEASANTS, FARMERS... THE PEOPLE.
NOBLES
- OLD REGIME AND THE BURDEN OF LABOUR AND TAXES -
KING LOUIS THE XVI...
THE OLD REGIME
- THE THREE ESTATES -
1. THE ROMAN CATHOLIC CHURCH
The clergy who had power based on the medieval idea that God gives more power to some, rather than to all members of a society or the world.
2. THE NOBLES.
The nobility who had power because they had owned the land since the Middle Ages based on medieval ideas that supported the power of some over others based on religion and blood relationships.
3. THE PEOPLE.
The Bourgeoisie or wealthy merchants and artisans. People who had great wealth based on their efforts and ingenuity but who had no political power thanks to the medieval idea that those things (political powers) are only given to some by god.
City workers like cooks and servants who depended on other people giving them work in order to survive.
The rest of the people (peasants) who dedicated to agriculture. They paid more than half their income in taxes to the First and Second States.
It provided education and economic and spiritual relief to the poor in urban and rural areas. They hated Enlightenment ideas.
They owned most of the land and paid virtually no taxes. They hated Enlightenment Ideas.
They paid most taxes resented the clergy and the nobles and embraced Enlightenment ideas.
1
2
3
-THIS RAISE IN TAXES ANGERED THE ARISTOCRACY (THE MOST POWERFUL GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS)

- THE SECOND ESTATE FORCED THE ABSOLUTE KING TO GATHER THE THREE ESTATES IN ORDER TO DECIDE WHAT TO DO WITH THE CURRENT CRISIS.

- THIS REUNION OF THE THREE ESTATES WAS CALLED THE "ESTATES-GENERAL" AN ASSEMBLY OF REPRESENTATIVES OF THE THREE ESTATES.
THE ESTATES-GENERAL WAS A FIASCO.
- MEMBERS OF THE FIRST AND SECOND ESTATES HOPED TO REMAIN IN POWER AS THEY HAD ALWAYS DONE IN THE PAST BASED ON THEIR MEDIEVAL IDEAS.

- BUT THE THIRD ESTATE WAS NOW WELL EDUCATED AND THE WEALTHY MERCHANTS AND ARTISANS, THE BOURGEOISIE, HAD NEW IDEAS: ENLIGHTENMENT IDEAS.
made some mistakes...
1789 - 1799
WHAT HAPPENED?
- THE THIRD ESTATE WAS LOCKED OUT OF THE ROOM WHERE THE GATHERING TOOK PLACE SO THEY WOULD NOT CAST A VOTE.

- ANGERED THE REPRESENTATIVES OF THE THIRD ESTATE ASSEMBLED IN A TENNIS COURT AND REACHING AN AGREEMENT THEY CREATED WHAT WAS KNOWN AS THE "NATIONAL ASSEMBLY" WHICH AGREED...
"not to separate... until the constitution of the kingdom is established"
REVOLUTION!
MEDIEVAL
HIERARCHY
NEW IDEAL
HIERARCHY
TRYING TO APPEASE THE THIRD ESTATE AND ITS NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, THE KING AGREED WITH THE REFORMS OF THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY. HOWEVER, AT THE SAME TIME
HE PUT HIS SWISS GUARDS
IN CASE OF TROUBLE.
THE PEOPLE THOUGHT THE KING MEANT TO ATTACK THEM. IN RESPONSE THEY STORMED (ATTACKED) THE BASTILLE IN ORDER TO GET GUNPOWDER TO FIGHT BACK.
14 OF JULY 1789
SOON, MASSIVE REBELLIONS SPREAD THROUGH RURAL AND URBAN FRANCE. THE ROYAL FAMILY HAD TO LEAVE THEIR PALACE AT VERSAILLES. THE KING RAN AWAY.
THE "GREAT FEAR" SPREAD THROUGH FRANCE. NOBLES AND PEASANTS ALIKE SAW A MASSIVE WAVE OF VIOLENCE RISE IN THEIR COUNTRY.
- NOBLE MEN AND CLERGY MEN JOINED THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY (MORE OUT OF FEAR THAN IDEALISM) AND SPOKE OF
LIBERTY AND EQUALITY.

- A NEW GOVERNMENT WAS CREATED BY THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY BASED ON THE VERY FAMOUS "DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN".
WHAT CONSEQUENCES DERIVED FROM THESE EVENTS?
THE CREATION OF A NEW GOVERNMENT BROUGHT CHANGES TO FRANCE AND EUROPE:
- IN ORDER TO KEEP ORDER AND MAINTAIN REVOLUTIONARY IDEALS THE NEW GOVERNMENT, THE NATIONAL CONVENTION, BROUGHT UPON A TIME KNOWN AS "THE REGIME OF TERROR".
- IT WAS A TIME OF MASSIVE EXECUTIONS AGAINST THE CLERGY, THE NOBLES AND MOST IMPORTANTLY AND CONTRADICTORY, THE PEOPLE.
- THE EXECUTIONS WERE CARRIED OUT IN FAVOUR OF MAINTAINING THE REVOLUTIONARY IDEALS PROPOSED AFTER THE DEFEAT OF THE MONARCHY. FRANCE WAS NOW BEING LEAD BY A MAN KNOWN AS MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE.
- THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY HAD SO MUCH POWER THE KING WAS VIRTUALLY A SYMBOL, NOTHING MORE. THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY PASSED LAWS AND COULD PREVENT THE KING FROM ENTERING ANY WAR.
- IN FEAR, THE KING TRIED TO ESCAPE TO AUSTRIA WHERE HE WOULD ORGANIZE AN ARMY AND TAKE BACK HIS COUNTRY.
- THE KING WAS DISCOVERED AND PUT IN HOUSE ARREST (CASA POR CARCEL).
- AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA WANTED THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY TO PUT KING LOUIS XVI BACK IN THE THRONE AND SO FRANCE DECLARED WAR ON AUSTRIA. PRUSSIA JOINED AUSTRIA LATER AGAINST FRANCE.
-
AFTER THE "GREAT FEAR" AND THE DEATH OF THE KING THE NEW GOVERNMENT SOUGHT ORDER THROUGH WHATEVER MEANS POSSIBLE.
HORRIFIED THAT THIS WOULD ALSO HAPPEN TO THEM, THE NATIONS OF EUROPE TRIED TO HELP THE MONARCHY OF FRANCE REGAIN ITS POWER.
- THE NATIONS OF EUROPE WERE TRYNG TO HELP KING LOUIS XVI REGAIN ABSOLUTE POWER. - THEY ALSO WANTED TO DESTROY THE REBELS WHO LEAD THE REVOLUTION.
- THEY TRIED TO CONTROL THE REVOLUTION GIVEN THAT THESE NEW REVOLUTIONARY IDEAS MAY SPREAD UNTO THEIR OWN ABSOLUTE MONARCHIES.
- FRANCE ENTERED A WAR AGAINST MANY OTHER EUROPEAN STATES: ESPECIALLY AUSTRIA AND PRUSSIA. THE STATE WAS IN CRISIS!
AFTER THE REVOLUTION FRANCE WAS UNDERGOING A SERIES OF UNSUSTAINABLE AND HORRIBLE CHALLENGES + THE FACT THAT NOW THERE WAS NO EFFECTIVE GOVERNMENT OR ORGANISATION.
- ALL THE PROBLEMS THAT STARTED THE REVOLUTION WERE STILL THERE: FAMINE, LACK OF MONEY, HIGH TAXES.
- NEW PROBLEMS HAD BEEN CREATED: GENERAL RIOTS, FEAR OF THE EXTREMISTS, THE DEATH OF THE KING (WHICH HORRIFIED MANY), THE LOSS OF POWER BY THE CLERGY (WHICH ALSO HORRIFIED MANY), AND WAR AGAINST EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.
AFTER SOME TIME ONE GENERAL OF THE ARMY OF FRANCE WAS ELECTED AS CONSUL (IN THE ROMAN STYLE OF GOVERNMENT): NAPOLEON BONAPARTE.
- THE DIRECTORY SOON LOST THE FAITH OF THE PEOPLE THANKS TO THE DESIRE FOR FURTHER PROSPERITY.
- THE ONLY THING THAT KEPT THE DIRECTORY IN CONTROL OF THE NATION WAS THEIR CONTROL OF THE ARMY.
-THE DIRECTORY DECIDED TO PUT NAPOLEON, A VERY PROSPEROUS GENERAL, IN CHARGE OF THE ARMY.
-THE NEXT DAY NAPOLEON TOOK CONTROL OF THE GOVERNMENT BY MARCHING HIS ARMY INTO THE GOVERNMENT'S LEGISLATURE ASSEMBLY.
- THIS SUDDEN TAKE OF POLITICAL POWER IS KNOWN AS A COUP D' ETAT (GOLPE DE ESTADO).
THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY CREATES A
CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY!
FOR TWO YEARS THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY ARGUED OVER A NEW CONSTITUTION. BY 1791 THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY HAD MADE MANY RADICAL CHANGES TO FRANCE'S GOVERNMENT AND SOCIETY.
1. A STATE-CONTROLLED CHURCH:
Although this offended many peasants who strongly believed in the church, the NATIONAL ASSEMBLY took control of church lands and made the clergy servants of the state by paying them wages.
The NATIONAL ASSEMBLY did this in order to sell the lands of the church to pay for the great debt of the state.
2. A LIMITED MONARCHY:
The NATIONAL ASSEMBLY created a limited constitutional monarchy.
The king and his ministers would still hold executive power to enforce laws, but the ASSEMBLY would be the lawmakers.
3. THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY AND THE KING:
The NATIONAL ASSEMBLY handed over its power to the king and changed its name to the "LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY".
THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY
AND THE RISE OF POLITICAL FACTIONS
- ESTATES GENERAL:
The assembly of the "Three Estates" that gathered whenever the king wanted to make decisions about the nation's course of action. In this case the raise of taxes.
- POLITICAL FACTION:
A political faction is a group of individuals, such as a political party, a trade union, or other group with a common political purpose. Members of factions band together as a way of achieving goals and advancing their agenda and position within an organization.
SINCE OLD PROBLEMS PERSISTED, REVOLUTIONARY LEADERS TURNED AGAINST EACH OTHER IN ORDER TO FIND A SOLUTION TO PROBLEMS.
RADICALS
SAT ON THE LEFT SIDE OF THE HALL; WERE CALLED "LEFT WING" AND SAID TO BE ON THE LEFT.
OPPOSED THE KING AND THE IDEA OF A MONARCHY.
WANTED RADICAL CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT AND PROPOSED THAT COMMON PEOPLE HAVE FULL CONTROL OF THE REPUBLIC.
MODERATES
SAT IN THE CENTRE OF THE HALL AND WERE CALLED CENTRISTS.
WANTED SOME CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT, BUT NOT AS MANY AS THE RADICALS.
CONSERVATIVES
SAT ON THE RIGHT SIDE OF THE HALL: WERE CALLED RIGHT WING AND SAID TO BE N THE RIGHT.
UPHELD THE IDEA OF A LIMITED MONARCHY.
WANTED FEW CHANGES IN GOVERNMENT.
FIRST GOVERNMENT
AN ABSOLUTE MONARCHY
SECOND GOVERNMENT
CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY KNOWN AS THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
THIRD GOVERNMENT
A REPUBLIC KNOWN AS THE NATIONAL CONVENTION
THE NATIONAL CONVENTION EXECUTES ROBESPIERRE AND CREATES "THE DIRECTORY"
- THE DIRECTORY WERE A GROUP OF FIVE DIRECTORS THAT RULED OVER THE NATIONAL CONVENTION AFTER THE DEATH OF ROBESPIERRE.
- ALTHOUGH VERY CORRUPT, THEY BROUGHT ORDER AND STABILITY TO FRANCE AFTER YEARS OF CHAOS.
Tinted etching of Louis XVI of France, 1792, wearing a Phrygian cap. This caption refers to Louis's capitulation to the National Assembly, and concludes "The same Louis XVI who bravely waits until his fellow citizens return to their hearths (homes) to plan a secret war and exact his revenge."
NAPOLEON BECOMES RULER FRANCE
AT FIRST NAPOLEON PRETENDED TO BE A CONSUL ELECTED BY A PLEBISCITE (A VOTE FROM THE PEOPLE). THIS MEANT FRANCE WAS STILL A REPUBLIC.
BECAUSE THE PEOPLE WERE DESPERATE FOR ORDER THEY DESIRED STRONG LEADERSHIP.
REVOLUTION THREATENS THE FRENCH KING
OLD REGIME
ESTATE
LOUIS XVI
MARIE ANTONIETTE
ESTATES-GENERAL
NATIONAL ASSEMBLY
TENNIS COURT OATH
GREAT FEAR
DECLARATION OF
RIGHTS OF MEN
MAXIMILLIEN ROBESPIERRE
REIGN OF TERROR
Robespierre shown executing the executioner after having executed everyone else in France.
"Is it not He whose immortal hand, engraving on the heart of man the code of justice and equality, has written there the death sentence of tyrants? Is it not He who, from the beginning of time, decreed for all the ages and for all peoples liberty, good faith, and justice? He did not create kings to devour the human race. He did not create priests to harness us, like vile animals, to the chariots of kings and to give to the world examples of baseness, pride, perfidy, avarice, debauchery and falsehood. He created the universe to proclaim His power. He created men to help each other, to love each other mutually, and to attain to happiness by the way of virtue."

Robespierre, M. "The Cult of the Supreme Being," in Modern History Sourcebook, 1997
KING LOUIS XVI WAS A WEAK RULER WHO OFTEN RELIED ON OTHERS TO MAKE RADICAL DECISIONS IN CRUCIAL TIMES.

- FRANCE WAS GOING THROUGH MANY CRISIS RELATED TO FINANCIAL DEFICIT:
No money- financially supported the Americans in their revolution: fight for independence from Britain. In fact, France was 4000 million livres in Debt.

LACK OF FOOD BECAUSE OF BAD HARVESTS, AND RESENTMENT FROM THE THIRD ESTATE:
Another cause of the French Revolution was because of the frustration and resentment of the working class.As life got harder for them, with the food prices rising because of the bad harvest, and some workers received less pay or even lost their jobs because of the bad harvest as well, the working class wanted a fairer life and fairer taxation as they grew tired of watching the King, Nobles and Clergies living so comfortably in luxury.

- THE KING TRIED TO INCREASE TAXES TO SUPPORT THE GREAT COSTS OF WAR AND THE CRISIS THE NATION WAS UNDERGOING.
-The Old Regime was a system based on the medieval organisation of the people of France in 3 groups called Estates.
- There were three social classes in France in the Old Regime. These three classes were called Estates. Each Estate had a series of responsibilities and duties to the kingdom.
- The King of France since 1774 to his death on 1793 when he was beheaded. He was a weak King who ignored the problems of his kingdom until it was too late. He wanted more taxes and imposed them on an already suffering population.
- The wife of Louis VXI. She was from Austria. This made people dislike her. But it was the fact that she spent so much money what made people detest her.
- An assembly of the Representatives of the Three Estates that gathered to make decisions. This form of assembly had existed in France since the 14th century. It had been created by the king during a dispute with the Pope in which he neede the support of the Nobles and the People.
- An assembly of the Representatives of the Three Estates that gathered to make decisions. This form of assembly had existed in France since the 14th century. It had been created by the king during a dispute with the Pope in which he neede the support of the Nobles and the People.
- The promise of the Representatives of the Third Estate, the National Assembly, to create a constitution that protected the rights of the people.
- King Louis XVI, afraid of the power of the National Assembly, agreed to the creation of a Constitution. He ordered the First and Second Estates to join the National Assembly to write down the Constitution. At the same, because he distrusted the French people and the french army, he ordered his "Swiss guards" to protect him. The people thought he was assembling an army against them and stormed (attacked) the Bastille to get gunpoweder and fight the king's new army.
STORMING THE BASTILLE
- After the storming of the Bastille rumors spread to the countryside about the revolution. People believed that nobles were organizing armies to terrorize the people and a senseless wave of fear spread through the kingdom. People were angered at the unfairness of the nobility and the king.
NAPOLEON
FORGES AN EMPIRE

REVOLUTION BRINGS
REFORM AND TERROR

SELF-STUDY SESSIONS:
- READ CHAPTER 1 of 'Analysing the French Revolution' (on Portal)

- note down any questions you have for discussion/clarification in class.

- Add the terms in text and on next 'zoom' to your glossary.
IN SUMMARY SO FAR...
So... everything you need to know summarized.

1: France was one of the most advanced and developed nations in Europe with a population of almost 31 million.
2: Inequality in France had reached staggering heights.
3: France was still organized in its Feudal system which had broken down society into three: the clergy, the nobles and the people. This was known as the Old Regime.
4: France was undergoing financial crisis, bad harvests, lack of food, and poverty.
5: In order to pay for wars and debts the King raised taxes.
6: This angered the second and third estates (the nobles and the people)
7: The Estates-General was convened to decide on the reforms to taxation.
8: Inequality lead to the Third Estate rioting and creating a new government branch in charge of creating a constitution that protect the rights of the people. This branch of government was called the National Assembly.
9: The king agreed to the National Assembly's demands, but, since he could not trust his own people anymore, he brought soldiers from Switzerland.
10: The people thought nobles were organizing an attack against them and they rebelled.
11. A great wave of fear spread through the country as people started to speak of the revolution.
Rousseau
Spoke of equality.
Voltaire
Spoke against oppression
and in favour of freedom.
THIS ANGERED THE PEOPLE!
FOURTH GOVERNMENT
THE CONSULATE RULED BY NAPOLEON AS FIRST CONSUL
- BECAUSE OF WAR AND THE FACT THAT THEIR OWN KING WAS TRYING TO DESTROY THEM, THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY ABANDONED THE IDEA OF A LIMITED MONARCHY. THE POLITICAL FACTIONS BECAME MORE AND MORE EXTREME.
- EVENTUALLY THEY DEPOSED THE KING AND CALLED FOR A NEW LEGISLATURE (BODY OF LAWS).
- THEY CREATED A REPUBLIC RULED BY RADICAL GROUPS OF PEOPLE FROM THE NOW DESTROYED THIRD ESTATE. THE NEW GOVERNMENT WAS KNOWN AS THE "NATIONAL CONVENTION".

- IN THE END AN EXTREMIST GROUP THAT WANTED A REPUBLIC INSTEAD OF A CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHY, "THE JACOBINS" TOOK CONTROL OF THE NATIONAL CONVENTION, SENTENCED AND EXECUTED KING LOUIS THE XVI AS IF HE WAS A COMMON MAN.
CRISIS LEADS TO ANOTHER CHANGE
TIMELINE
1789
MAY 5 - BECAUSE OF THE FINANCIAL CRISIS THE SECOND ESTATE FORCE THE KING TO ASSEMBLE THE ESTATES-GENERAL.
JUNE 17 - THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY WAS CREATED.
JUNE 20 - THE TENNIS COURT OATH IS TAKEN. THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY PROMISES TO WRITE A CONSTITUTION THAT DEFENDS THE RIGHTS OF MEN.
JULE 14 - STORMING THE BASTILLE. THIS IS THE OFFICIAL START OF THE FRENCH REVOLUTION. PEOPLE ARMED THEMSELVES AND TOOK CONTROL OF THE CITY OF PARIS.
AUGUST 4 - THE FEUDAL SYSTEM IS ABOLISHED. THE OLD REGIME IS DEAD.
AUGUST 26 - THE DECLARATION OF THE RIGHTS OF MAN AN THE CITIZEN IS WRITTEN AND APPROVED. THE NATIONAL ASSEMBLY CHANGES ITS NAME TO THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY.
1791
JUNE 20 - 21 - THE KING ESCAPES. King Louis XVI of France, his wife Marie Antoinette, and their immediate family attempted unsuccessfully to escape from Paris in order to initiate a counter-revolution. The king hoped to start a military campaign which would restore his rule. They were only able to make it as far as the small town of Varennes.

The incident was a turning point after which popular hostility towards the French monarchy as an institution, as well as towards the king and queen as individuals, became much more pronounced. The king's attempted flight provoked the charges of treason which ultimately led to his execution in 1793.
AUGUST 27 - EUROPEAN FEEL THREATENED BY THE FRENCH REVOLUTION AND ORGANIZE THEMSELVES AGAINST THE REVOLUTION AN DIN FAVOUR OF KING LOUIS XVI.
1792
APRIL 20 - FRANCE DECLARES WAR ON AUSTRIA. PRUSSIA DECLARES WAR ON FRANCE ON JUNE 13.
SEPTEMBER 2 - 6 - SEPTEMBER MASSACRES.
SEPTEMBER 20 - THE NATIONAL CONVENTION IS CREATED. BECAUSE OF THE MASSIVE CHAOS IN PARIS AND THE WAR AGAINST OTHER EUROPEAN STATES THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY GAVE THE IDEA OF A LIMITED MONARCHY AND CHANGED THEIR LEGISLATURE. THEY CHANGED THEIR NAME TO THE NATIONAL CONVENTION, ABOLISH THE MONARCHY AND CREATES A REPUBLIC.
BEFORE 1789
PEOPLE LIVE UNDER THE OLD REGIME.
So... everything you need to know summarized.
1: The National Assembly was succesful in organizing the Third Estate representatives against the OLD REGIME.
2: The National Assembly made a deal with Louis XVI that they would create a Constitutional Monarchy.
3: Louis XVI made a mistake. He accepted the petitions of the National Assembly but at the same time he rallied soldiers to defend him in case of trouble.
4: The people thought he was going to attack them to take his power back and they Stormed the Bastille to get gunpowder and weapons to defend themselves.
5: The King had to run away and for a moment there was no government. The Great Fear spread to rural areas where chaos and fear replaced the order established by the Old Regime.
6: Using this to their advantage the National Assembly took control of the government and forced the King to sign the declaration of Rights of men and the Citizen.
7: The King agreed because of fear and the National Assembly changed its name to the Legislative Assembly.
8: The Legislative Assembly ruled France. Political factions emerge as the members of the Assembly try to reach different goals for France.
9: Radicals, Moderates and Conservatives struggle to gain control over the Assembly.
10: European states go at war with France because they fear the ideas of the revolution might spread to their own nations. France is at war with Europe!
11: In secret the King tried to organize a counterstrike against the Legislative Assembly.
12: This angered the members of the Assembly who turned radical gainst the King.
13: The king is trialed and executed for treason.
14: Seeing that the Constitutional Monarchy is not what the people want the Assembly changes the government once more, this time to a Republic ruled by the National Convention = another group of people more radical and more extreme in trying to preserve the ideals of the revolution.
15: In order to face the European nations that are at war with France the National Convention drafts (forces men to join the army) hundreds of thousands of men to fight the war.
16: Amongst the leaders of the National Convention one gains more power. A man known as Robespierre.
17: He uses fear and terror to maintaint the population of France under control.
18: Under Robespierre a period of french history known as the REGIME OF TERROR occurs.
19: Thousands are executed for going against the revolutionary ideas of Robespierre.
20: In the end the other members of the National Convention execute Robespierre ending the REGIME OF TERROR.
21: The war against other european states continues!
22: France is desperate to find an appropriate leader.
IN SUMMARY...
1793
JANUARY 21 - THE NATIONAL CONVENTION EXECUTES KING LOUIS XVI.
FEBRUARY 1 - FRANCE DECLARES WAR ON MORE EUROPEAN STATES. THIS TIME ENGLAND AND HOLLAND. LATER ON THE 7 OF MARCH, TO SPAIN.
FOR EVERY DECISION THE DIFFERENT FACTIONS WOULD PRESENT THEIR ARGUMENTS TO REACH AN AGREEMENT.
SLOWLY ONE POLITICAL FACTION, OR GROUP, WON OVER THE OTHERS UNTIL THE ENTIRE ASSEMBLY WAS GOVERNED BY THOSE IDEALS.
IN THE CASE OF FRANCE IN THE YEAR 1793, IT WAS THE RADICALS WHO WON KILLING THE KING AND CREATING A REPUBLIC.
THE REGIME OF TERROR!
DESTRUCTION OF THE OLD REGIME AND EXECUTION OF THE KING!
THE OLD REGIME!
EMPEROR NAPOLEON, ABSOLUTE RULER!
1
2
3
4
OCTOBER 16 - MARIE ANTOINETTE IS EXECUTED.
FEBRUARY - THE NATIONAL CONVENTION EXPANDS THE ARMY BY DRAFTING (FORCING MEN TO JOIN THE ARMY) HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF MEN. THEY DID THIS TO FACE THE EUROPEAN NATIONS THAT WERE FIGHTING AGAINST FRANCE.
DURING SUMMER THAT YEAR - MAXIMILIEN ROBESPIERRE ASSUMES POWER OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC.
ROBESPIERRE WANTED TO DESTROY ALL OF FRANCE'S HORRID PAST:

HE WANTED TO WIPE OUT ALL TRACES OF THE MONARCHY, THE NOBILITY AND THE CHURCH.

CHURCHES WERE SHUT DOWN.

A NEW RELIGION WAS CREATED THAT
HONOURED GOD WITHOUT THE INTERVENTION OF THE CHURCH.

A NEW CALENDAR WAS CREATED.
THE REVOLUTION CHANGED
THE GOVERNMENT FROM THIS....
...TO THIS!
...TO THIS...
...TO THIS...
WHICH IS VERY SIMILAR TO THIS.
THE FRENCH
REVOLUTION
1789 - 1799

- The Declaration of the Rights of Men and the Citizen was a document written to speak of the injustice of governments that ignore that the people are, in essence, the state. It was written to defend the Rights of men in a State. It spoke of equality, fraternity and liberty.
This image by George Cruikshank (1792-1878) called “The Radical’s Arms” depicts the famous weapon of the Revolution, the Guillotine and the chaotic ways in which it was employed during the Reign of Terror to exemplify the extremes of the revolution.
END OF THE TERROR!
1794
JULY 28 - MEMBERS OF THE NATIONAL CONVENTION REALISED THAT NOT EVEN THEY WERE SAFE FROM THE EXTREME IDEAS OF ROBESPIERRE. THEY EXECUTE HIM UNDER THE GUILLOTINE ENDING THE REGIME OF TERROR.
LATE SUMMER - PUBLIC OPINION, WHICH HAD BELIVED IN THE LIBERAL IDEAS OF THE REVOLUTION AND ROBESPIERRE (LEFT), WERE NOW DRAMATICALLY SHIFTING TO THE CONSERVATIVES (RIGHT).
1795
WINTER - THE NATIONAL CONVENTION CHANGED THE CONSTITUTION ONCE MORE. THIS TIME CREATING ANOTHER GOVERNMENT AGAIN RULED BY THE BOURGEOISIE, BUT THIS TME BY ONLY THE HIGH MIDDLE CLASS.
WINTER - THE NEW GOVERNMENT WAS KNOWN AS THE DIRECTORY AND WAS RULED BY NOT ONE BUT FIVE MEN. THESE MEN WERE MODERATES, NOR RADICALS OR CONSERVATIVES.
SUMMER - DESPITE BEING VERY CORRUPT, THE DIRECTORY ORGANISED THE COUNTRY AND GAVE IT STABILITY. SOME OF THE PROBLEMS THAT HAD STARTED THE REVOLUTION WERE FINALLY SOLVED.
Why might we represent medieval society (the old regime/order) this way?
How might we represent the new 'ideal' hierarchy in France by now?
So... in the course of a decade France travelled from...
Source Analysis Checkpoint!
1. From left to right identify the estates represented here in the source.

2. What is the cartoonist's message?

3. From which Estate's perspective is the cartoon drawn? i.e. Consider how the cartoonist is trying to position you (persuade you to think)?
Declaration of the National Assembly. Paris, 4 August 1789
The National Assembly completely abolishes the feudal regime. It decrees that, among the [feudal] rights and dues ... all those originating in real or personal serfdom, personal servitude, and those which represent them, are abolished without indemnification.

Tithes of every kind and dues which take the place thereof, under whatever denomination they are known and collected ... are abolished.
Pecuniary privileges, personal or real, in matters of taxation are abolished forever. Collection shall be made from all citizens and on all property, in the same manner and in the same form.

All special privileges of provinces, principalities, districts, cantons, cities, and communities of inhabitants, whether pecuniary or of any other kind, are declared abolished forever.

All citizens, without distinction of birth, are eligible to any office or dignity, whether ecclesiastical, civil or military.
Source analysis Checkpoint!
What division in society does the National Assembly represent?

Explain in your books what the Declaration will mean for French society. Do this in a comparison table:

OLD REGIME NATIONAL ASSEMBLY







In a 'Cause and Effect Diagram' explain what events led to the formation of the National Assembly:
Cause
Effects
Effects
ASPECT OF INQUIRY:
ACTIVITY: Extent Barometer on causes of unrest in France prior to revolution
To what extent are the below causes responsible for French social unrest?
French Social Unrest
Financial Problems
Landownership & Taxation
Rigid Social
Structure
Enlightenment
ideas
See teacher for instructions
The Flight to Varennes
Watch the clip and explain how this event further influenced the Revolution.
Mini Inquiry:
The Women's March to Versailles, The Peasant's Revolt or The Reveillon Riot.
Research 1 of the events above in chapter 6 or 7 of Analysing the French Revolution and answer the following using a CAUSE/EFFECT DIAGRAM:
1. Analyse what was the cause of the event?And, what was its effect on the Revolution? Include dates and significant people (where necessary)
Self-Study Session
- Read Chapter 2 of 'Analysing the French Revolution'

- Add any new terms to your Glossary and complete this activity from Chapter 1 here:
Self-Study Checkpoint
- Read Chapter 3 of 'Analysing the French Revolution' on the ideas of the Enlightenment

- add any new terms to your Glossary!

- Choose one of the three questions in the review section labelled: 'Practising Paragraph Answers'. Answer in a paragraph
Self-Study Checkpoint
Read Chapter 6 of 'AFR' and
- Complete Analysis Activities 1, 4, 5 & 6
- Add any new terms to your Glossary
- Respond to 2 of the questions in the review section labelled 'Practising Paragraph Answers'
CAUSES
EFFECT 1
EFFECT 2
DEEP THINKING OPPORTUNITY!
Read Chapter 9 of AFR. As you read you will contribute to a collaborative ICON prompt on the Decalaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen using WALLWISHER.
Click on the link here:
Backgrounds, Changes & Continuities: Motives & Causes
Focus Questions:
Personal question like answered by end of inquiry?
ACTIVITY STOP:
Lets conduct a Round-Robin SWOT analysis for each estate.
ASPECT OF INQUIRY: Sources
What primary and secondary sources might be valuable in this study?
Are there any problems related to the availability or sufficiency of sources?
ASPECT OF INQUIRY: Definitions
What is a 'Revolution'?
Focus Question -
Lets now focus this inquiry now on a particular revolution...
...to the glossary
What is the historical background to the French Revolution?
What were the causal factors related to the French Revolution?
What were the major developments, changes and continuities associated with (this topic)?
What roles did individuals and groups play?
Who would you expect to have the most wealth? Why?
Given your understanding of the wealthy Esataes in the Old Regime, how might this data lead to social dissatisfaction?
Source analysis Check point!
1. How does this source represent the social organisation of France during the Old Regime (before 1789)? i.e. What message does it convey? (representativeness)
2. Is it an accurate representation? Would you like to know anything else before believing it? (reliabilitiy)
Deepen your understanding:
Can you finish this sentence and deepen your understanding through metaphor?
"REVOLUTION IS..."
STOP!!!!
Example: Revoltion is a tsunami engulfing everything in its path, taking everyone on an often world ride.
How does this compare to our understanding of 'democracy' and democratic practises?
Lets define democracy through its analysis: SWOT
>>> define in glossary.
Deeper thoughts...
Strengths
Weaknesses
Opportunities
Threats
SWOT Analysis
ASPECT OF INQUIRY: Sources
SOURCE: Adcock, M. 2009. Analysing the French Revolution. Cambridge University Press. P.7
SOURCE: cited in Adcock, M. 2009. Analysing the French Revolution. Cambridge University Press. P.9
...of divine right as means to reinforce an absolute monarchy's rule or authority to govern.
1. As a class, lets conduct a...
2. Source questions
SOURCE: Adcock, M. 2009. Analysing the French Revolution. Cambridge University Press. pp.16-17
Add these to your glossary
The amount of taxes paid by respective classes in French society prior to the Revolution. Who's happy about this picture?
add this diagrams to notes under the title above and explain how this might lead to social dissatisfaction.
FOCUS QUESTION: What is an 'Absolute Monarch'?
The Beginnings of a society based on the political philosophy of 'LIBERALISM' incorporating the idea of 'EGALITARIANISM'.
Lets define them!
2. Evaluate the extent the event is 'fair' by modern standards using the diagram of an 'extent barometer' here:
REVISION
http://wallwisher.com/wall/rightsofman
- French revolutionary who was leader of the Jacobins and architect of the Reign of Terror.
- The Reign of Terror (5 September 1793 – 28 July 1794), also known simply as The Terror (French: la Terreur), was a period of violence that occurred after the onset of the French Revolution, incited by conflict between rival political factions, the Girondins and the Jacobins, and marked by mass executions of "enemies of the revolution". The death toll ranged in the tens of thousands, with 16,594 executed by guillotine (2,639 in Paris), and another 25,000 in summary executions across France
What were the major changes and continuities associated with the Revolution?
At the time, what were the major effects on human wellbeing and social and economic structures?
ASPECTS OF INQUIRY:
Backgrounds, Changes & Continuities & Effects, Interests & Arguments -
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=43BjKl_TrCw
Full transcript