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Ancient Greece: a Comparison of Athens and Sparta
Transcript of Ancient Greece: a Comparison of Athens and Sparta
by Kaylah and Asha
What are the Effects of Political and Social Factors on Human Growth and Development
Economy in Athens
Child Birth in Athens
Children Under 12 in Athens
Role of Parents in Athens
Teens and Young
Adulthood (13-20yrs) in Athens
Impact on Human Development
Children Under 12 in Sparta
Impact on Human Development
Economy in Sparta
Reliant on agriculture
Dependant on slaves to
Slaves were known as helots
and free non citizens were
Perioikoi worked for the army.
Did not encourage trade
Used iron as currency rather
Child Birth in Sparta
"Athens, Ancient Greek City-State - Ancient Greece for Kids." Athens,
Ancient Greek City-State - Ancient Greece for Kids. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 June 2013. <http://greece.mrdonn.org/athens.html>.
Bryne, Deirdre. "9 Birthing Rituals of the Past." Parents Magazine.
N.p., n.d. Web. 19 June 2013. <http://www.parents.com/pregnancy/giving-birth/home/9-birthing-rituals-of-the-past/>.
"Education - Ancient Greece for Kids." Education - Ancient Greece
for Kids. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 June 2013. <http://greece.mrdonn.org/education.html>.
"Education in Ancient Greece." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 05
June 2013. Web. 19 June 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Education_in_ancient_Greece>.
Gill, N. S. "Greek Marriage." About.com Ancient / Classical History.
N.p., n.d. Web. 19 June 2013. <http://ancienthistory.about.com/od/women1/p/GreekMarriage.htm>.
Role of Fathers
Men and Marriage
Women and Marriage
What are the Effects of Political and Social Factors on Human Growth and Development in Sparta?
Would you rather live in Ancient Athens or Ancient Sparta?
Father arranged the marriage for daughter.
In charge of providing the dowry.
Daughter's wishes were not considered in choosing the groom. Fathers were more focused on choosing a suitable son-in-law rather than a suitable husband ("Marriage in Ancient Athens", n.d.).
Children were essentially sold off to expand their business or to forge alliances.
Among higher class families, the wife and groom were not permitted to see each other prior to the wedding (ibid).
Marriage typically occurred during the Athenian calendar month named Gamelion (January/February), derived from the Greek word "gameo" meaning marriage (Gill, n.d.).
Sacrifices and other ancient rituals were an important part of the ceremony (ibid).
Wife was registered into the husband's "phratry", which means brotherhood in Greek (ibid).
Men married in their late 20s or early 30s ("Marriage in Ancient Athens", n.d.).
Many men aspired to finish their military obligations before marrying (ibid).
Typically had sexual experience previous to marriage (Schrader, 2012).
Were permitted to have many extra-marital affairs (ibid).
It was common for wealthy married men to buy out the daughters of a poor man to have as a concubine (ibid).
The purpose of marriage for a male was to carry on the family name (ibid).
Females were available for marriage as soon as menstruation occurred (Schrader, 2012).
During marriage, females typically
stayed indoors and did not participate in exercise or educational activities. This rendered many of them illiterate and unfit (ibid).
Women in marriage were not allowed to have possession of large quantities of money (ibid).
Were not fed as well as their male counterparts (ibid).
Women were taught to refrain from speaking in the presence of men (ibid).
Bridesmaid would shave the wife's head for the wedding and would keep their hair short throughout their marriage ("Spartans", n.d.).
Bridesmaid would dress the wife in men's clothing and laid her on a mattress ("Sparta", 2013).
From the early archaic and mid-classical periods dowries were forbidden and there was no religious component to the wedding (Schrader, 2012).
The groom would go to the woman in the dark after a large meal and consummate the marriage. The man was not allowed to be drunk to avoid impotence (ibid) and to perform better during intercourse.
There were no laws forbidding adultery (Schrader, 2012).
"Wife Sharing": when a man would permit his brothers to have sex with his wife ("Women in Sparta", n.d.).
Main objective of reproduction was to provide a constant supply of children to support war efforts (ibid).
Helen of Troy (or of Sparta) ran away from her husband to have a 10 year affair with a younger man. After this time period she returned to Sparta and resumed her position as Queen of Sparta (Schrader, 2012).
Men and Marriage
Women and Marriage
Married around their mid-twenties ("Women in Sparta, n.d.).
Though married, men lived in the barracks with their fellow soldiers and would go out during the night to have sex with their wives (ibid).
If a man was unwed and childless, he would ask other soldiers to borrow their wives to reproduce (ibid).
Men were shamed if they did not marry during their prime years (20-30yrs); men who had many children were often revered ("Spartans", n.d.)
Married when they were deemed old enough to enjoy sexual activity, which was thought to be around 18 (Schrader, 2012).
Had complete control over the children, house and finances (ibid).
Primary role was to bear children.
Prior and during marriage, women stayed fit and participated in exercise. ("Women in Sparta", n.d.).
("300 This is Sparta Full Scene", 2008)
Midwives were an active part of child birth (Bryne, 2006).
Room was checked for knots, as it was a custom that they possessed evil powers and could prevent or delay child birth (ibid).
When labour began the mother was moved to a birthing stool (ibid).
Henry VIII invented the modern way of giving birth, which is lying down.
"Evidence suggests that lying down during labour limits the unborn child's ability to manoeuvre itself into the right birthing position - making it far more likely that medics will have to intervene," (Oakeshott, n.d.)
The mother and child were washed immediately after birth because the birth blood was considered unlucky (Bryne, 2006).
Midwives would draw a sign to protect the child from the "evil eye" (ibid).
Babies' were seen as vulnerable to curses, which could be brought upon by the gaze of a resentful individual (ibid).
Selection of Spartan warriors began at the moment of birth ("The Spartan Military", 2012).
Elders would inspect newborns and throw any small or deformed children off a cliff on Mount Taygetos. The chasm is known as "The Deposits" (ibid) or they would become heltos (slaves).
Boys from affluent or rich families could join secondary school when they turned 14 years old ("Education in Ancient Greece", 2013).
Secondary school education was either taught at a fixed location or by a traveling teacher (ibid).
Subjects taught: biology, chemistry, rhetoric, geometry, sophistry, astronomy, and meteorology (ibid).
Men were taught these subjects because intelligence was thought to be the base of a person's identity and worth in society (ibid).
At 18, the men attended military school for two years ("The Ancient Greek City-State of Athens", n.d.)
If desired, men could continue their education and petition for ephebic training, which was followed with two years of military service ("Education in Ancient Greece", 2013).
Poor children did not often obtain a formal education (ibid).
Some teachers, such as Solon, took it upon themselves to educate the poor and to encourage the families of these children to educate themselves as well (ibid).
Received no formal education ("The Ancient Greek City-State of Athens", n.d.)
Were taught at home by their mothers on how to do house chores such as sewing, cleaning, and cooking. They were also taught how to be "good wives" (ibid).
Teens and Young
If a child had abnormalities or was not strong they were either killed or trained to be a helot, which is a slave ("Education in Ancient Greece", n.d.).
At age 18-20 men would need to pass a difficult test that determined adequacy in fitness, leadership skills, and military ability otherwise they would be classified as perioikos (ibid).
Perioikos: middle class people that were not considered citizens of Sparta. They were allowed to own land, but had no political rights (ibid).
In passing this test the warriors became official citizens and soldiers of Sparta (ibid).
Girls went through practically the same training and education system as men.
It was believed that women would be able to perform better as a mother and also give birth to stronger kids if she was fit ("Education in Ancient Greece", n.d.).
At age 18, women went through a fitness test and upon passing would be assigned a husband and would become an official citizen. If a woman failed she would be considered a perioikos (ibid).
Ancient Athens' political values largely influenced the
social values of the population. The undermining of
females and adoration of intellect in the governments
of Athens inevitably led to social trends which impacted human growth and development. For men, they development was focused on physical excellence as well as intellectual superiority. However, for females, the lack of stimulation and misogynistic views of authoritative figures rendered these women underdeveloped both mentally
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n.d. Web. 19 June 2013. <http://www.womenintheancientworld.com/marriageinancientathens.htm>.
Oakeshott, Isabel. "Don't Give Birth Lying down." Mail Online. N.p., n.d.
Web. 19 June 2013. <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-180563/Dont-birth-lying-down.html>.
Schrader, Helena P. "Sparta Reconsidered - Spartan and Athenian
Marriage." Sparta Reconsidered - Spartan and Athenian Marriage. N.p., Sept. 2012. Web. 19 June 2013. <http://elysiumgates.com/~helena/Marriage.html>.
"Sparta." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 18 June 2013. Web. 19 June
"The Spartan Military." Spartan Military. N.p., 2012. Web. 19 June 2013.
"Spartans." History.com. A&E Television Networks, n.d. Web. 19 June 2013.
Works Cited cont...
Spartan society revolved around warfare, and
was very political in nature. Every healthy individual
was trained to become soldiers, or were otherwise
rendered useless to the society. This mentality impacted
the development for both men and females. The two sexes developed an aptitude in their level of fitness due to an emphasis on physical ascendance. In terms of mental development, books were not of high priority to the Spartans. However, they did develop strong intellectual and interpersonal skills from war strategies.
Queen Gorgo once said, "Spartan women were who they were because Spartan men were strong enough and self-confident enough to appreciate them." Why do you think that Spartans treated women equally opposed to their Athenian neighbours?
wut caem furst... da chikkin or da ehg?
Empire started about 4,000 years ago; encompassed parts of Europe as well until it broke down in several city states that were self governing
Strange outlook on food (i.e. They didn’t eat beans because they thought it contained the soul of the dead.
Used stories as a way of understanding the way the world is. (Mythology)
Chiton acted as clothing, which is the long white robe.
Conquered the city of troy through the use of a wooden
Created the Olympic games as a way of honouring the
Greek god Zeus.
City states were constantly in battle but during the Olympics
peace was upheld.
Historical Background of Athens
Named after Greek goddess Athena
One of the world oldest cities, established approx 7,000 years ago.
City is built on an acropolis (hill) this is where all monuments and important structures were built. As well hill acts as a natural defence system, easy access to water and soil was good for construction.
Famous for its art, philosophy, military, literature and democracy.
City was ruled by kings before it eventually progressed into a democratic society.
Grew as an economic, political, financial and
culture hub during the 5th century BC
Population: approx 140,000
Historical Background of Sparta
Formed through the combination of four villages: Limnae, Pitana, Mesoa and Cynosoura
Known as a strong Dorian military state.
Protector of Greece.
Ruled by an oligarchy (small group of warriors)
Enemy of Persian Empire and Athens, eventually would conquer the latter.
Reached its height in territory and power during 400 BC.
Population: approx 100,000
Worked outside of the home
Participated in politics and public events.
Took care of domestic duties, watched the children.
Did not work outside of the home.
If families were poor the women would work along side their husband.
Role of Parents
Men were strictly soldiers in society. After passing their aristocrat test at age 2o, they would remain soldiers until the age of retirement, 60.
Men and women did not share a house, met occasionally to procreate.
Did not have close relationship with
Husband had little influence on life
Independent, could own property.
During 5th century half of Athenian population was under that age of 15.
Mortality rate was high, children with imperfection were abandoned and left to die. (Mostly females)
Children lived with in their mother quadrants until age seven.
From age 6 all children were educated by their mother or a male slave. After turning seven boys would go to either a primary or private school in a neighbouring community and girls would stay home with their mothers to train to be future wives.
Play was considered really important in Greek life. Children were often given toys such as dolls with movable limps, rattles, dice, seesaws, and swings. As well, children played an abundant amount of games.
At birth children were bathed in wine to see whether or not they were strong bodied. If the child had any deformities they were killed, usually by being thrown off the slide of a cliff.
Children stayed with their mother until their military education began at age seven
Military education last for twelve years, which during that time they would be taught gymnastics, running, jumping, how to throw a spear and discus, how to endure pain and hardship, hunger, thirst, cold, fatigue and lack of sleep.
Formal education consisted of learning basics of reading and writing.
Females were trained in athletics in order to enable their bodies to produce the strongest offspring.
Economy consisted mostly of trade
Main trade items were honey, olive oil, silver , and painted pottery.
The Agora was a huge market place in Athens used for internal trade between citizens
Used gold, silver, and bronze coins as a method of currency
Through the use of trade Athenians were able to be exposed to other styles of life and technology. With this people could bring this back new skills/ideas to the Athenians people which could be incorporated into their daily lives.
Athenians were expected to only generate enough wealth to support themselves and their families. All other time should be devoted to participating in politics, intellectual discussions, religion political life etc...
In order to stimulate the economy Sparta needed to acquire more slaves as they acted as the labour force. Conquering other states was the only means of doing this, thus they needed to create a strong army in order to do so.
The majority of men were in the army so women were essentially left to run the civilization. Through this they were given more rights an freedoms than any other female in all of Greece.
Need for war made Spartans a very cold and fierce society, not seen as soft and peaceful as others.
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