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Forces that sculpture the Earth's Surface

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Anna Dela Cruz

on 19 December 2013

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Transcript of Forces that sculpture the Earth's Surface

Forces that sculpture the Earth's Surface
A. Mechanical Weathering

B. Chemical Weathering

Earth's Water Supply
A. Running Water
B. Wind
C. Glacial Ice/ Glacier
D. Waves
E. Gravity

1. Exfoliation
2. Frost Wedging
3. Actions of Living Things
1. Carbonation
2. Oxidation
3. Hydration
4. Corrosion
Soil - End Product of weathering
1. Topsoil
2. Subsoil
Particles of Soil:
a.) Sand b.) Clay c.) Silt
A. Running Water
B. Wind (Deflation)
- Desert Areas
- Semi-Arid Regions
C. Glacial Ice
D. Waves
E. Gravity
3 Sources of Ground water
1. Meteoric water
2. Connate Water
3. Magmatic Water
Water Table- The level below which the surface rocks are saturated
Factors that affect depth of water table
1. Amount of rainfall in the recent past
2. Permeability of the rock
Limnology-study of fresh water
1. Wells
2. Springs
3. Lakes
4. Swamps
Oceanography - a complex science composed of several interrelated parts
1. Submarine Geology
2. Physical Oceanography
3. Chemical Oceanography
4. Biological Oceanography
Instruments Used to Explore the Sea:
1. Water sampling Bottles
2. Deep Sea
3. Bottom Samplers
4. Current Meters
5. Sonic Depth Recorders
6. Deep Sea Cameras
Oceans of the world:
1. Pacific Ocean
2. Atlantic Ocean
3. Indian Ocean
4. Artic Ocean
5. Antartic Ocean
Shape of the Ocean Floor
1. Mid-Ocean Ridges
2. Island Arcs
3. Trenches
4. Seamounts

Delta - fan-like deposits at the mouth of the river
Alluvial Fan - resembles a delta but not
Piedmont Alluvial Plain - series of fans at the foot of a mountain
Natural Levees - deposits of coarse materials that accumulate along the bank and low ridges.
Ground Water
Dunes - hill of wind blown soil deposited over a rock, a tree, a house or any object that breaks the force of the wind
Barchane- crescent- shape dune
Loess - Deposits of fine wind - blown materials that form vertical cliffs
Valley Glacier
Piedmont Glacies
Ice Sheets
Striae - long parallel scratches left by coarser sand
Long parallel grooves - left if the bedrock is soft and the boulders dig deep
Plucking quarrying- process whereby a glacier flows across a broken bedrock
Cirques/Amphitheaters - great hollows along mountainsides
Tarn - a lake formed when melted ice fills up cirques
Horn - a spire of rocks formed when a ring of cirques around a single high mountain is further eroded upward
Arete - a number of cirques that gnaw into a ridge from the opposite side
Drifts - glacial deposits
Moraines - land forms the result from the deposit of drifts
Ground Moraine
Medial Moraine
Terminal Moraine
Recessional Moraine
Drumlins - ridges and hills formed when a melting glacier leaves its moraines
Lagoon - the area of quiet water
Underwater cliffs
Underwater Sand Bar
Sea Cliffs
Wave-cut Terraces
Sea Caves
Sea Arches
Mass Movement
Soil Creep
Natural Bridge
Exfoliation - the onion-like or leaf-peeling
off the outer layer of rock
Frost Wedging - Takes place when eater
seeps into cracks in rocks
Action of living plants and animals
- burrowing of animals turn over soil
- roots of plants work their way
into cracks and wedge rocks apart
Largest of all; include 3/8 of the total area of the sea
Pacific Ocean-
Atlantic Ocean-
takes in one-quarter
of the area of the sea

Indian Ocean -
3rd in size, with about 1/8 of
the total area of the ocean
Arctic Ocean
a small ocean with only 1/30 of the sea's area;
almost covered with ice to a depth of 10 ft
Antarctic Ocean
remaining area of the sea
surrounds the Antarctic Continent
Continental Slope
at the edge of the continental shelf where the continent drops off steeply to the depths of the sea floor
a very strong current created by a large amount of sliding material
Turbidity Currents
Deep Sea zone
beyond the Continental slope;
includes the major part of the sea floor
Created By:
Aquino, Jonathan
Cayabyab, Jessabel
De Leon, Josiah Henrison
Dela Cruz, Anna Carmina
Flores, Kim Kelly
Floresca, Ethan Harel
Magno, Jan Louis

Earth's Water Supply
Full transcript