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French Culture in Haiti
Transcript of French Culture in Haiti
Haiti became the French colony of Saint-Dominique in 1697.
During that time, it became a leading sugarcane producer dependent upon slaves.
In 1791, tensions among the slave population resulted in a declaration of independence by Pierre-Dominique Toussaint l'Ouverture in 1801.
The independence movement was suppressed by Napoleon Bonaparte, but it eventually triumphed in 1804 under Jean-Jacques Dessalines, who gave the new nation its name Haiti.
It was the world's 1st independent black republic.
Haiti has been plagued by political violence for most of its history. Geography Haiti is located 19 degrees North and 72 degrees West on a map.
It's in the Caribbean, western one-third of the island of Hispaniola, west of the Dominican Republic.
In all, it covers 27,750 sq km. Land: 27,560 sq km. Water: 190 sq km.
It is slightly smaller than Maryland
Two-thirds of Haiti is mountainous, while the rest of the country is marked by great valleys, extensive plateaus, and small plains
Major bodies of water: North Atlantic Ocean, Caribbean Sea, and Windward Passage.
Major mountain ranges: Chaine de la Selle, Massif du Nord, and others.
Haiti is divided up into 9 departments. Government Haiti has an elected multiparty republic.
The capital is Port-au-Prince.
The government follows a constitution.
It is divided up into 3 branches, Executive, Legislative, and Judicial.
The Legal system is based on Roman civil law system; accepts cumpolsory jurisdiction.
Its constitution was approved in March of 1987.
Its government is very similar to our government.
You have to be at least 18 years of age to participate in elections. Economy Haiti is the poorest country in the Western Hemisphere.
80% of the population lives in poverty.
Natural disasters frequently sweep the nation.
65% of the nation depends on agriculture; industry (9%); services (25%).
Labor force: 3.6 million
Haiti suffers high inflation, lack of investment, and a severe trade deficit.
Currency: Haitian gourde
Main industries are sugarcane, flour, textiles, cement, mining, forestry, and tourism.
It owes the World Bank a debt of $36 million.
Its main trading partners are the USA, France, and Dominican Republic.
Main exports: Bauxite, Cocoa, Coffee, Essential Oils, Mangoes, Sisal, and Sugar.
Annual Salary: $450 (In US dollars)
Haiti has the lowest income (salary) in the Western Hemisphere. Demographics Total population: Over 9.7 million
Age Ranges and Percentages: 0-14 years=38.1%; 15-64 years=58.5%; 65 and older=3.4%
Birth rate: 24.4 births/ 1000 population
Death rate: 8.21 deaths/ 1000 population
Life expectancy: Total population= 62.17 years; males= 60.84 years; females= 63.53 years
Ethnic groups: 95% black, 5% mulatto and white.
Languages: French (official), Haitian Creole (official), Spanish (non-official). Health Common health issues in Haiti: deficient sanitation systems, malnutrition, inadequate health services, unsafe drinking water, HIV/AIDS, other diseases.
Major health issues: Malaria, HIV/AIDS, cholera, typhoid, tuberculosis, some food poisoning. Education Only 53% of the people in Haiti get an education.
This country faces shortages in educational supplies and qualified teachers.
The enrollment rate for elementary school is 67%; 70% continue on to third grade; 60% of all students drop out before reaching sixth grade; 25% of students never attend middle school.
15% of teachers at elementary level have basic to no training at all and quit because of little to no payment.
The Haitian Education Foundation is in charge of all education.
There is no official school system but how they go to school is similar to how us Americans go to school. Culture National Haitian Holidays: Independence and New Year's Day, 1 January; Forefathers Day, 2 January; Pan American Day, 14 April; Labor Day, 1 May; Flag and University Day, 18 May; National Sovereignty Day, 22 May; Assumption, 15 August; Anniversary of the Death of Dessalines, 17 October; UN Day, 24 October; All Saints' Day, 1 November; Commemoration of the Battle of Vertières and Armed Forces Day, 18 November; Discovery of Haiti, 5 December; Christmas, 25 December. Movable religious holidays include Carnival (three days before Ash Wednesday) and Good Friday.
Haitian Anthem: La Dessalinienne (Song of Dessalines)
Music: Compas, Zouk, Rara, Mizik Rasin, Mini-jazz, Haitian Rap, Merengue, Cadence Rampa, Carnival, and Kadans.
Art: Brilliant colors, naive perspective, and sly humor characterize Haitian art. Big, delectable foods and lush landscapes are favorite subjects Haitian artist love to create. They also paint fables such as people disguised as animals and animals transforming into people.
Festivals: Rara and Mardi-Gras and Bal
Architecture:The Citadel and Palace of Sans Souci
Religions: Roman Catholic 80%, Protestant 16%, none 1%, other 3%.
Food: Griot - Fried Pork
Tasot Cabrit - Fried Goat
Cabrit an sòs - Goat Sauce
Tasot Bèf - Fried Beef
Lambi - Conch
Poul Fri- Fried Chicken
Poul an sòs - Chicken Sauce
Fritay - Fried plater with griot or tasot
Legim - Legume / Thick vegetable stew with meet
Diri Sòs Pwa - white rice ane bean sauce
Diri Kole - Brown rice & beans cooked together
Didi Djon Djon - Rice & Black Muchrooms
Diri Pwa Vèt - Rice with grean peas
Mayi Moulin - Corn meal
Bannan peze - Fried Plantains
Sports: Football (soccer) and Basketball
Clothing: Haitians have a well-developed sense of style, modesty, and appropriateness; even the very poor dress their best for school, church, and clinic.
Haitian clothing is usually colorful and bright.
Women tend to sew their clothes with a type of lightweight cotton, and wear bright, full skirts and wide-necked blouses. Men wear short-sleeved shirts and cotton trousers.
Shoes are very important and prestigious components of attire.
Many Haitians go barefoot through a field and put their shoes on when they reach a road, just to avoid getting the shoes dirty.
Haitians wear homemade sandals made out of whatever materials they can find, such as wood, straw, and even old tires.
The traditional folk costume for men is a hand-embroidered shirt made of cotton, linen, or denim fabric. Women traditionally wear an embroidered short-sleeved blouse, a colorful skirt, and a scarf wrapped around their hair. Thanx for Watching!!!!