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The History of American Education Timeline
Transcript of The History of American Education Timeline
HIS 324 History of American Education (BYC1236A)
Instructor: Susan Holloway History of American Education Timeline 1607 – 1642 The Arrival of British Colonists 1642 – Law Mandating Education 1740 – Banning African Americans from Literacy The numbers of slaves being bought, freed and taught to read by the Quakers were beginning to rise in the Southern Colonies. These colonists realized that these slaves had become literate and feared that there may be a rebellion. In an effort to subdue their learning, South Carolina passed a law forbidding anyone to teach slaves to read. In the North, slaves did not receive the type of education offered to the colonists but were taught to read the bible. (Gaither, 2011) 1801 – The Blackboard Invented 1636 – Harvard College Established Although the Spanish and the French settled in America prior to the arrival of British settlers, they were not as successful in establishing colonies as were the British. The British came to escape the bonds of religious persecution and to make money. On the other hand the Spanish and French Seemed intent on Christianizing the Native Americans. (Gaither, 2011)
The beginning of education in America started from a simple idea of teaching children to read the bible. However, education became a much needed and required institution as the New World began to grow. Although the history of America is usually told from the perspective of the English settlers, the Dutch, French and Spanish also settled colonies in the New World as early as the 1500s. The Quakers settled west of the Puritans (which is considered the middle colonies) and started schools as early as 1638. The French and Spanish settled south of the Puritans and focused on converting Native Americans to European values.
The Puritans settled one of the first colonies of America in Massachusetts. They were a group of people that had intense political and religious views. They wanted to show the world how to live as a Christian country. They wanted their religion to be the official religion and wanted to make sure their children were taught the same values and standards of their culture. Generally, it was left up to each father of a family to educate their children in religious beliefs and morals. However, Puritan ministers seeing a decline in spirituality and morality of the people felt more needed to be done and indeed it was.
In this paper, several elements in regards to American education such as court decisions, curriculum, funding, laws, minorities, religion, special needs, technology and world events will be discussed through a timeline that spans centuries. While simply learning to read the bible may have been meager beginnings for education, it’s continual and historical evolution spans centuries of reform and is a very important part of American culture today. History of American Education Timeline Most towns that had 100 or more families had to create a formal Latin Grammar School to prepare youth for Harvard College. Harvard College was established as a training school for boys to become ministers. (Gaither, 2011) The colony of Massachusetts Bay passed a law mandating schooling in an effort to teach child "to read & understand the principles of religion and the capital laws of the country" Gaither, (2011). However, due to the lack of action by the colonies, the Massachusetts General Court enacted a law called the Old Deluder Satan Law. (Gaither, 2011) 1647 - The Old Deluder Satan Law One of the most famous laws of educational history, the Old Deluder Satan Law mandated that “towns with 50 or more families were required to pay someone to teach the children of the town to read and towns of 100 families or more had to establish a formal Latin Grammar School” (History of American Education, 2011, Ch. 2.2). If they did not comply they would have to pay a fine. However many families did want to pay for someone to teach their children, the colonies paid the fine since they had not established the mandated schools. (Gaither, 2011) 1776 – The Declaration of Independence Drafted by Thomas Jefferson, the thirteen United States of America declared independence from the King of Great Britain July 4, 1776. In writing the Declaration, Jefferson so eloquently conveyed what John Locke and many other philosophers’ ideals of liberty were. 1785- Noah Webster’s Spelling Book While there were various types of books used for educating students, Noah Webster’s
“Grammatical Institute of the English Language” completed in 1785, was the most successful. There were three volumes that consisted of a “blue-backed” spelling book, grammar book (English Language) and a reader. While Webster’s patriotic desire to create an American dialect among the citizens had a profound effect, his success created a curriculum that is widely used in schools today. (Gaither, 2011) 1787 – The Northwest Land Ordinance In 1787, the government began funding the building of schools. According to Gaither (2011), “The 1785 Ordinance specified that whatever money was made from the sale of section number 16 (located in the middle of the township) would go not to the federal govern¬ment but to the township itself so it could build public schools. To this day many public schools are located in the 16th section of these historic townships.” (History of American Education, Ch. 2.4). 1789 -1791 – The Bill of Rights In 1791, The Bill of Rights is passed by the United States. The Tenth Amendment to the Constitution states that “powers not delegated to the federal government are reserved to the States, respectively, or to the people." While Education is not mentioned specifically, its control falls under the state instead of the federal government. (Bill of Rights, (1789) 1847 – Grade Schools The Department of Education was established in order to help states bring about effective school systems. Its purpose during this time was get information about what works in education to teachers and policymakers. Several laws such as the Morrill (1980), Smith-Hughes (1917), George-Barden (1946) Acts gave the agency more responsibility. According to “A 25 Year History of the IDEA” (n.d.), “The Cold War stimulated the first example of comprehensive Federal education legislation, when in 1958 Congress passed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) in response to the Soviet launch of Sputnik. To help ensure that highly trained individuals would be available to help America compete with the Soviet Union in scientific and technical fields, the NDEA included support for loans to college students, the improvement of science, mathematics, and foreign language instruction in elementary and secondary schools, graduate fellowships, foreign language and area studies, and vocational-technical training.” (ED.gov, 2012). Currently, it is a Cabinet level agency. James Pillans, a professor of Humanity and Law at Edinburg University invented the Blackboard in 1801, (ergoindemand.com, 2012). This innovative and technical invention changed the way teachers taught school and students learned. Instead of reading from books or from written notes, teachers could write instructions, examples, or lessons on a blackboard with white chalk so that all students could see. This invention is still used in classrooms today with the opposite variation of the technology driven Whiteboards. 1829 – First School for the Blind The monitorial system of Common School learning consisted of children of all ages in one classroom. Teachers would teach the smarter students the lesson and then have them teach it to the others while the teacher worked with a specific age group of students that recited their lessons. When the students were finished with their recitations, the teacher would call up another age group that would start their recitations. (History of American Education, 2011, Ch.3.3).
According to Duntun and Tucker (1888), “Dr. John D. Philbrick’s innovation to teaching changed the way students were taught. Dividing textbooks and other materials into sections made it easy for students to study. Teachers also benefited by teaching one level or subject. Over time this innovation had many impacts on the classroom itself.” Classrooms were more manageable ones with desks for every student and a blackboard. All students were facing the same direction and the teacher was in front of the class. Some schools had separate classrooms and buildings depending upon level or age of the students. Thus the Grade School was born and has been in place ever since. (A Memorial of the Life and Services of John D. Philbrick. Early Life and Education, pgs.2-30) 1800s The Perkins School for the Blind (also known as the New England Asylum for the Blind) was first of its kindto educate blind and deaf children. Samuel Gridley Howe developed a method of learning that incorporated Braille to help students learn by using their fingertips. He also developed the Perkins Brailler which is still being used today. Helen Keller was one of its many famous students. In 1848, Howe established the Experimental School for Teaching and Training Idiotic Children. (Perkins Museum.org (2012) 1863 – 1865 -The Emancipation Proclamation The Civil War in part was fought to keep the Southern States from separating from the union and in part over slavery. Although President Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation January 1, 1863, which states “that all persons held as slaves” within the rebellious areas “are, and henceforward shall be free”, slavery did not end until 1865 as more southern territories were won by the North increasing the areas of freedom. (ourdocuments.gov, 2012) 1867 – Education for African American Youth Established after the Civil War in 1867, Howard University was designated as a university for the education of African American Youth. Although at it conception it was to be a theological seminary with studies in liberal arts and science, by 1926 it had grown to have eight schools and colleges. During the earlier years, the Freedmen’s Bureau provided financial support for the university. (History of Howard University Library, 1867-1929) 1867 – The Department of Education is Established 1867 – The Typewriter An innovative way to write quickly soon came on the scene. The typewriter was invented in the United States in 1867 by Christopher Latham Sholes and his associates, Carlos Glidden and Samuel Soulé. It was placed on the market in 1874. “This early model had only capital letters. A shift-key model, permitting change of case, appeared in 1878.” (Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th Edition). Over the span of a century, this piece of technology would transform several times. Although it was updated and had improved performance, the typewriter is now extinct as we have moved into the age of computers. 1868 – Fourteenth Amendment to the U.S. Constitution Ratified The basic rulings in Brown v. Board of Education were based on the Fourteenth Amendment which states, “No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States; nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.” Cases from Delaware, Washington, South Carolina and Virginia were affected by this amendment. (archives.gov, 2012) 1879 – Indian Boarding Schools The Carlisle Indian Industrial School opens in an effort to assimilate Native Americans into White Society, advocates argued for the removal of children from their families into boarding schools outside of reservations. This was done to separate children from their heavy influence of family tribal values. These schools were set up like military boot camps with rigid curriculums. Indian children had to give up their tribal wear for more European dress. Hair was trimmed in in a European style as well. While Native Americans gave up their cultural traditions and conformed, this assimilation did not give them any more standing in the White culture. Even more disheartening was the non-acceptance by their people who shunned them. (History of American Education, 2011, Ch. 4.5). 1936 - Computers Although this is controversial, many individuals can take the credit for inventing the computer as early as 1936 although it debut in 1946. According to Bellis, “A computer is a complex piece of machinery made up of many parts, each of which can be considered a separate invention.” (n.d.). Computers are another step in the evolution of the world and education. Schools offer online learning through the internet and many adults are taking advantage of this amazing leap in technology. 1939 - The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale Developed by David Wechsler an American Psychologist, The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) were tests designed to determine I.Q. and to help identify students needing special education. These tests were improved over time and are still used in schools for testing students. (David Wechsler, New World Encyclopedia, 2012). 1948 - McCollum v. Board of Education A case brought before the Supreme Court by a parent who was an atheist, about religious classes being held at a school in Champaign, Illinois. The court ruled that religious instruction was unconstitutional and violated the Establishment Clause of the First Amendment: the separation of church and state as well as violation of the Fourteenth Amendment. This ruling affected many schools in the country and was no longer offered. (findlaw.com, 2012) 1957 – The Little Rock Nine Nine African Americans students attempt to enroll in an all-white high school in Little Rock Arkansas in an effort to push desegregation in the South. The students are met with threats and violence from whites. The Governor of Arkansas sends the National Guard to keep them from entering but President Eisenhower made the decision to send Federal Troops to enforce the court order to desegregate because he cannot allow a state to use military power over Federal Law. (ourdocuments.gov, 2012). 1958 - National Defense Education Act (NDEA) The National Defense Education Act (NDEA) was passed due to the concerns of the U.S. to improve education in science. The act authorizes increased funding for scientific research as well as science, mathematics, and foreign language education. This was sparked during the “Cold War” by the success of the Russian satellite Sputnik. (ED.gov, 2012). 1975 - Public Law 94-142 “Education of All Handicapped Children Act.” The Education of All Handicapped Children Act mandated that all children with disabilities have access to a free appropriate public education that is designed to meet their unique needs. It assures that the rights of children with disabilities and their parents are protected. The Act also promises to assist States and localities to provide such an education and to assess and assure the effectiveness of state special education programs. (ED.gov 2012). 2009 - The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (ARRA) The ARRA provides more than 90-billion dollars for education, nearly half of which goes to local school districts. The intent of the act is to prevent layoffs and provide for school modernization. The “Race to the Top” initiative, a 4.35-billion-dollar program designed to create reform in K-12 education that is included in the act. (The American Reinvestment and Recovery Act of 2009). Education is an institution that has changed over the span of five hundred years. Its meager beginnings of teaching children to read from bibles so that they can continue to carry on family traditions, religion and moral values has evolved much like the country has. The knowledge that has been gained, the struggle to achieve it, the right to it and the training it offers is as valuable as ever in today’s world and society because without it you are lost. It is a commodity that everyone can have and what makes this country great. References
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