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Women's Rights Movements 1750-1914
Transcript of Women's Rights Movements 1750-1914
Women's Rights Movements 1750-1914
Susan B. Anthony
Susan B. Anthony was perhaps the most well-known women's rights activist in history. Anthony was born on February 15, 1820, to a Quaker family in the northwestern corner of Massachusetts.
Anthony was raised to be independent and outspoken. Her parents, like many Quakers, believed that men and women should study, live and work as equals and should commit themselves equally to the eradication of cruelty and injustice in the world.
In 1853, Anthony began to campaign for the expansion of married women's property rights; in 1856, she joined the American Anti-Slavery Society, delivering abolitionist lectures across New York State.
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
Elizabeth Cady Stanton was one of the foremost women's-rights activists and philosophers of the 19th century. Born on November 12, 1815, to a prominent family in upstate New York, Stanton was surrounded by reform movements of all kinds.
In the summer of 1848, Stanton and the abolitionist and temperance activist Lucretia Mott, along with a handful of other reformers, organized the first women's-rights convention in Seneca Falls, New York.
The Seneca Falls Convention marked the beginning of the campaign for women's suffrage.
Ida B. Wells
Ida B. Wells, born in Mississippi in 1862, is perhaps best known for her work as a crusading journalist and activist. While working as a schoolteacher in Memphis, Wells wrote for the city's black newspaper, The Free Speech.
Ida B. Wells established several civil rights organizations. In 1896, she formed the National Association of Colored Women.
Though Anthony was dedicated to the abolitionist cause and genuinely believed that African-American men and women deserved the right to vote, she refused to support any suffrage amendments to the Constitution unless they granted the franchise to women as well as men.
In 1890, the National American Woman Suffrage Association was formed. Elizabeth Cady Stanton was NAWSA's first president; Anthony was its second. She continued to fight for the vote until her death on March 13, 1906.
Stanton believed in a much broader vision of women’s rights. She advocated for the reform of marriage and divorce laws, the expansion of educational opportunities for girls and even the adoption of less confining clothing so that women could be more active. She also campaigned against the oppression of women in the name of religion and in 1895 published the first volume of a more egalitarian Woman’s Bible.
Lucy Stone, born in Massachusetts in 1818, was a pioneering abolitionist and women’s-rights activist, but she is perhaps best known for refusing to change her last name when she married abolitionist Henry Blackwell in 1855.
Stone, unlike Anthony and Stanton, supported the 15th Amendment; at the same time, she helped found the American Woman Suffrage Association, which fought for woman suffrage on a state-by-state basis.
In 1871, Stone and Blackwell began to publish the weekly feminist newspaper The Woman’s Journal. Stone died in 1893, 27 years before American women won the right to vote. The Woman’s Journal survived until 1931.
Lower class women were paid 1/3 men's wages in mines and factories.
Public education for women increased in popularity and availability.
Some women of the elite class influenced the Enlightenment as writers.
Working on behalf of all women, Wells, as part of her work with the National Equal Rights League, called for President Woodrow Wilson to put an end to discriminatory hiring practices for government jobs. She created the first African-American kindergarten in her community and fought for women's suffrage.
Working class women could work with their husband in some businesses or in the fields.
Confucianism in China reinforced the submission of women to men and held that the role of women was in caring for their home and their family.
Women could not inherit or own property.
Foot binding was widely practiced in upper classes in China.
Some women fought in women's brigades in the Taiping Rebellion and 1911 Revolution.
Women owned and operated textile, craft, and food businesses, and were able to spin, weave, and garden to assist family income.
A culture of machismo, or the attitude that agrees with traditional ideas about men being very strong and aggressive, influenced rigid standards of female behavior.
Women became active in revolutions for equality and greater freedom.
Women became involved in the protest for the abolition of slavery.
The spread of feminism and women's suffrage movements began during this time period.
The primary role of women as wives and mothers was reinforced by the popularity of Catholicism in Latin America.
Women received some educational opportunities at Christian missionary schools.
Because sons were viewed as more valuable than daughters, the practice of female infanticide increased.
“Ida B. Wells Biography.” Bio. A&E Television Networks, 13 May 2014. Web. 29 May 2014. <http://www.biography.com/people/ida-b-wells-9527635#later-career&awesm=~oFEUVOHGJ4haIb>.
Stearns, Peter N. World Civilizations: The Global Experience: [Beginnings to 1750]. 5th ed. New York: Pearson Longman, 2007. Print.
“Women Who Fought for the Vote.” History.com. A&E Television Networks, 2009. Web. 28 May 2014. <http://www.history.com/topics/womens-history/women-who-fought-for-the-vote>.