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The French Revolution

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by

Ben Kwedar

on 23 January 2017

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Transcript of The French Revolution

Revolts break out all over France
French society was divided into 3 estates
The French Revolution
Why is this Revolution Significant?
Established both a new political and a new social order
Background to the Revolution
(3 status groups)
The First Estate:
Clergy
130,000
owned 10 % of land
The Second Estate:
Nobility
350,000
owned 25% of land
The Third Estate:
Everyone else
26,500,000
peasants
bourgeoise
(half had little/no land to live on
middle class
merchants, bankers, industrialists, lawyers, holders of public office, doctors, and writers
urban poor
Only the Third Estate had to pay taxes
First Estate
Second Estate
Taille
3rd Estate
Tax
Financial Crisis
Bad Harvests in 1787 and 1788
Slowdown in manufactoring
Led to
Food shortages
High prices
Rising unemployment
BUT
King Louis XVI kept spending money
Wars (Rev War)
Court Luxuries
Marie Antoinette
Queen
Known for her extravagance
"Qu'ils mangent de la brioche"
"Let them eat cake"
Louis XVI is forced to call a meeting of the
Estates-General
French Parliament
In order to raise Taxes
First meeting since 1614
Representatives of all 3 Estates
Traditionally each estate had one vote.
First and Second wanted to keep it that way
So what happened?
Third Estate wanted each person to get a vote (they had more representatives)
King sides with the Clergy and Nobles
Third Estate leaves to draft a constitution. Calls themselves the National Assembly
Come back and are locked out
so...
Tennis Court Oath
What:
Oath taken by deputies of the Third Estate in the French Revolution. They vowed never to separate until a written constitution was established for France.
When:
1789
Where:
Versailles
Why:
The Oath signified for the first time that French citizens formally stood in opposition to Louis XVI, and the National Assembly's refusal to back down forced the king to make concessions.
July 14, 1789
Paris
The Bastille
is stormed
by a mob of citizens
Bastille
- old fortress, used a prison and armory
Released 7 prisoners
Cut off the warden's head
Significance: Official start of the Revolution
Kings authority collapses
National Assembly abolishes all legal privileges of nobles and clergy
Peasant rebellions, Panic, and Rumor of Foreign Invasion lead to
August 26, 1789
National Assembly adopts
Declaration
Of the Rights
Of
Man
King still does what he wants in Versailles...until
Constitution of 1791
Set up a Limited Monarch
Still a King
But a Legislative Assembly would make laws
National Assembly seizes and then sell's Church lands.
N.A. passes law called the
Civil Constitution of the Clergy
Church 'Reforms'
Formally brought the Church under control of the government
Said bishops and priests are to be elected by the people and not be appointed by the Church
State would pay salaries
Bishops have to swear loyalty to the constitution
Royal Family attempts to escape in 1791
Recognized thanks to a coin
Could have started a counter-revolution
Consequences of his failed escape:
French people realize that war is going to happen
French people realize the King is against the Revolution
French people adopt Republicanism on a mass scale
Legislative Assembly amends the Constitution to allow for putting the King on trial for treason
Spring 1792
War with Austria
Food Shortages
leads to
Paris Commune
Radicals that seized control of Paris
Imprisoned the King
Forced Legislative Assembly to call a National Convention
Sans-Cullotes
Without Breeches
The Move to Radicalism
September Massacres
Worked on a new Constitution
Became ruling body of France
Abolished Monarchy
Established the First Republic
Wild stories seized the city that imprisoned aristocrats/priests were plotting with the allied invaders
angry crowds invaded the prisons of Paris and summarily slaughtered half the men and women they found.
1200-1400 died
Jean-Paul Marat
Published "Friend of the People"
Defended the massacres
his journal led to many executions
January 21, 1793
Louis XVI is beheaded by the Guillotine
Two groups that don't get along in National Convention
The Girondins (more moderate)
Jacobins (more radical)
Give power to
Committee of Public Safety
RIP: Maximilian Robespierre
Terror ends, new government struggles
Relied on Military to keep government in power
Napoleon Bonaparte
Revolution and War in Europe offered him opportunities
1795 Put down armed revolt of a Royalist mob
By 1796 he is the Commander of French Army in Italy
Brilliant tactician on the battlefield
Loved by troops
1799 takes over the government in a
coup d’etat
Born in 1769 in Corsica
Attended Military School
Establishes a Consulate

"Republic", but Napoleon has total power
a sudden, violent, and illegal seizure of power from a government
Crowns himself Emperor in 1804
Napoleon’s Domestic Achievements
1. Made peace with the church
- Catholicism recognized as religion of France

2. Established the Napoleonic Code
- Preserved principles of the revolution
and the rights of individuals
- Still Used Today
-
3. Strong Bureaucracy (Administration)
- Based on talent and ability
-Did not care about rank/birth

4. Spread principles of revolution
Napoleon's downfall
Couldn't conquer Great Britain
Spread of Nationalism (unique identity of a people based on common language, religion, etc.)
Had to retreat in January because of the winter
Didn't have enough food or supplies
Only 40,000 of 600,000 return with him
Disaster invading Russia in 1812/13
Paris soon got captured
Napoleon got sent into exile to Elba
Louix XVIII named King
BUT HE RETURNS A YEAR LATER!
NO ONE CAN STOP NAPOLEON!
Battle of Waterloo
June 18, 1815
(Belgium)
Napoleon is defeated forever by a British and Prussian Army commanded by the Duke of Wellington
Exiled...again
this time to St. Helena
Louis XVIII
Charles X
Dissolves Legislative Chamber (1830)
July Revolution (1830)
Louis Philippe I
"simmering discontents, especially strong among republicans, who felt that they had spilled their blood on the 1830 barricades, only to have their revolution 'stolen' by a coterie of opportunists who managed to get Louis-Philippe crowned king"
General Jean Lamarque
Famous Napoleonic General
Republican Sympathizer
June 5-6 1832
June Rebellion
A pamphlet published in 1836 compared the defeat of the republicans to the heroic resistance of the 300 Spartans at the Battle of Thermopylae.[3]

A republican, is virtue, perseverance; is devotion personified...[he] is Leonidas dying at Thermopylae, at the head of his 300 Spartans; he is also the 72 heroes who defended during 48 hours the approaches of the Cloître Saint-Merry, from 60,000 men, and who… threw themselves onto bayonets to obtain a glorious death.
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