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Peter Le

on 30 April 2015

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Thank you!
The skeleton was found by contractors digging in a ditch for electricity cables near the corners of Octavia Street and Ocean Street, Narrabeen. A forensic investigation was undertaken and bone samples were sent to Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in California to determine the age of the remains.
Narrabeen Man is the name given to a 4,000-year old skeleton of a tall Australian Aboriginal man found during road works in Narrabeen - a coastal suburb North of Sydney, in January 2005. His remains are the oldest known natural skeleton found in Australia. Narrabeen Man's remains are currently lying under care at Sydney University's Shellshear Museum.
On 19 September 1991, Ötzi was found by two German tourists from Nuremberg, Helmut and Erika Simon, at 3,210 metres on the east ridge of the Fineilspitze in the Ötztal Alps on the Austrian–Italian border, while walking off the path between the mountain passes Hauslabjoch and Tisenjoch. At first, they believed that the body was of a recently deceased mountaineer, until further research was done.
Ötzi, also called Ötzi the Iceman, is a well-preserved natural mummy of a man who lived around 3,300 BCE, more precisely between 3359 and 3105 BCE, with a 66% chance that he died between 3239 and 3105 BCE. The mummy was found in September 1991 in the Ötztal Alps, hence the nickname "Ötzi", near the Similaun mountain and on the border between Austria and Italy. He is Europe's oldest known natural human mummy, and has offered an unprecedented view of Palaeolithic Europeans. His body and belongings are displayed in the South Tyrol Museum of Archeology in Bolzano, South Tyrol, Italy.
Radiocarbon dating of the bone suggested an age of around 4,000 years for the skeleton. Which is about 2000 BCE. This is recorded to be Sydney's oldest skeleton, and may even been the oldest human skeleton in Australia.
Carbon dating suggest that otzi pasted away between 3239 and 3105 BCE. Days before he died the Iceman suffered cuts to his right hand and wrist consistent with wound made by a hatchets. Some scientists think Otzi was being pursued by people that attacked him and say he escaped his attackers and died alone. Otherwise they argue he would have been robbed of his possessions.
In July 2001, almost exactly ten years after the mummy came to light, our consultants, Dr. Egarter Vigl and Dr. Gostner, made an exciting discovery.

Analyzing new X-rays, they noticed a foreign body lodged in the left shoulder. Subsequent detailed investigations no longer left any doubt: it was a flint arrowhead. In all probability Ötzi died as a result of this wound. On close examination of the left side of Ötzi’s back, Eduard Egarter Vigl discovered a small skin wound. The wound opens into a narrow channel leading into the interior of the body.

Penetrating the body, the arrowhead created a 2-cm-wide hole in the left shoulder blade and ended up just a few centimeters from the lung. Vital organs were not hit, but the arrow severed a major blood vessel and damaged the neurovascular fascicles of the left arm, which must have caused heavy bleeding and possibly paralysis of the arm. The Iceman probably bled to death within a matter of minutes.

In addition, a deep unhealed wound to the hand confirm that the Iceman was involved in hand-to-hand combat hours or days before his death. A recently discovered craniocerebral trauma with major bleeding in the back of the brain along with a skull fracture, indicate a fall or attack shortly before his death.


The spear barbs found in the skeleton were most likely from what post- sometimes called "death spears". Although they may have been used in ritual punishments, it seems likely that the same type of spear was used for killing animals. These spears have sharp flakes of stone, such as secrete and quartz, embedded side by side into resin along the head of the spear, creating a serrated edge behind the point. The pieces of rock tend to break free from the resin and remain in the flesh of the victim. Spear barbs date to the Holocene period, and in Australia are referred to as "backed artefacts" meaning microsites or "bladeless" having retouched edges.

Further examination revealed that Narrabeen Man was approximately 183 cm, estimated from the length of his limbs. He was about 30-40 years old and his height was above average for Aboriginal men at this time. It is also speculated that Narrabeen Man was not from a tribe from the greater Sydney region, as his two front teeth were not removed - in line with a regional initiation rite at the time of European settlement. Where Narrabeen man was found, he did not have his two front teeth knocked out, meaning he wasn’t part of the Kuring-Gai mob. Experts suggest that he did something really horrible that made the Kuring-Gai mob angry and make them kill him.

Otzi’s hand slings and the design of his long, lightweight arrows indicate that he specialized in hunting ibex and mountain goats that live high above the tree line. Arrows of his design would not work well in the forest where they can get tangled up in brush. The feathers of the arrows indicate that people in Otzi’s time understood that the aerodynamic principal of a rotating arrow could be shot more accurately.
When archeologist examined Narrabeen Man's body, they found fish bones, which they predict would have been his last meal. There is a massive chance that Narrabeen Man's lifestyle is that he thrived on hunting fish.
Preservation of Otzi
Otzi the iceman was found frozen in solid ice with only his skeleton remaining. Scientist and archeologist believe this is the reason to why Otzi the iceman was able to stay in a skeleton form for such a long period of time.
Narrabeen Man was found by contractors digging in a ditch for electricity cables near the corners of Octavia Street and Ocean Street, Narrabeen. Scientist soon found out that Narrabeen Man was murdered and rather thrown in a ditch then place in a ditch. Although Narrabeen Man was not preserved well, he somehow manged to keel most of his bones and become Australia's oldest natural human skeleton.
Otzi Archeological Evidence Discovered
There is a lot of archeological evidence that were discovered that concluded the death Otzi the iceman. Such as his skeleton and the marks on his skeleton. Also bone examination and carbon dating was a massive part that played in the uncovering of Otzi's death.
Narrabeen Man Archeological Evidence
Narrabeen Man was murdered, and there is a lot archeological evidence that conclude to the death of Narrabeen Man.

Perhaps the most important archeological evidence is the spear marks found in bended in Narrabeen Man's skeleton and how contractors found Narrabeen Man in the position that he was in. The way he was position when contractors found him, meant that this wasn't a ceremonial death, more like a throw. This caused lots of speculation on how Narrabeen Man was killed, and how he got in ch an unusual position.

In the end, it all concluded to Narrabeen Man being murdered, and the archeological massively helped the investigators figure out this disturbing discovery.
Otzi's date of Death
Some have speculated that maybe Otzi had a run in with rival hunters over a disputed hunting ground or was ambushed by younger members of his village who had hoped to topple him as a village leader. He was found clutching his dagger in the same hand that had been badly wounded. His hand is believed to be have been so badly cut he couldn’t use some of his fingers.

Offering a scenario on what might have happened, Walter Leitner, an expert on Stone Age culture and archery and an archaeologist at the University of Innsbruck, told National Geographic: “The time had come where his opponents had become stronger but he didn’t recognize that his rein was coming to an end and was holding on to his position....It looks as if the Iceman was planning to flee and that his trip was brought to an end by his opponents.”

Some scholars had suggested before that Otzi may have been ritually killed as part of human sacrifice or religious ritual. But the discovery of blood of others on his clothes and arrow---if that evidence holds up---pretty much refutes arguments of that theory. There are still a lot of unknowns. For example it is still not clear if the arrow wound is what killed him. If arteries had been severed he may have bled to death. If not he could have survived a length of time after he was shot.

On 16th January 1998, the Iceman and his belongings were transported from the Institute for Anatomy of Innsbruck University to the newly-built South Tyrol Museum of Archaeology in Bolzano. The mummy, carefully packed in crushed ice, was transported in the presence of scientists, politicians, spectators and the international press. Strict security precautions were taken.

The entire first floor of the museum is dedicated to the Iceman find.

Many people would argue about why Otzi the Iceman should be return ti it indiginous ground to have a ceremonial. I personally think that it is a great idea that the remains of Otzi the Iceman is place in a Museum, the comunity can one of the oldest natural human remains in the world.
Many experts concluded that Narrabeen Man was murdered, due to the important archeologacial evidence and facts they gained.

Dr Richard Fullagar, archaeologist specialising in stone tools stated "The skeletal injuries, penetration depth [into the spine] and position of fragments in the grave indicate a minimum of three weapons, and probably more, were used in the slaying of the Narrabeen Man.
The Narrabeen artefacts provide the first Australian archaeological evidence of [these weapons] being used for fighting, payback killing or other human violence, as distinct from hunting animals."
At the end of the grusome investigation, Narrabeen was placed at the Shellhear Museum, very close to where he was found. The Shellhear Museum has many historical artifacts, but the Narrabeen Man skeleton, is by far their most pride possession. I think it is a very good idea of placing Narrabeen Man into a nearby Meseum. Many tourist can see the oldest natural human skeleton in Australia. This something we should be proud of and treasure for a very long time.
It seems that Narrabeen Man and Otzi the iceman are very different in where they were found, what their life style was like and when they died. Havig said that, there they are very simular in how they where found, the cause of death and the return to Indigenous comuntities. Now, otzi the ice an and Narrabeen Man are one of the oldest natural human skeletons found in the world.
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