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Transcript of Genetics
B. Ms. Folarin
C. Ms. Brewer Who's kid is this? A. Ms. Brewer
B. Ms. Folarin
C. Mrs. Oliver Who's kid is this? A. Mr. Nugent
B. Ms. Folarin
C. Ms. Brewer Gregor Mendel:
The father of genetics There are two types of reproduction Genetic material is donated from two parents via the sperm and egg Sexual Reproduction Asexual Reproduction Genetic material is donated from only one parent
Offspring are identical to the parent and to each other
Half of the genes for each trait come from the male parent and half come from the female parent Sexual reproduction results in genetic diversity due to the large number gene combinations that can occur Brain Break Offspring differ from each parent and from each other Plants produce offspring asexually through vegetative propagation from:
Roots Stems Leaves
Animals produce offspring asexually through Binary fission (flatworms) and happens when bacteria divide
Budding (hydra) - Some organisms like sponges, hydra, and coral can form a mass of cells called a "bud" that specialize to form a new organism on the side of the parent. It will drop off and attach near the parent. This is very important in forming coral reefs. Asexual Asexual Regeneration Many organisms can re-grow some missing parts, but only a few can produce complete new organisms. The starfish is one of these. As long as any ray of the starfish is connected to the nerve ring, it can form an entirely new starfish. Another example is the flatworm called planaria. Vegetative Propagation This is like regeneration in animals. Cutting of stems produce new plants. Some of the stems may appear to be roots (like potatoes), but are actually modified stems that are found underground or on the surface (rhizomes, tubers, runners).
Example: Spider Plant Asexual Reproduction Sexual
Reproduction Mitosis Cell division that produces daughter cells exactly like the parent cell.
Mitosis is essential in organisms for growth, repair of tissues, replacement of cells that die, reproduction in unicellular organisms, and to maintain efficiency of cell size. It can be asexual reproduction for algae and protists. Who studied pea plants and was called the Father of Genetics? Genetics can be defined as the study of __________ Inherited traits (characteristics) of organisms are passed from parents to the offspring through genes
Genes – segment of DNA, found on a chromosome, that determines the inheritance of a particular trait http://dsc.discovery.com/videos/is-it-possible-real-life-popeye.html DNA contains all genetic information and in sexual reproduction can only be inherited through the sex cells (sperm and egg) A genetic trait that provides a survival advantage is called an adaptation Chromosomes: long chains of DNA One pair of genes for a trait
One gene comes from one parent, the other gene comes from the other parent The form of a trait (allele) that appears to dominate or mask another form of the same trait
Represented in a genotype by a capital letter Dominant Genes Recessive Genes The form of a trait (allele) that is masked if a dominant allele is present
Homozygous/purebred – an organism that has two identical alleles for a trait
Heterozygous/hybrid – an organism that has two different alleles for a trait Liger Purebred or hybrid Both genes are the same
Represented by 2 of the same letter
Homozygous One dominant and one recessive gene are matched
Dominant gene always shows itself
Represented by Heterozygous What it LOOKS like
Phenotype Phenotype – the physical appearance of an organism; a physical trait in an organism, due to its genetic makeup Genotype Tt The names for the gene pairs
TT, Tt, tt When neither gene is dominant- a blended trait
Incomplete Dominance + = Humans shed about ______ pounds of skin in a lifetime. 40 Brain Break Allele –each gene in a pair that you get from your parents. (like a Photograph) Tall vs short Tall vs short TT tt light hair (or weave) from mom Black hair from dad bb BB TT or tt Tt Represented in a genotype by a lowercase letter