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Introduction to Catholism in Chinese Culture

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katrina chung

on 9 October 2012

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Transcript of Introduction to Catholism in Chinese Culture

photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli Katrina Chung Culture Project-Chinese Geography Catholicism in China Traditions Politics References equatorial
sub-tropical
warm-temperate
temperate
cold-temperate Chinatowns around the world alpine South(Han) North(Han)

warm
wet
rice
paddy field
economy
culture agriculture
boat
Ganlan-style
more vegetables South Central China East China Northeast China North China Northwest China Southwest China cold
dry
wheat
dry land
military
politics heavy industry
horse
firepit beds
more meat
ice scupltures
Yaodong extremely cold
extremely dry
Tsampa
Butter tea
yak Tibetan Hui Mongolian huge temperature difference
desert
dry
camel
oasis farming cold
dry
horse
grazing
tents
goat milk wine
high calorie foods Chinatown ethnic enclave
commercial tourism/working communties
Han Chinese culture
oldest one in Manila Vancouver London Philadelphia Tengger 635 Nestorianism 635, Tang Dynasty:

Emperor Wuzong
Third Disaster of Wu
affected by the event
eventually disappeared 845, Tang Dynasty Emperor Gaozong
the country prosperous&open
introduced by Alopen to Chang'an
very popular
churches were built all over China 690-705, Tang Dynasty Wu Zetian
prefers Buddhism over Nestorianism
retained by missionaries Emperor Xuanzong
growth of Nestorianism
more missionaries from western countries 685, Tang Dynasty Catholicism Yuan Dynasty religion freedom
Marco Polo,First encounter between Catholics&Chinese
John of Montecorvino
sent by Nicolas IV
first Catholic missionary to enter China
built monasteries&churches Ming Dynasty Congregation for the Propagation of the Faith
Catholicism wasn't welcomed in China
Fr. Matteo Ricci
influenced chancellors who became preachers
Three Pillars of Chinese Catholicism- Li Zhizao, Xu Guangqi&Yang Tingyun
Catholicism spread quickly
1650-almost all provinces had been introduced to Catholicism Qing Dynasty Luo Wenzao- first bishop in China
Catholicism appreciated by the government
Self Strengthening Movement
Catholic Scriptures and other literary works were translated
the Church established various schools, hospitals, orphanages, sanitariums, etc
encouraged scholars to become Catholics
brought western civilization into China
freed women from foot binding Obstacles Republic of China(Taiwan) People's Republic of China China on its way to modernization
the Church built more schools&universities than the government
was also involved in the newspaper&printing industry
over 50% of Chinese scholars were brought up by the Church
Vatican-China diplomatic relationship communists took over China
Cultural Revolution
all religions banned
Catholics persecuted
destruction of schools&churches
Chinese economic reform
freedom of religion allowed
schools&charities were established again
Catholics still under government control bow to the emperor
worship ancestors-Imperial Examination 845 Nestorianism introduced disappeared Tang Song Five Dynasties/Ten Kingdoms 907 960 1271 618 1289 first missionary entered China Yuan 1368 1601 1644 Ming 1911 Qing Fr.Matteo Ricci
preached Catholicism 1861 Self-Strengthing Movement 1949 R.O.C 1673 first bishop in China 1946 first ambassador from Vatican Catholicism Modern Catholicism P.R.O.C 1966 1978 Cultural Revolution Chinese economic reform Patron Saint St.Joseph was made the patron saint of China by Pope Innocent XI in 1678. was chosen because the Chinese valued the father over mother.
the Chinese also looked up to his diligence and other virtues.
though in some regions, Catholics are allowed to choose their patron saint(St.Joseph or the Virgin Mary) when they get baptized.(E.g. Shanghai) Marian Apparitions and other miracles in China 2002-scientists discovered a 300 million-year- old rock in Guiyang that had a message hidden within: Chinese communists no more. 1900-A statue of Our Lady in Santai was seen weeping during the Boxer Rebellion.
Another apparation of Mary was also seen in DongLu while the Catholics were defending the Church. 1995-the Sun Miracle in Donglu, in which thousands of Catholics witnessed apparitions from the center of the sun. Abstract Gou Gu(the meaning of Pythagoras Theorem) Other Religions in China Religions Buddhism Taoism Confucianism Four Books and Five Classics most common religion in China
started as a belief system
now combined with other Chinese folk beliefs
established by Lao zi
believes all humans have the potential to become immortal
everything has two sides-constantly fighting and benefiting each other
humans should spiritually become one with nature Buddha=the awakened one
originated from India
popular religion/belief system in China
Shaolin Monastery
central beliefs: life is suffering
suffering is caused by greed,craving and hatred
we can attain happiness by overcoming those vices
the Noble 8-fold Path leads to the end of suffering Festivals Buddha's Birthday Ghost Festival the Chinese Halloween
July 15th on the lunar calendar
traces back to the story of Maudgalyāyana
both the underworld and the human world realm is open
the deceased visits the living
people prepare offerings for their ancestors&other spirits
taboos such as no whistling/swimming/umbrellas
water lanterns to lead the dead to enjoy their offerings
Chang-gu to drive away spirits believes in the cycle of rebirth April 8th on the lunar calendar
legend was that nine dragons bathed the buddha when he was born
"I alone am uniquely honored"
buddhists use water to bath the buddha statue and themselves on his birthday Tao Te Ching written around the 6th century BC by Lao zi
both philosophical and religious
consists of the basic beliefs of Taoism Holy days There used to be no holy days in Lao zi's Taoism
now there are many in the modernized Taoism
most of them celebrate the birthdays of their gods'
the most important is the Jade Emperor's birthday
Taoists give offerings to the gods, burn incense and ask for good luck More of a philosophy than a religion
no identifying symbols
founded by Confucius, greatest teacher in Chinese history
no spiritual beings
no teachings about the afterlife
believes all humans are good&kind in nature
values morality: Treat others as you wish to be treated
believes mainly in the importance of education
the most common philosophy in China of all times Lotus Sutra-basic
Avatamsaka Sutra-universe
Heart Sutra-wisdom
Diamond Sutra-overcoming obstacles Mahayana sutras: Teacher's day is the only special day for Confucianists. Students honor Confucius by respecting their teachers on September 8th. The Chinese people have their daily activities based on the 24 solar terms. Major cultural celebrations Chinese New Year Qingming Dragon boat Festival Qixi Festival Moon Festival lasts from December 8th to January 15th
New year's Eve/New year's Day are the most important part of the celebration
families enjoy a big dinner together and stay up til midnight
children ask grown-ups for money(red envelope)
people put up New Year scroll or portraits of door spirits on their doors
set off a massive amount of firecrackers
clean their houses thoroughly May 5th
originated from the story of Chu-yuan
People hold Dragon boat competitions
make&eat rice dumplings
wear sachets
decorate houses with wormwood
children try to make eggs stand April 4-6th
both a holiday and a solar term
originated from the story of the Duke Wen of Jin&Jie Zhitui
people visit&clean the graves of their ancestors
don't use fire to cook;eat only cold foods
play a variety of sports
everything is preferably green July 7th
the Chinese Valentine's Day
legend of the princess and the cowherd
coin, needle and jujube=wealth, handiness and marriage
girls compete making small decorations
lovers get together
people confess to their crush August 15th
story of Chang'e the moon goddess
people have a outdoor picnic with their family at night
sit and look at the moon
eat moon cakes&pomelos Big Life Events 6-first year of school
12-junior high school
18-driver's license+being able to vote+NCEE
40-full grown-up
60-retirement Best leaders Worst leaders Li Shimin Emperor Taizong of Tang
with his father overthrew the corrupted Sui Dynasty
captured remaining Sui states and unified China
defeated his brother to become emperor
famous for his Reign of Zhenguan-the golden age of Chinese history
humble&listened to others' suggestion
Because of him, Hans are also called the "Tang people" Sun Yat-sen first Provisional president of R.O.C.
respected by both the ROC&PROC
Father of the Nation
Forerunner of democratic revolution
lead 10 revolutions without success
spiritual leader of the Double Ten Revolution
overthrew the Qing Dynasty& ended the Hans' colonization
developed the Three Principles of the People: nationalism, democracy&socialism
founder of the KMT(Chinese Nationalist Party)
established the Constitution of the Republic of China Lu Gui King Je of Xia
One of the three worst kings in Chinese history
genius and a skilled fighter
used his talents in the wrong way
extremely arrogant ,ignorant&self-centered
obsessed with women, wine and luxurious entertainment
treated everyone under his rule as animals rather than humans
while his people were poor but stll had to pay high taxes
even the chancellors abandoned him
eventually overthrown&captured by the Shan army
the people celebrated his death Mao Zedong Founder&first chairman of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China
extreme Marxist
led two nationwide political campaigns that both ended as a failure: Cultural Revolution&Great Leap Forward
his policies were responsible for the death of approximately 40~70 million Chinese people
opposes everything besides Maoism and Communism
made himself a godly figure to his followers
charisma attracted a massive group of teenagers that became the Red Guards
is believed to have caused the moral fall of the Hans race under his reign
many still see him as a national hero Difficulties facing the Chinese people Lack of freedom: freedom of speech Uneven economic growth communism or capitalism?
gap between wealth and poverty increasing
government subsidies not enough Environmental pollution salinization strict censorship freedom of association air&water pollution shrinking lakes desertification Food The Chinese perfectly demonstrates the saying "Bread is the staff of life." Their enthusiasm for food made Chinese food one of the three greatest cuisines in the world. In fact, they can turn almost any living creature into a meal. Food has always been a major part of their culture. While most people could distinguish around 60 kinds of flavor, the Chinese could distinguish up to 140. The Chinese eat a lot of things that seem odd to others. However, they also find several foreign foods weird. It is common for the Chinese to eat out in cities, but eat at home in rural areas. Traditional families eat together at home. The mother usually deals with food preparation. Basic preparation Utensil Fire Ingredients Flavorings A standard meal consists of rice, three courses&one soup.
the main course is usually meat
rice=the staple food in Southern China
in the north people replace rice with noodles or Chinese pancakes. Size of country + varying weather = huge regional difference
as a result, there is no national dish of China.
instead there are eight culinary traditions of Chinese cuisine.
each has its own representing dishes. Lu(Shandong) spicy&uses a lot of green onions Chuan(Szechuan) Thick sauce&very spicy Su(Changsu&Huaiyang) fresh&light&sweet
keeps the food's original flavor
mostly soups Zhe(Zhejiang) creamy&sweet&colorful
uses a lot of seafood Yue(Hong Kong&Guangdong) flavorful&colorful
mostly stir-fried
dim sum
uses wild animal meat Xiang(Hunan) greasy&spicy
lots of meat Min(Fujian) fresh&light&mild
known for fragrance Hui(Huizhou) greasy&flavorful
mostly roasted&boiled • Geology.com, World Map, Retrieved on Oct.6,2012, http://geology.com/world/world-map.gif • Moving People Changing Places, Chinatowns, Retrieved on Oct.6,2012, http://www.movingpeoplechangingplaces.org/uploads/images/Chinatowns.jpg • Energy Foundation, Climate zones for Chinese building codes, Retrieved on Oct.6,2012, http://www.eoearth.org/files/113401_113500/113402/300px-Fig5.6climate_zones_chinese_bldg_codes.jpg • Chinese Foreigner Guide, Great Regions, Retrieved on Oct.6,2012, http://www.cfguide.com/map/chinamap/regions_of_china_svg.png • Mehlführer, Chinatown street / Bay Bridge, Retrieved on Oct.6,2012, http://www.vancouver-chinatown.info/photos/chinatown-3.jpg • Andersen, Chinese Friendship Gate (China Gate), Retrieved on Oct.6,2012, http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/f0/China_Gate%2C_Philadelphia.jpg/600px-China_Gate%2C_Philadelphia.jpg Spalt,London: Chinatown with Chinese New Year decoration,Retrieved on Oct.6.1012,http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/b/b2/Chinatown_london.jpg/800px-Chinatown_london.jpg Li Wang Tao, Tengger, Retrieved on Oct.6,2012,http://www.easytourchina.com/images/Photo/tengger- • Newsphoto, Farmers Busy Picking Cotton, Retrieved on Oct.6,2012, http://images.china.cn/images1/200709/405906.jpg • Nipic, Oasis, Retrieved on Oct.6,2012, http://pic2.nipic.com/20090416/1412106_051159008_2.jpg
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8,http://hunan.bookinge.com/UploadFiles_8957/201001/20100129182805114.jpg Xiang_baidubaike,shark fin soup,retrieved Oct 8,http://b.hiphotos.baidu.com/baike/s%3D220/sign=4a02a765d40735fa95f049bbae510f9f/dbb44aed2e738bd45206b74fa18b87d6277ff9ad.jpg Xiang_baidubaike,Xiang cuisine,retrieved Oct 8,http://e.hiphotos.baidu.com/baike/s%3D220/sign=7662b8430cd79123e4e093769d355917/3b292df5e0fe992500d3811b34a85edf8cb1719a.jpg Zhe_baidubaike,Longjing Shrimp,retrieved Oct 8,http://b.hiphotos.baidu.com/baike/s%3D220/sign=172bf6ebad6eddc422e7b3f909dab6a2/b8014a90f603738db0a8d42cb31bb051f919ecda.jpg Zhe_baidubaike,West Lake Fish in Vinegar Gravy,retrieved Oct 8,http://c.hiphotos.baidu.com/baike/s%3D220/sign=d0a64537b3de9c82a265fe8d5c8080d2/d31b0ef41bd5ad6e9f3ac5e481cb39dbb7fd3cf8.jpg Zhe_baidubaike,pickled Yellow-fin tuna soup ,retrieved Oct 8,http://f.hiphotos.baidu.com/baike/s%3D220/sign=886156beaf51f3dec7b2be66a4eff0ec/6609c93d70cf3bc78a4a5398d100baa1cd112a7f.jpg Zhe_baidubaike,pork,retrieved Oct 8,http://e.hiphotos.baidu.com/baike/s%3D220/sign=d8a7207debf81a4c2232ebcbe72b6029/a2cc7cd98d1001e9ed958606b80e7bec54e7970a.jpg Chuan_baidubaike,Fuqifeipian,retrieved Oct 8,http://h.hiphotos.baidu.com/baike/s%3D220/sign=955a50eca40f4bfb88d09956334e788f/4d086e061d950a7b155071b70ad162d9f2d3c95f.jpg Chuan_baidubaike,spicy beef,retrieved Oct 8,http://g.hiphotos.baidu.com/baike/s%3D220/sign=b66710d49f3df8dca23d8893fd1072bf/72f082025aafa40f8d53d0feab64034f78f0197f.jpg Chuan_baidubaike,Mapo Tofu,retrieved Oct 8,http://a.hiphotos.baidu.com/baike/s%3D220/sign=3d414e76912397ddd2799f066983b216/2cf5e0fe9925bc31041976095edf8db1ca1370de.jpg Chuan_baidubaike,flavored pork with eggplant,retrieved Oct 8,http://c.hiphotos.baidu.com/baike/s%3D220/sign=2d0b290b462309f7e36faa10420f0c39/64380cd7912397ddc305a49b5982b2b7d0a28734.jpg •Aboluowang, A Chinese Life, Retrieved on Oct.7,2012, http://tw.aboluowang.com/life/2012/1002/-60222.html
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Chinese Festivals, Qingming, Retrieved on Oct.6,2012, http://big5.china.com.cn/ch-jieri/
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•Chinese Festivals, Moon Festival, Retrieved on Oct.6,2012, http://big5.china.com.cn/ch-jieri/
•Chinese Festivals, Dragon-boat festival, Retrieved on Oct.6,2012, http://big5.china.com.cn/ch-jieri/
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