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Copy of Emotions
Transcript of Copy of Emotions
of Emotion Emotions the various bodily feelings
associated with mood,
disposition, and motivation
and also with hormones
and neurotransmitters often the driving
or negative •All emotions originate in
the brain’s limbic system. People tend to be happiest
(report more positive than
negative emotions) when their
limbic system is relatively
inactive. •When the limbic system “heats up,”
negative emotions such as anger and guilt dominate over positive ones such as joy and happiness. Overall, the limbic system provides a lens through which you interpret events.
When it’s active, you see things in a negative light. When it’s inactive, you interpret information more positively. • Depressed people have more active
limbic systems, particularly when
they encounter negative information.
And women tend to have more active
limbic systems than men, which,
some argue, explains why women
are more susceptible to depression
than men and are more likely to
emotionally bond with children. • Women are more likely to be
depressed than men, but
naturally that doesn’t mean that
all depressed people are women,
or that men are incapable of
bonding with their kids. THEORIES OF EMOTIONS Darwin’s Theory
of the Evolution
of Emotion He believed that body
movements and facial expression are used by members of a species to communicate. According to him, emotions are products of
evolution. He suggested that
expressions are initially
learned by behaviour. They evolve from behaviours that indicate what animals is likely to do next.
If they provide benefit to the animal, they have more probability to enhance and evolve their communicative function.
Opposite messages are
signaled by opposite
postures and movements. Darwin developed a theory of the
evolution of emotional expression
with three main ideas; James-Lange &
Canon- Bard Theories • According to James-Lange Theory, emotional stimuli are perceived by the cortex which triggers changes in the visceral organ via the ANS and in
the skeletal muscles via the SNS. • James and Lange argued that the autonomic activity and behavior that are triggered by the emotional event (rapid heartbeat, running away) produce the feeling of emotion, not vice versa. Human Facial
of Emotion • Canon-Bard Theories or also known as “emergency theory" by Walter Canon and
• Canon severed neural connections to the
cortex of cats (creating “decortiate cats”).
The decorticate cats, when provoked,
exhibited the emotional behaviour
associated with rage & aggression & this behaviour called sham rage. It is the
aggressive responses of decorticate animals.
• Identification (experience)
of an emotion occurs at the
same time as the
bodily responses. • Emotion and motivation have common
autonomic responses (sweating and rapid
heartbeat), subjective feelings (fear or trust,
joy or pain), and a cognitive component
--what we think about the arousing
situation. • The autonomic responses result from the activity of the hypothalamus and related structures. Psychologist has proposed that when the body experiences an autonomic reaction and intense feelings, the brain
creates a story to explain the experiences. • The role of amygdala in Kluver-Bucy
syndrome points to its central role in emotion. So does electrical stimulation
of the amygdala, which produces an autonomic response (such as increased blood pressure and arousal) as well as a feeling of fear. • The amygdala and orbitofrontal-cortex
circuits contribute to our feelings and
our motives. It is likely that both out
emotional thoughts and thinking that motives us result from the activity throughout the cerebral hemispheres. Kluver-Bucy syndrome includes the
The consumption of almost
anything that is edible
Increased sexual activity often
directed at inappropriate objects
A tendency to repeatedly
investigate familiar objects
A tendency to investigate object
with the mouthLack of fear Fear • It is a natural, emotional response to threats.
• It is a necessary part of our biological make-up
because it allows us to react quickly to danger.
• The ability to recognize danger leading to an urge to
confront it or flee from it (fight-or-flight response).
• Some Psychologist such as John B. Watson, Robert
Plutchik, & Paul Ekman have suggested that fear is an
innate emotion. This hypothesizes set includes such
emotions as joy, sadness, & anger. Fear • It is a natural, emotional response to threats.
• It is a necessary part of our biological make-up
because it allows us to react quickly to danger.
• The ability to recognize danger leading to an urge to confront it or flee from it (fight-or-flight response).
• Some Psychologist such as John B. Watson,
Robert Plutchik, & Paul Ekman have suggested that fear is an innate emotion. This hypothesizes set includes such emotions as joy, sadness, & anger. • When a person experiences fear, certain areas
in their brain such as the amygdala and the hypo- thalamus are immediately activated and appear to control the first physical response to fear.
• Chemicals such as adrenaline and the stress
hormone cortisol are released into the blood stream causing certain physical reactions such as:
*Rapid heart rate
* Increased blood pressure
*Tightening of muscles • People who have experienced this will
often remember the moment when disaster
stuck and how time seemed to slow down.
They knew exactly what to do without
consciously thinking about it, they had
great strength (some have even been able to
lift a car to save their trapped child) and they
felt no pain. All these are protective
mechanisms to increase our chances of
survival. • According to Ekman and Friesen beginning
in the 1970s; they began by analyzing
hundreds of films and photographs of people experiencing various emotions; they
concluded that there are six primary facial expressions of emotion and that all other expressions were mixtures of these; the six primary expressions are; -Anger -Fear
-Sadness -Disgust Ghosts
Existence of evil powers
Death Common Fears: •In the real world, fear can be
acquired by a frightening traumatic
accident. For example, if a child falls
into a well and struggles to get out,
he or she may develop a fear of wells. What causes fear?
1.) Sleep disturbances
3.) Social withdrawal Treatment of Fears • Psychotherapy- can help people manage their fear
by first putting those fears into perspective. This
helps the client understand that overcompensating can cause rejection makes them aware of their role in the problem.
• Exposure Therapy- Your Amygdala only learns from experience. If you flee the scene every time you have an anxiety attack, your Amygdala learns that you should leave to be safe. The Behavioral
symptoms of fear are: • Beta blockers- are used for relieving performance
anxiety. They work by blocking the flow of adrenaline
that occurs when you’re anxious.
• Antidepressants- can be helpful when the feelings of
fear are severe and debilitating.
• Benzodiazepines- are fast-acting anti-anxiety
medications. However, they are sedating and addictive,
so they are typically prescribed only when other
medications have not worked. •Defensive behavior
- are behaviors whose
primary function is to
protect the organism
from threat or harm. DEFENSE: Examples of Defensive behavior: Some animals puff themselves up to
look bigger and scarier. • Other animals use camouflage to
blend in with their surroundings • Octopi, for example, secrete a black dye, which creates a disorienting smokescreen effect that can help the animal make a timely getaway. •Aggressive behavior – behaviors whose
primary function is to threaten or harm.
•Aggressive individuals have a tendency to start fights, use weapons, be cruel to people or animals, steal or force sexual acts.
•Physical, verbal and emotional abuse, in contrast, often fit into the category. AGGRESSION: TYPES OF HUMAN
AGGRESSIVE BEHAVIOR 1.) Physical violence - often involves acts of violence taken with the intention of causing harm to the recipient, including death, by using weapons or even someone's bare hands. Anger is a frequent source of aggression, but aggressive behavior can also result from intoxication or frustration. 2.) Verbal hostility - The children's taunt "sticks and stones may
break my bones but words will never hurt me" fails to account for
emotional abuse carried out through verbal hostility. Verbal
aggression includes behavior such as bullying, threats or yelling.
3.)Nonverbal intimidation- often implies the threat of violence, at
least in the perception of the person at the receiving end. Stalking
often involves one or more forms of nonverbal intimidation,
including following the victim, planting malicious software in a
victim's computer, sending unwanted gifts and vandalism against
the victim's property. Neural Mechanisms of Fear Conditioning Fear Conditioning
- A behavioral paradigm in which organisms learn to predict aversive events. It is a form of learning in which an aversive stimulus (e.g., an electrical shock) is associated with a particular neutral context (e.g., a room) or neutral stimulus (e.g., a tone), resulting in the expression of fear responses to the originally neutral stimulus or context. Amygdala and Fear Conditioning
- Fear conditioning is thought to depend upon an area of
the brain called the AMYGDALA. Ablation or deactivating
of the amygdale can prevent both the learning and
expression of fear.
Contextual Fear Conditioning and the Hippocampus
- When animals are returned to the chamber in which the
tone and shock were paired, or a chamber in which shocks
occur alone, they exhibit fear responses and the chamber
thus, becomes the CS. This is called contextual fear
conditioning and requires the amygdale as well as the
hippocampus. - HIPPOCAMPUS, an area of the brain believed to receive affective impulses from the amygdala and to integrate those impulses with previously existing information to make it meaningful.
- It also plays a key role in memory for spatial location.
- It has an important role in the formation of new memories aboutexperienced events. Amygdala Complex and Fear Conditioning
- Amygdala, sometimes referred to as the Amygdala Complex, is the collection of clusters of nuclei in the brain.
- The Lateral Nucleus (LA) of the amygdale is the one which is critically involved in the acquisition, storage, and expression, and expression of conditioned fear.
Damage to the LA interferes with fear conditioning! STRESS AND HEALTH - When the body expose to harm or threat, the
result is a cluster of physicological changes that
is generally referred to as the stress response or stress.
• Hans Selye first described the stress
response and he recognized its dual nature.
• He attributed the stress response to the
activation of the anterior-pituitary adrenal
• He concluded that stressors releases
adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) from
the anterior pituitary, that the ACTH in turn
triggers the release of glucocorticoids from
the adrenal cortex. - Stressors also activate the sympathetic nervous system, thereby
increasing the amounts of epinephrine and norepinephrine released
from the adrenal medulla.
- The magnitude of the stress responses depends not only on the
stressor and individual; it also depends on the strategies the
individual adopts to cope with the stress.
- All kinds of common psychological stressors are associated with
high circulating levels of glucocorticoids, epinephrine, and
norepinephrine; and these in turn have been implicated in many
physical disorders. STRESS AND GASTRIC
ULCERS - Gastric ulcers are painful lesions to the
lining of the stomach and duodenum, which
is extreme cases, can be life-threatening. - It occurs more commonly in the people living in
the stressful situations, and stressors can produce
these ulcers in the laboratory animals.
- For decades, gastric ulcers were regarded as the
prototypical psychosomatic disease (physical
disease with incontrovertible evidence of the psychological cause). PSYCHONEUROIMMUNOLOGY: STRESS, THE IMMUNE SYSTEM, AND THE BRAIN - Theoretical and clinical implications of the suggestion that stress can increase susceptibility to infection were so great that they led in the early 1980s to the emergence
of the new field of biopsychological research.
- That field is psychoneuroimmunology—the study of interactions among psychological factors, the nervous system, and the immune system. IMMUNE SYSTEM - Microorganisms of every description
revel in the warm, damp, nutritive climate
of your body.
- Your immune system keeps your body
from the being overwhelmed by these
- barriers to infection are
often considered to be of
two sorts: • First, there are nonspecific barriers, those that act
generally and quickly against most invaders. These
barriers include mucous membranes, which destroy
many foreign microorganism, and phagocytosis, the
process by which foreign microorganisms and debris
are consumed and destroyed by phagocytes.
• Second, there are specific barriers, those that act
specifically against particular strains of invaders.
The specific barriers are of two types—cell-mediated
and antibody-mediated—each defended by a different
class of lymphocytes. - Cell-mediated immunity is directed by T cells
(T lymphocytes). Its reaction begins when a macrophage
-a type of large phagocyte—ingests a foreign microorganism.
- Antibody-mediated immunity is directed by B cells (B lymphocytes). Its reaction begins when a B cell binds to
a foreign antigen for which it contains an appropriate receptor. This causes the B cell to multiply and to synthesize a lethal form of its receptor molecules.
- These lethal receptor molecules, called antibodies, are release into the intracellular fluid. STRESS AND HIPPOCAMPUS - Many studies of the effects of stress on the brain suggest that the
hippocampus is particularly susceptible to stress-induced effects.
- The reason for this susceptibility seems to be the particularly dense
population of glucocorticoid receptors in the hippocampus.
-Two particular effects of the stress on the structure of the hippocampus have been observed in several species laboratory animals. Following exposure to a period of stress, the dendrites of pyramidal cells are shorter and show less branching, and the rate of adult neurogenesis of granule cells is reduced. - Early exposure to severe stress can have a variety of
adverse effects on subsequent development, because
it often increases the intensity of subsequent stress
responses, such exposure likely amplifies the adverse
effects of subsequent stressors.
- It is important to understand that the development
window during which early stress can adverse affect
neural and endocrine development begins before birth. Brain Mechanisms of
Human Emotion Cognitive Neuroscience of Emotion - Cognitive neuroscience is an academic field concerned
with the scientific study of biological substrates underlying
cognition, with a specific focus on the neural substrates of
- Happiness, sadness, anger, surprise, disgust and fear. All
these words describe some kind of abstract inner states in
humans, in some cases difficult to control. We usually call them feelings or emotions. But what is the reason
that we are able to "feel"? Where do emotions come from and how
are they caused? And are emotions and feelings the same thing? Or
are we supposed to differentiate?
- Modern brain based neuroscience has taken a more serviceable
approach to the field of Emotions, because emotions definitely are
brain related processes which deserve scientific study, whatever
their purpose may be.
- Emotions are thought to be related to activity in brain areas that
direct our attention, motivate our behavior, and determine the
significance of what is going on around us
- Emotion is related to a group of structures in the center of the
brain called the limbic system, which includes thehypothalamus,
cingulate cortex, hippocampi, and other structures. Amygdala and Human Emotion - Amygdala is located in the left and right temporal lobe.It belongs to the limbic system and is essentially involved in the emergence of fear.
- Plays a decisive role in the emotional evaluation and recognition
of situations as well as in the analysis of potential threat. It handles
external stimuli and induces vegetative reactions.
These may help prepare the body for
fight and flight by increasing heart and
breathing-rate. - Numerous functional brain-imaging studies
have found the amygdale to be involved in
human emotions- particularly in fear and other negative emotions.
- Lesion and functional imaging studies in humans
support a role for the amygdala in recognizing emotions in facial expressions, especially fear. Medial Prefrontal Lobes
and Human Emotion - The medial portions of the prefrontal lobe (including the
medial portions of the orbifrontal cortex and cingulated
cortex) are the sites of emotion-cognition interaction.
- Studies found out the Anterior Cingulate Cotex plays a
role in processing particular types of emotion (fear).
- ACC performed tasks on motivational decision
making, emotional facial expression recognition, and
social cognition, including theory of mind (ToM). Emotional lateralization - It is the asymmetrical representation of emotional control
and processing in the brain.
The literature describes three possible aspects of emotional
• emotions are better recognized by the right hemisphere;
• control of emotional expression and related behaviors takes
place principally in the right hemisphere
• the right hemisphere is specialized for dealing with negative
• While the left hemisphere is specialized for dealing with positive emotions. - Evidence for the three hypotheses derives from methodologically
diverse studies in unimpaired, brain-lesioned, and mood-disordered
populations. Relatively little of the work has been precisely replicated,
and conclusions rest on parallel lines of evidence from diverse sources.
- The present level of knowledge suggests a model of emotional
control based on interactive inhibition between a right negatively
biased and left positively biased hemisphere.
- However, the details of such a model, including the precise conditions
under which emotion-related functions are lateralized, and the mechanisms of such lateralization have yet to be elucidated. Theories of Lateralization: • The right hemisphere hypothesis - - - which states that the right hemisphere is dominant over the left hemisphere for all forms of emotional expression and perception.
• The valence hypothesis - - - states that hemispheric asymmetry for expression and perception of emotions depends on emotional
valence; the right hemisphere is dominant for negative emotions and the left hemisphere is dominant for positive emotions (Hellige, 1993) Lateralization of Emotion based on the Asymmetry of Facial Expressions - Patients with damage to their left amygdala lesions rated
fearful faces less fearful than normal subjects. Similar findings
showed that regional blood flow increased in response to fear
faces while decreased to euphoric faces in the left amygdala.
- Chimpanzees, other primates, and humans produce asymmetrical
facial expressions with greater expression on the left side of the face
(right hemisphere of the brain).