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Transcript of Bullying Prevention
The truth about bullying
Specific Learning Outcomes
to understand the different roles in a bullying situation
to acquire practical strategies to deal with bullying
to understand the causes and effects of bullying
What is bullying?
"A person is bullied when he or she is exposed, repeatedly and over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other persons, and he or she has difficulty defending himself or herself."
(Olweus & Limber, 2007)
Bullying and the Brain
Characteristics of Students who are Bullied
Submissive victims are:
o Students who are bullied, but do not bully others in return or provoke the bully
o Although they are dubbed “submissive” it does not indicate that they want the bullying to happen
These students are often
cautious, sensitive, quiet, withdrawn and shy
anxious, insecure, unhappy, have low self-esteem
depressed and engage in suicidal ideas more often than their peers
without a single good friend and relate better to adults than to peers
physically weaker than peers (if they are boys) and weaker than those who bully
Are both bullied AND bully others
Just like “submissive” students, these students may be depressed, socially anxious, lack positive self-esteem, be socially isolated, and feel disliked by their peers
Show similarities with students who bully displaying more dominant, aggressive and anti-social behaviour
Have more problems with concentration, hyper-activity and impulsivity (ADHD)
Try to bully weaker students, although they may be less effective than bullies who are not bullied themselves
Ethnicity or culture may make students a target of bullying, as well as race, religion, disabilities or students with obesity.
Characteristics of Students Who Bully
Show a positive attitude toward violence and the use of violent means
Show strong needs to dominate and subdue other students and get their own way
Are impulsive and easily angered
Have little empathy toward students who are bullied
Are defiant and aggressive toward adults, including teachers and parents
Bullies are often:
involved in other anti-social or rule breaking activities (ie: vandalism, delinquency and substance abusive)
If they are boys, they tend to be physically stronger than boys in general, in particular than the students they bully
Likely to blame others and minimize negative behaviour
"If only they felt better about themselves, the bullying would stop."
It is a misconception that all students who bully have low self-esteem.
Research shows that students who bully others tend to have little or average anxiety and uncertainty, and their self-esteem is usually average or positive.
Why do Some Students Bully?
• Students who bully have strong needs for power and negative dominance
They are often rewarded in some way for their behaviour (material or psychological rewards such as money, or enjoying the attention, status and prestige they are granted by other students as a result of their behaviour)
What are the forms or kinds of bullying?
Being verbally bullied
Being socially excluded or isolated
Being physically bullied
Being bullied through lies and false rumours
Having money or other things taken or damaged
Being threatened or forced to do things
Cyber bullying (via cellphone or the Internet)
According to Statistics Canada:
16% of youth in grades 7-9 experience bullying at least 12 times per year
According to statistics from Queen’s University:
approximately 12% of girls and 18% of boys reported bullying others at least twice in previous months
15% of girls and 18% of boys reported being victimized at least twice over the same time period
On average, 4-6 children are bullying and being bullied in every classroom
When a friend steps in, bullying stops
of the time in
10 seconds or less.
How to Implement a School Wide Bullying Prevention Program
1. Warmth, positive interest and involvement are needed on the part of adults in the school.
2. Set firm limits to unacceptable behaviour.
3. Consistently use non-physical, non-hostile negative consequences when rules are broken.
4. Adults in the school should function as authorities and positive role models.
Introduce school wide anti-bullying rules to your students (post them, discuss in class meetings) so that students have a clear understanding of what they are.
Discuss and use positive consequences for following the rules and negative consequences for breaking them.
The OLWEUS Rules:
1. We will not bully others.
2. We will try to help students who are bullied.
3. We will try to include students who are left out.
4. If we know that somebody is being bullied we will tell an adult at school and an adult at home.
What should be the consequences for following or not following the rules?
Positive Consequences for Reinforcing Positive Behaviour
Praise and friendly attention (verbal, smiling, nodding, positive note)
Fun activities or privileges (extra recess, choice time, watching a movie, class parties or trips)
Healthy Treats (give out healthy snacks like fruit or popcorn)
Point Systems (allow students to earn points that can be exchanged for prizes, special privileges, or activities)
Negative consequences should be somewhat uncomfortable but should not involve revenge or hostile punishment.
• Verbal rebukes or reprimands
• Time out/ Time Away
• Response Costs (loss of a privilege or giving something up that is positive, such as watching a movie)
• Replace damaged clothing or property (preferably using his or her own money)
• Serious talk with teacher
• Proximity to adult period (ex: student has to sit with the supervisor at lunch)
• Contact home
• Meeting with principal
• Meeting with parents
They build a sense of classroom community and cohesion
They teach the rules and consequences of bullying
They help students understand their role in bullying situations
They address issues about bullying as they arise.
The program lists a number of topics and an order in which to present them.
Possible topics should include:
learning the 4 anti-bullying strategies
impact of bullying
Short and long term consequences of bullying
Roles that students play in bullying situations
What a positive classroom is like (what does and does not happen)
*See tip sheet for additional meeting topics
Helps students problem solve and generate solutions to bullying situations
Teachers are encouraged to hold parents meetings throughout the school year (could be implemented at “Meet the Teacher” nights or PTA meetings)
Supervise areas where bullying occurs frequently, such as bathrooms or hallways
Class or School Challenges
Set up class or whole school positive challenges
There are some ideas at www.meanstinks.com
Never ignore suspected bullying.
What to do when you witness bullying
On the spot bullying interventions:
Step 1: Stop the bullying.
Step 2: Support the student who has been bullied.
Step 3: To the student(s) who bullied: Name the bullying behavior and refer to the four anti bullying rules.
Step 4: Empower the bystanders with appreciation if they were supportive to the student who was bullied or with information about how to act in the future.
Step 5: Impose immediate and appropriate consequences for the student(s) who bullied.
Step 6: Take steps to make sure the student who was bullied will be protected from future bullying.
How to Help Students Cope with Bullying
Help kids build their self-esteem by giving them opportunities to feel proud of their accomplishments
encourage and reinforce positive interactions with peers
Give students training in assertiveness with lots of role playing and practice so that they can understand the difference between assertiveness and aggression.
Social and Emotional Skills
Help students develop the ability to share, take turns, be a friend, enter a group, regulate emotion, empathize, manage anger, and have a sense of humor.
Co-operative learning groups and peer tutoring can foster co-operation, build friendships and prevent bullying.
Internal Locus of Control
Nurture self-efficacy by giving students responsibility and opportunities to succeed.
Encourage students to reflect on own competence.
Telling a Teacher
Studies have shown that when students told someone they’d been victimized, the bullying situation improved 50% of the time.
You now have the tools you need to get started at your school.
Please feel free to check out our additional resources during the break and we'll do our best to answer any questions you may have.
You can also use video clips to generate discussions, as well as integrate topics into your curriculum using writing assignments, novel studies, picture books and more.
Both the Washington Post and National Geographic have published articles about scientific research that proves that a bully's brain lights up when bullying someone. This demonstrates that bullies actually get pleasure from seeing their victims inflicted with pain.
When shown videos of someone inflicting pain (such as closing a piano lid on a player's fingers, above), bullies experience activity in their brains' pleasure centers, a November 2008 study showed. The subjects tested seemed to enjoy seeing people hurt.
The part of the brain associated with reward lights up when an aggressive teen watches a video of someone hurting another person, but not when a non-aggressive youth watches the same clip.
Image courtesy of: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/bigphotos/8967503.html
Turn and Talk
Share an experience where you have been bullied or perhaps have been a bully yourself. What was the impact it had on you at the time, and how does it affect your teaching practices today?
Four Principles of Olweus Program
“I've learned that people will forget what you said, people will forget what you did, but people will never forget how you made them feel.”
― Maya Angelou