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MEXICO Y COLOMBIA

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by

Jerry Silva

on 9 September 2013

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Transcript of MEXICO Y COLOMBIA

ME
XI
CO
Y
COL
OM
BIA

Technology:
During the Mexican Enlightenment, Mexico made rapid progress in science, but when the Mexican War of Independence came along, there was no scientific progress in Mexico. During the end of the 19th century, the process of industrialization began in Mexico, and it made significant progress in science and technology in the 20th century. During the 20th century, new universities and research institutes, such as the National Autonomous University of Mexico, were established in Mexico.


Technology:
Colombia is one of eight Latin American countries to have satellites in orbit. On April 7, 2007 Libertad I (CubeSat), was sent from Baikonur cosmodrome, to orbit around the planet offering telemetry information and as a research purpose. It represents a milestone in the history of Colombia and the first step of the Colombian aerospace development.


The Olmec, a Pre-Columbian civilization living in the tropical lowlands of south-central Mexico, calendar system required an advanced understanding of mathematics. The Olmec number system was based on 20 instead of decimal and used three symbols- a dot for one, a bar for five, and a shell-like symbol for zero. The concept of zero is one of the Olmecs' greatest achievements. It permitted numbers to be written by position and allowed for complex calculations. Although the invention of zero is often attributed to the Mayans, it was originally conceived by the Olmecs.


The coat of arms of Colombia is divided into three horizontal stripes: the upper band, on a blue field, has in the center a golden pomegranate red open grained, with stem and leaves of gold. On each side of the pomegranate is a cornucopia of gold inclined, pouring coins into the center of the right side, and proper fruits of the torrid zone the left side. The grenade denotes the name he bore this republic, and cornucopias, its rich mines and the fertility of their land. All environmental, platinum field, has in its center a Phrygian cap horned into a spear, a symbol of freedom, (Platinum, precious metal, typical of our country). At the lower end is the Isthmus of Panama was part of Colombia in the past, with its two adjacent seas wavy silver, and a black ship, under sail in each. This El condor symbolizing freedom. From its peak hangs a green laurel wreath and flowing ribbon, grabbed the shield and woven into the crown, is read on gold with black letters: Freedom and Order. Four horns arising inclined shield (two on the right and two to the left) hang four national flags surrounding Flags are linked at the bottom.
According to the official story of Mexico, the coat of arms of Mexico was inspired by an Aztec legend regarding the founding of Tenochtitlan. The Aztecs, then a nomadic tribe, were wandering throughout Mexico in search of a divine sign that would indicate the precise spot upon which they were to build their capital.
A closer look at the original Aztec codices, paintings, and the post-Cortesian codices shows that there was no snake in the original legends. While the Codex Fejérváry-Mayer depicts an eagle attacking a snake, other Aztec illustrations, like the Codex Mendoza, show only an eagle, while in the text of the Ramírez Codex, Huitzilopochtli asked the Aztecs to look for an eagle devouring a snake perched on a prickly pear cactus. In the text by Chimalpahin Cuauhtlehuanitzin, the eagle is devouring something, but it is not mentioned what it is. Still other versions show the eagle clutching the Aztec symbol of war, the Atl-Tlachinolli glyph, or "burning water".
Indigenous languages of Mexico

Language Speakers

Nahuatl (Nahualt, Nahuat, Nahual, Melatahtol) 1,376,026

Yucatec Maya (Maaya t'aan) 759,000

Mixtec (Tu'un sávi) 423,216

Zapotec (Diidxaza) 410,901

Tzeltal Maya (K'op o winik atel) 371,730

Tzotzil Maya (Batsil k'op) 329,937

Otomí (Hñä hñü) 239,850

Totonac (Tachihuiin) 230,930

Mazatec (Ha shuta enima) 206,559

Ch'ol (Mayan) (Winik) 185,299

Huastec (Téenek) 149,532

Chinantec (Tsa jujmí) 125,706

Mixe (Ayüük) 115,824

Mazahua (Jñatho) 111,840

Tarascan (P'urhépecha) 105,556

Tlapanec (Me'phaa) 98,573

Tarahumara (Rarámuri) 75,371

Amuzgo (Tzañcue) 43,761

Chatino (Cha'cña) 42,791

Tojolab'al (Tojolwinik otik) 43,169

Popoluca (Zoquean) (Tuncápxe) 54,004

Chontal de Tabasco (Yokot t'an) 43,850

Huichol (Wixárika) 35,724

Mayo (Yoreme) 32,702

Tepehuán (O'dam) 31,681

Trique (Tinujéi) 24,491

Cora (Naáyarite) 17,086

Popoloca (Oto-manguean) 18,926

Huave (Ikoods) 15,993

Cuicatec (Nduudu yu) 12,610

Yaqui (Yoeme) 14,162

Q'anjob'al 10,833

Tepehua (Hamasipini) 10,625

Pame (Xigüe) 9,768

Mam (Qyool) 8,739

Chontal de Oaxaca (Slijuala sihanuk) 5,534

Chuj 2,143

Tacuate (Mixtec de Santa María Zacatepec) (Tu'un Va'a) 2,067

Chichimeca jonaz (Úza) 1,987

Guarijío (Warihó) 1,905

Chocho (Runixa ngiigua) 1,078

Pima Bajo (Oob No'ok) 836

Q'eqchí (Q'eqchí) 835

Lacandón (Hach t'an) 731

Jakaltek (Poptí) (Abxubal) 584

Matlatzinca/Ocuilteco (Tlahuica) 522

Seri (Cmiique iitom) 518

Ixcatec 406

K'iche' 286

Kaqchikel 230

Paipai (Jaspuy pai) 221

Cucapá (Kuapá) 206

Mototzintleco (Qatok) 186

Kumiai (Ti'pai) 185

Pápago (O'odham) 153

Kikapú (Kikapoa) 144

Ixil 108

Cochimí (Laymón, mti'pá) 96

Kiliwa language (Ko'lew) 55

Aguacatec
Languages:
They speak spanish (:
Language:
Spanish :)
Values and norm:
Colombia is the fifth largest country in Latin America and has the third largest population (28 million) in the region. Unlike most of its Andean neighbors, Colombia is a nation of cities; almost 70 percent of the people lived in urban areas in the late 1980s. In addition to Bogotá, the capital, which had an estimated population of 5 million in 1988, three other cities had populations of 1 million or more
Values and norms
: Mexicans value family over individualism. Most families have a child who typically does not get married so that he/she can take care of the parents as they age. Or even if all children get married, one couple would house and take care of the parents because it would be shameful to place an older family member in a nursing home. There are very few orphanages because Mexicans would rather see a child being raised by someone in the family than by an outsider. Children live with their parents into their late 20′s or basically until they get married and move into their own house. Houses are divided up into inheritances for the children. There are numerous family get-togethers and families are large. Extended family are not strangers. You will know your 2nd and 3rd cousins.
Mexicans are predominantly Catholic. They are not afraid to talk about their faith because it plays an active role in their lives. They attend Mass weekly and for some people daily. They follow Catholic customs of specific prayers for funerals and the one year anniversary of a death. They practice posadas (Mary and Joseph’s search for lodging). Priests visit the homes of those who are too sick or elderly to attend Mass; they offer the communion in the home.
Mexicans value connectedness. Neighbors know one another. It is rude if you do not greet someone in the street (be it someone known or a stranger). There is a higher sense of security because your neighbors watch out for you and your house as you do for them. Relationships have a high premium. Most people are still friends with those who attended kindergarten with them. This sense of connectedness gives people both a sense of rootedness and accountability for their actions since it is not a foreign situation where one feels he/she can just reinvent themselves.
clothes, food/cooking
4 cups red beans, or kidney beans
1 tablespoon salt
2 diced green plantains
1 small carrot, grated or shredded
1 pork trotter
2 tablespoons oil
2 tablespoons tomato paste

religion
Catholicism was the official religion of the country since the Spanish colonization until the 1991 constitutional reform (National Constituent Assembly), which granted equalitarian treatment from the government to all the religions. However, Catholicism is still the main religion in Colombia by number of adepts, with an estimated of 75% of the national population in nominal Catholicism, from which about 25% are practicing Catholics. According to the CIA Factbook, 90% of the population identifies themselves as Catholic; 10%, other.[1]


laws
Taxation in Colombia is determined by the Congress of Colombia, the Department of Colombia Assemblies and the Municipalities of Colombia councils, which determine what kind of taxes can be levied and which rates can be applied. The country inherited a harsh and diffused taxation policy from the Spanish Empire characterized by a heavy reliance on customs duties, due to the relatively low capacity for local production of goods. Both the national and local governments' budgets run significant
The peso is the currency of Colombia. Its ISO 4217 code is COP and it is also informally abbreviated as COL$. However, the official peso symbol is $. As of 4 June 2013, the exchange rate of the Colombian peso is 1,900.45 Colombian pesos to 1 U.S. dollar
currency
education
Education in Colombia includes nursery school, elementary school, high school, technical instruction and university education. A typical Colombian studies 11 years and attempts to complete the secondary level of education.


transportation
Road travel is the main means of transport; almost 70 percent of cargo is transported by road, as compared with 27 percent by railroad, 3 percent by internal waterways, and 1 percent by air
Traditional Clothing

Traditional food
Get dough
Put it into a ball
then flatten it
Put the things you want inside of it
then put it into a pot and wait.
Laws
Mexico rigorously prosecutes drug cases. Under Mexican law, possession of and trafficking in illegal drugs are federal offenses. For drug trafficking, bail does not exist. Convicted offenders can expect lengthy jail sentences and fines. Sentences for possession of drugs in Mexico can be as long as 25 years plus fines. Just as in the US, the purchase of controlled medication requires a doctor's prescription. The Mexican list of controlled medication differs from the US list and Mexican public health laws concerning controlled medication are unclear. Possession of excessive amounts of a psychotropic drug such as valium can result in your arrest if the authorities suspect abuse. Mexican law does not differentiate between types of narcotics. Heroin, marijuana, and amphetamines, for example, are treated the same. Offenders found guilty of possessing more than a token amount of any narcotic substance are subject to a minimum sentence of 10 years, and it is not uncommon for persons charged with drug offenses to be detained for up to 1 year before a verdict is reached.
Religion

Currency

The Mexican Peso is the currency of Mexico.The Mexican peso is the 13th most traded currency in the world, the third most traded in the Americas, and the most traded currency in Latin America. The current ISO 4217 code for the peso is MXN; prior to the 1993 revaluation
Education
In Mexico, basic education is normally divided in three steps: primary school (primaria), comprising grades 1-6; junior high school (secundaria), comprising grades 7-9; and high school (preparatoria), comprising grades 10-12.

Depending on definitions, Primary education comprises primaria and secundaria, which are compulsory by law, while Secondary education only includes preparatoria, which is compulsory.

Transportation

Road ways, airports and railroads in the city but if your in the country sometimes its by animal (horse or donkey)
Flag/Government
Flag description: three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and red; Mexico's coat of arms (an eagle with a snake in its beak perched on a cactus) is centered in the white band; green signifies hope, joy, and love; white represents peace and honesty; red stands for hardiness, bravery, strength, and valor; the coat of arms is derived from a legend that the wandering Aztec people were to settle at a location where they would see an eagle on a cactus eating a snake; the city they founded, Tenochtitlan, is now Mexico City

Similar to the federal government of the United States of America, the Mexican federal government has three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial. Through the system of separation of powers each of these branches has some authority to act on its own, some authority to regulate the other two branches, and has some of its own authority is regulated by the other branches. The seat of the federal government is in the Distrito Federal, or simply, "D.F."
One version indicates that the yellow symbolizes sovereignty and justice, blue as loyalty and vigilance, and red represents the valor shown and the victory achieved during the battles for independence from Spain.
Flag/Government

The Government of Colombia is a republic with separation of powers into executive, judicial and legislative branches. Its legislature has a congress, its judiciary has a supreme court, and its executive branch has a president.
Famous sites
The Maloka Museum is an interactive science museum located in Bogotá, Colombia. Visitors interact with a wide variety of exhibits that explore topics in Science and Technology.

The museum has 9 rooms, with different science and technology topics; the Telecommunications Room shows interactive games about Binary System, the Computers' language, How does the cellphone work or what's the communication process.

Chichen-Itza, located in the northern center of Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula, 72 miles southeast of the town of Merida, is a sprawling archaeological site that encompasses more than 740 acres. The Mayans originally settled upon the site during the fifth century A.D., but later were conquered by Toltecs under the command of Kukulan, lord of Tula, during the 10th century. After the conquest, Mayan and Toltec aesthetic sensibilities blended, leading to architecture that reflects influences of both cultures. The monuments at Chichen-Itza include El Castillo, a 78-foot pyramid the Mayans built between the 11th and 13th centuries, and a pok-ta-pok court, used for a game in which players tried to lob a ball through a hoop. Regularly scheduled buses offering round-trip transportation to Chichen-Itza depart daily from the city of Merida, approximately 75 miles away.
Famous Sites
Agriculture

Agriculture in Mexico has been an important sector of the country’s economy historically and politically even though now it accounts for a very small percentage of Mexico’s GDP. Mexico is one of the cradles of human agriculture with the Mesoamericans developing domesticated plants such as corn, beans, chili peppers, squash and more. During the colonial period, the Spanish introduced more plants but also the concept of domesticated animals, principally cattle, goats and sheep. Farming from the colonial period until the Mexican Revolution was focused on large private properties. After the Revolution these were broken up and the land redistributed. However, since the latter 20th century NAFTA and economic policies have again favored large scale commercial agricultural holdings. Mexico’s main crops include grains such as corn and wheat, tropical fruits and various vegetables. Agricultural exports are important, especially coffee, tropical fruits and winter fruits and vegetables. Sixty percent of Mexico’s agricultural exports go to the United States.
Agriculture

The primary agricultural products of Colombia are coffee (fourth-largest producer of coffee in the world), cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables, fique, panela, forest products; and shrimp. In Colombia the agricultural politics and policies are determined by the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Development.
People

Colombian people are from a multiethnic Spanish speaking nation in America called Colombia. Colombians are predominantly Roman Catholic and are a mixture of Europeans, Africans, Middle Easterners and Amerindians. They are friendly people and all of them get along
People

Map
Map
By:

Laura Quiceno

&

Jerry Silva-Silva
Resources: Wikipedia, Google images, Prezi images, Family, Colombianrecipes.com, Mexixanrecipes.com, cookingwithsri.com
Full transcript