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UNIT 3 - Climate Change

Utah state core, Earth systems, Standard 3, objective 3
by

Cassie Grether

on 17 March 2016

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Transcript of UNIT 3 - Climate Change

Climate Change
Climate vs. Weather
Photosynthesis (a review)
IV. The Carbon Cycle
Standard 3, Objective 3: Utah State Core, Earth Systems
Climate can tell you what to expect in a certain area of the globe.
A. Utah's climate:
mid-latitude steppe climate (semi-arid)
We expect hot summers and cold winters. Because we are a desert we also do not expect a lot of precipitation.
We have specially adapted plants, animals, and insects that can survive the hot, cold, and dry environment.
What about some other climate?
Utah vs. Amazon rain forest
The climate of the Amazon is much different than Utah.
Here we expect:
warm, humid, and we expect it to rain....
a lot!
Plants in the Amazon, just like in Utah, are well adapted to life in the rain forest. They would not survive here!
Vocabulary Definitions
Climate:
the average weather conditions in an area over long periods of time (ex: desert, tropical, savanna, etc.)
Weather:
the state of the atmosphere at any given time (ex: raining, snowing, sunny, windy, etc.)
B. What factors can affect your local climate?
1.
Ocean/Wind currents
2.
Latitude
(most important factor)
a. Will
affect
amount how much
solar radiation
received yearly.
b. Affects what
prevailing winds
will affect your area. (Westerlies)
II. What can affect your climate? (continued)
3.
Altitude
a) How far you are from sealevel
4.
Nearby bodies of water
5. Terrain (elevation or ups and downs of the land)
Earth's global climate
We often refer to Earth as having a climate too. When we do this we are taking an average of all of Earth's temperature into one temperature.
Earth's Global Climate
How Earth's climate is today is not necessarily the same way as it was in the past.
The Earth, our Earth, has been much colder AND warmer in the past than it is now.
This is a climatologist.
He studies our climate as well as past climates know as paleoclimates.
Climatologists gather data and study present climates and paleoclimates in a few ingenious ways.
III. Earth's climate (global average temperatures)
A. How do we know about Earth's past temperatures?
Historical temperature measurements
120 years of reliable temperature readings
Using a thermometer
Since we don't have reliable temperature readings past 120 years or so, and we lack a man and his little blue box to take us around through time we have to get creative.
Alpine glacier extent
and arctic sea ice
We can use moraines to tell us how far a glacier has receded. Satellite data shows shrinking sea ice.
4 minutes
Arctic Sea Ice
3. Fossil data
Organisms are adapted to particular environments. If you find a particular climate and time period with no cold hardy plants and animals, but an abundance of warm adapted organisms, at high latitudes/altitudes this could be an indication of a warm time in Earth’s History.
These mud cores from the bottom of the ocean contain the shells of tiny organisms, usually the shells of dead plankton.

Past cold ocean temperatures will show shells with high concentrations of oxygen18 (because more oxygen16 is packed away in glacial ice) .

These records can reach back hundreds of thousands of years.
4. Mud Cores (sea-floor sediment)
5. Tree Rings
Thin growth rings can
indicate dry years
with little precipitation while thick rings can indicate
wet years
with much cloud cover.

hundreds to thousands of years
6. Ice Cores
Drilling into a large piece of ice can give data from just a few years ago to hundreds of thousands of years ago.

Tiny air bubbles that are trapped inside the cores are examined for their concentrations of gases. High levels of CO2 and other greenhouse gases indicate a warmer climate.
B. When we put all of the evidence together it shows us that climate has changed in cyclic patterns in the past (meaning in cycles). Also, carbon dioxide is linked with global temperatures.
Graph taken from Berry: Temperature and CO2 History
http://climatephysics.com/80/
Earth’s temperature varies over time.
This change is influenced by thousands of interacting factors.
Graph taken from Berry: Temperature and CO2 History
http://climatephysics.com/80/
Two major reasons: natural cycles and rapid climatic changes (natural and unnatural)
III. Why does Earth’s temperature change over time?
A. Natural cycles
1. Milankovitch (Mill - an - co - vich) Cycles - Earth's orbit, tilt, and wobble change overtime. This causes Earth to recieve different amounts of solar radiation at different latitudes throughout the year.
Milkanovitch cycles (continued)
2. Solar fluctuations
11 year sunspot cycle - more sun spots = more solar energy sent to Earth.
3. Plate tectonics
Moving continents changes wind patterns, ocean patterns altering temperature and precipitation and latitude.
B. Rapid Changes
1. Meteor impacts - large impacts can send up gases and dust into the atmosphere blocking solar radiation. Cools planet and changes climate abruptly causing mass extinctions directly and indirectly.
Who can recall the formula for photosynthesis?
CO + H O + energy --> C H O + O
2
2
n
n
2
2n
Chemical Formula
Photosynthesis!
What does this equation mean?
CO + H O + light --> C H O + O
2
2
n
n
2
2n
A gas, carbon dioxide, and water are combined to create glucose. Glu... what now?

What is glucose?
Glucose is a type of a sugar that plants create for structure and food.
We thinks its pretty yummy too.
So, photosynthesis takes in gas from the atmosphere named carbon dioxide. It makes food and builds cells with it. The waste product is oxygen!
Now, photosynthesis is what plants do.
What do you do?
Respiration
Why do we breathe?
What is it for?
What is it your body is doing when you breathe?
Respiration is the process of taking in food creating energy out of it.

You take in sugars, burn it with the help of oxygen and create energy.

Does this sound familiar? What do you think this chemical formula might look like?
Respiration is the reverse of photosynthesis!
C H O + O --> CO + H O + energy
2
2
n
n
2
2n
CO + H O + energy --> C H O + O
2
n
n
2
2n
Photosynthesis
Before we jump into carbon, lets talk about what makes up the air we breathe (troposphere).
21 % oxygen
78% nitrogen
0.9% argon
fraction of a percent is other variable gases including greenhouse gases.
B. Carbon dioxide makes up only about 0.04% of our atmosphere, but it is the most abundant greenhouse gas.
Carbon dioxide isn't the only greenhouse gas containing carbon.
Greenhouse gases get into our atmosphere naturally and with human help.
Carbon enters the atmosphere through many means, it can also exit the atmosphere through many processes as well.
As a group, brainstorm some ways that you think carbon dioxide gas can leave the atmosphere. Try to come up with key terms if you can.
How does carbon leave the atmosphere?
D. The carbon cycle
The largest reservoir (storage place) for carbon is the lithosphere (ROCK). The second largest is the world oceans.
E. Carbon Cycle - How carbon moves (modes of transfer)
1. Respiration
2. Decay (plants and animals)
3. Photosynthesis
4. Weathering & Erosion
5. Burning of fossil fuels & forests
6. Rain
7. Eruptions
8. Rock formation

How carbon moves from the different spheres (atmosphere, biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere)
DIAGRAM TIME!
Create a visual representation (aka diagram) of the carbon cycle using
F. Burning fossil fuels
1. How can burning fossil fuels contribute to climate change?
Fossil fuels are hydrocarbons that when burned combine with oxygen creating carbon dioxide. Adding greenhouse gases to the atmosphere increases the greenhouse effect warming the Earth.
2) Current CO levels 400 ppm
What do CO2 levels indicate?
I. How does the burning of fossil fuels add to pollution?
V. Burning of fossil fuels (continued)
1) Fossil fuels aren't just pure hydrocarbons (hydrogens and carbons bonded together).

When burned, can produce NON-POLLUTANTS like water and carbon dioxide.

They also produce toxic pollutants like: soot, carbon monoxide, nitrogen and sulfur compounds
J. How can we really tell that the carbon dioxide increase is actually from fossil fuel usage?
Carbon14
more isotopes
radioactive
1) Fossil fuel is very old carbon lacking carbon 14
2) The carbon in the atmosphere has a much higher ratio of carbon12 to radioactive carbon 14 than it should
3) This indicates that much of the carbon in the air is from fossil fuels
Carbon Cycle Concept Map - Answers
Carbon Emissions
Take a look at the Google Classroom for link.
4:55 m
Possible solution?
B. Ocean acidification
D. sea level rise
E. Desertification
F. Habitat loss
G. Financial cost
H. Possible permanency of El Niño
- Melting glaciers and ice sheets add to water in the oceans
- Warmer oceans expand and take up more space
Tens of millions of people are estimated to be displaced, according to GreenPeace.
Dry places will become drier causing grasslands to become desserts
Huerfano Butte, Arizona
Climates change abruptly faster than organisms can adapt causing mass extinction
Trees remove CO2 for free
1. Increase in severe weather storms
2. Loss of forests
3. Cost of relocation
4. Increase wildfires
5. Agricultural loss
a. The
higher
in elevation you go, the
colder
your climate will be.

b. Tall mountains can also create
uplift
that cause
rain shadows
on one side of the mountain creating lush green forests on one side and dry desolate deserts on the other.
C. Five major climate zones:
SKIP, CROSS OUT, DELETE
How Detected:
Length of time:
How Detected:
Length of time:
Last 100 years
Cold adapted animals and warm adapted animals can give us an
idea of climate conditions and temperatures.
millions of years
How Detected:
Length of time:
How Detected:
Length of time:
radioactive dating techniques of oxygen18
hundreds of thousands of years
How Detected:
Length of time:
Oldest living tree
Bristle cone Pine, California, USA - 5,064
How Detected:
Length of time:
hundreds of thousands of years
When glaciers form they trap
air bubbles
in the ice tell us what concentration of gases were in the atmosphere during a certain time period. (specifically greenhouse gases)
Upper, Pleistocene
TODAY
a) Eccentricity or shape of the Earth's orbit
1. 100,000 year cycle
b) Tilt of the Earth's axis changes
1. 41,000 year cycle
c) The planet wobbles (precession)
1. 23,000 year cycle
22.0 - 24.5 degrees
2. Volcanic Eruptions - can send large amounts of sulfur dioxides into atmosphere reflecting solar radiation coolng plant for weeks or even years.
3.
Human Caused -
burning of fossil fuels adds greenhouse gases & pollution to the atmosphere faster than can be removed. Results in rapid change of global temperature warming the Earth’s atmosphere resulting in mass extinctions.
1. Use arrows and label to show directionality of:
respiration, volcanism, burning of fossil fuels and forests, decay, rain, photosynthesis, rock formation & weathering and erosion.

2. Label:
-oceans (hydrosphere)
-atmosphere
-lithosphere (rocks)
-biosphere
What to do:
How to do it:
Explain where each of these modes of transfer move carbon from and to.
Based on 2014 numbers
2
Removes carbon from atmosphere and puts into hydrosphere
Deforestation, heating homes, driving cars, using electricity
Moves carbon from rocks to atmosphere.
Moves carbon from soils and rocks to hydrosphere
If buried can be altered to become fossil fuels.
Moves carbon from biosphere into atmosphere.
Process of taking in food and burning it with oxygen to create energy and carbon dioxide.
Releases carbon from plants and animal bodies into atmosphere.
Moves carbon from atmosphere into biosphere.
Takes stored carbon from biosphere and lithosphere and puts into atmosphere.
Process of breathing carbon dioxide and making food.
Removes carbon from biosphere and puts into soils
W & E
Decay
Photosynthesis
Burning of fossil fuels and forests
Rain
Carbon dioxide pouring into the ocean from rain water causes shells to dissolve.
C. Ocean Temperature Rise
44% of all of the world's emissions come from these three countries.
Population
China 19.24%
USA 4.45%
India 17.50%
A. Increase of disease
- Loss of winter frost = increased insect infestations
- Fungus thrive and attack frogs & bat species
- Malaria thrives in mosquitoes
1) Coral bleaching - Kills off algae living in corals causing them to starve

2) Sea temperature releasing frozen methane deposits on ocean floor.
50 year possible
I. Increase of greenhouse gases due to permafrost melting in arctic.
J. Utah becoming drier due to alerting jet streams
Open...
Milankovitch Graph Google Doc (classroom.google.com)
1. Examine the first graphs on the page.
a) Explain what each of the three graphs is showing.
b) What is the time scale here?
c)Explain for each of the three graphs, what the lines represent.
d) Around the time of approximately 135 thousand years ago, what was going on according to these three graphs?
e) How is carbon dioxide concentration related to global temperature?
2. Explain what these three terms mean in your own words. Use images if helpful.
a) obliquity (tilt)
b) precession (wobble)
c) eccentricity
3. Take a look at the graphs next in the document showing precession, obliquity, and eccentricity.
a) Explain what the lines mean in each of the three cases mentioned above.
b) Concentrate your attention on the years from present to 400,000 years. Locate the first two instances in which all three factors line up close with one another at their lows. What year are these?
c) Looking at the first graph in our document, what are the global temperatures at both of these times?

3) continued...
d) Go back to the graphs on obliquity, eccentricity, and precession. Locate two times during the past 400,000 years in which these three factors lined up at their peaks. What year are these?
e) Go to the first graph again. What are the global temperatures at both of these times?
4) Global climate change always involves a change in average temperatures worldwide. Explain the patterns that exist between obliquity (tilt), precession (wobble), and eccentricity and climate change.
Question for the day: If the change in Earth's orbit, tilt, and wobble can change the amount of solar radiation reaching Earth at different latitudes throughout the year, why does carbon dioxide (a greenhouse gas) change too?
5) Take a look at one more graph set. Scroll down to the bottom of the document. Examine the graph. Vocally discus/answer: what is this a graph of? What does the red line represent?
a) Is the Earth current warming or cooling?
b) Write: Eccentricity, precession, obliquity are predictable cycles and changes that Earth goes through in time. According to the predicted Milankovitch cycles, should the Earth currently be entering a cooling or warming period? Explain your answer.
G. Carbon dioxide rates then and now.
1) 1790 - Pre-industrial revolution levle = 280 ppm (parts per million)
Effects of climate change (global warming)
Research Paper
V. What are the possible consequences to climate change?
Feedback Loop Assignment
Draw this diagram into your notes...
A. Our air is made up of:
none of these are greenhouse gases because they do not re-radiate heat energy!
C. Other carbon based greenhouse gases:
CFCs (chlorofluoro carbons)
methane (hydrocarbon)
carbon monoxide
#1
#2
Assignment
NOT ALL SCIENTISTS AGREE!!!
70% of American public now agree that global warming is happening and exists.
Politicians
54% of Republicans
76% of Democrats
Who's the authority? Who knows?
H. What is the evidence of climate change?
Google Classroom... Look for the article posting and read all about it. Take notes on specific climate change evidence.
If it becomes warm enough so that Antarctica melts, sea rise will increase 216 feet.
Want extra credit? Do a full page write up summary of this video and hand it in.
Full transcript