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Different Herbal Plants, Spices and Trees in the Philippines
Transcript of Different Herbal Plants, Spices and Trees in the Philippines
Trinity University of Asia
Submitted to: Ms. Encar
Kondol is a rather coarse, wide-spreading, softly hairy, annual vine with branched tendrils reaching a length of 4 to 8 meters. Leaves are rounded or kidney-shaped, 10 to 25 centimeters diameter, 5- to 7-lobed, heart-shaped at the base. Peduncles are hairy, those of the males being 5 to 15 centimeters long and of the females much shorter. Flowers are large and yellow, with a densely hairy bell-shaped calyx tube. Petals are 5 and spreading, 3 to 5 centimeters long. Fruit is ellipsoid or ovoid, 25 to 40 centimeters long, with few to many fragile hairs, green, and densely covered with a white and waxy bloom. The seeds are many, oblong, and compressed.
- Cultivated for the edible fruit.
- Occasionally wild.
- Introduced to the Philippines.
- Also occurs in India to Japan, Malaya and Polynesia in general cultivation.
• Edible: Flowers, fruit, leaves, seed.
• Unripe fruit is boiled and eaten as vegetable.
• Ripe fruit is peeled and candied; used in pickles, curries and preserves.
• The fried seeds eaten as a delicacy.
• Young leaves and flower buds steamed and consumed as vegetable.
• Pulp is a source of vitamins B and C.
• In the Philippines fresh fruit is made into a syrup and used for disorders of the respiratory tract.
• Fresh fruit also used for hemoptysis and other hemorrhages of the internal organs.
• Fresh juice used as vehicle for administering pearl-ash for first-stage phthisis. Also used, with or without liquorice, for insanity, epilepsy, and other nervous disorders.
• Used as antidote for various vegetable poisons, mercurial and alcoholic poisoning.
• Juice of cortical portion used with powdered saffron and red rice bran for diabetes.
• Preserve used for piles and dyspepsia as anti bilious food.
• Seeds applied to simple skin eruptions.
• Seeds, deprived of the outer covering, used as vermifuge against tapeworm and lumbrici. Also, used as diuretic.
• Seeds, incinerated, taken internally for gonorrhea.
• Fruit rind is diuretic; ashes applied to painful wounds.
Dama De Noche
Dama de noche is an erect and climbing ornamental smooth shrub, about 2 to 3 meters in height, with long often-drooping branches. Leaves are oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate, 8 to 10 centimeters long, pointed at the tips. Flowers are numerous, slender, yellowish-green, about 2 to 2.3 centimeters long, borne in lax, axillary and terminal inflorescences, 7 to 10 centimeters long.
Extract of the plant used as antispasmodic and treatment of epilepsy
Acacia is a large umbraculiform tree growing to a height of 20 to 25 meters. Bark is rough and furrowed. Branches are widespread. Leaves are evenly bi pinnate and hairy underneath. Pinnae are 8 to 12 and 15 centimeters long or less. Leaflets are 12 to 16 in the upper pin nae, 6 to 10 in the lower ones, decreasing in size downward, hairy beneath, with the mid-nerve diagonal, and oblong-rhomboid, 1.5 to 4 centimeters long. Flowers are pink, borne in dense, peduncle d, axillary, solitary, fascicle d heads. Fruits are pods, straight, somewhat fleshy, indehiscent, 15 to 20 centimeters long, 2 centimeters wide, with a pulpy sweet mesocarp.
In the Philippines, a decoction of the inner bark or fresh cambium and leaves is used to treat diarrhea.
· Acute bacillary dysentery, enteritis, diarrhea: use 15 to 30 gms dried material in decoction.
· Also for colds, sore throat, headache.
· A decoction of the inner bark or fresh cambium and leaves is used to treat diarrhea.
· Anaphylactic dermatitis, eczema, skin pruritus: use decoction of fresh material and apply as external wash.
· Latex used as gum arabic for gluing.
· Seeds chewed for sore throat; inner bark decoction and fresh leaves used for colds and diarrhea.
Makabuhay(Tinospora rumphii Boerl)
The makabuhay plant is a clinging vine, and the name itself suggests the primary purpose of such plant. Makabuhay is a Filipino translation of the English term ‘pro-life or to give life’. It is commonly known as the paliahan in the Visayas region. The plant belongs to the family of Menispermaceae, and can grow, or rather climb, up to fifteen meters long. The makabuhay leaves are thin sheets that are heart-shaped, and its flowers look distinct as they only have three petals. The makabuhay plant is known for its bitter nature, and the fruits of this plant are held in clusters, which can be as long as two centimeters. This plant may be propagated by planting its stem, which contains a bitter sap. However, it is important to note that makabuhay can be found in most forests all over the Philippines. It grows in tropical areas, and it is of little wonder why it is abundant in a country like the Philippines. The fruits of this plant have not been utilized nor established to have medicinal values. Only the leaves and the stems of makabuhay have been found to cure particular health concerns. For the stems, both the dried and the fresh stems are found to be beneficial.
HEALTH BENEFITS OF MAKABUHAY PLANT
The stem of makabuhay plant is a primary ingredient used to concoct preparations that would prevent spread of malaria, and may be used as cleanser for skin ulcer and skin wounds. Clinical tests have shown that the decoction of this plant cures diarrhea, indigestion and scabies. Also, it is an effective ointment for pains caused by rheumatism. However, young children below the age of three, pregnant women, patients with typhoid fever, those who are suffering from pneumonia, and people diagnosed with heart problems, should not in any way take decoction that contains makabuhay, because their weak state will be in conflict with the strong medicinal effects that it manifests.
Niyog-Niyogan (Quisqualis Indica L.)
Niyog-niyogan or Rangoon Creeper is an excellent vine for outdoor gardens. This ligneous plant, scientifically called Quisqualis indica L. It is also known as Burma or Rangoon Creeper, Liane Vermifuge and Chinese honeysuckle. Niyog-niyogan is perfect for covered walkways as it grows at least 2.5m long and reaches up to 8m long when it matures. This active climber, which belongs to the combretaceae family grows best in tropical areas and demands constant sunlight. Perhaps due to its tropical characterization that it is found in primary and secondary forests of countries like Africa, China, Taiwan, Malaysia, Philippines, Vietnam, Papua New Guinea and other Asian regions.
Benefits & Treatment of Niyog-Niyogan:
Almost all of its parts are used individually, or mixed with
other ingredients, as remedy to different ailments. In the
Philippines, these are taken to rid people of parasitic worms.
Some also use these to help alleviate coughs and diarrhea.
Medical experts, advice patients to consult their doctors as
improper dosing may cause hiccups. Niyog-niyogan’s leaves
are used to cure body pains by placing them on specific
problematic areas of the body. Compound decoctions of
the leaves of niyog-niyogan are used in India to alleviate
Bayabas or Guava (Psidium guajava)
Bayabas or guava is a tropical plant, which is locally known for its edible fruit. In the backyards of Filipino homes in the country, this plant is commonly seen, and grown because of its many uses as fruit and as traditional remedy to treat various ailments. As shown by many research studies, almost all of the parts of this plant have medicinal qualities and value, and thus, making it as one of the most popular therapeutic plants in the Philippines. Bayabas is a small tree that can grow up to 3 meters tall with greenish-brownish smooth bark. The round globular bayabas fruit starts as a flower and is usually harvested and eaten while still green. The fruit turns yellowish-green and soft when ripe.
Uses of Bayabas :
• Antiseptic, astringent & anthelminthic
• Kills bacteria, fungi and ameba
• Used to treat diarrhea, nosebleeding
• For Hypertension, diabetes and Asthma
• Promotes menstruation
The fresh leaves are used to facilitate the
healing of wounds and cuts. A decoction
(boiling in water) or infusion of fresh
leaves can be used for wound cleaning
to prevent infection. Bayabas is also
effective for toothaches. Note: Bayabas
can cause constipation when consumed
Carrot (Daucus carota L.)
Carrot (Karot in Filipino) is an outstanding trait of this flowering plant, which belongs to the family ofApiaceae, is that it is self-fertile. By nature, carrot's flowers have both male and female organs, and are usually pollinated primarily by beetles and flies. In order to facilitate the cultivation of this plant, it is necessary to place it in an area where it can receive light. It has a strong rate of survival, because it can withstand strong winds. However, the carrot plant cannot bear to be exposed to salty water and soil. It is a biennial plant, which means that it usually takes two years for it to complete its life cycle. However, it is not uncommon for plants of this nature to complete its biological life cycle in a few months time, especially when subjected to extreme climate conditions.
Carrot Health Benefits:
• Body cleanser, and is a
medication for kidney
• Treatment for cough and
• Anti-inflammatory and
antiseptic function helps solve burns,
ulcer and infected wounds
Gumamela (Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn)
Gumamela is a shrub that grows from one meter up to 4 meters high. Gumamela is also known as: Hibiscus, China Rose and Shoeflower.
In the Philippines, gumamela is cultivated as an ornamental plant. The gumamela flower comes in many colors: red, yellow, orange, white, purple, pink and other color combinations.
Gumamela leaves, usually blended with Rose Hip has long been used in the Middle East and Okinawa as herbal tea. Today, the use of gumamela tea is gaining worldwide popularity - including Asia. Gumamela (Hibiscus) is associated with longevity.
Gumamela as Herbal Medicine
As herbal medicine, gumamela
flower, leaves and roots are used.
Gumamela has the following
expectorant, diuretic, emollient,
antipyretic, anodyne and refrigerant.
Lagundi (Vitex negundo)
Lagundi (scientific name: Vitex negundo) is a shrub that grows in the Philippines. It is one of the ten herbal medicines endorsed by the Philippine Department of Health as an effective herbal medicine with proven therapeutic value. Commonly known in the Ilocos region as dangla, lagundi has been clinically tested to be effective in the treatment of colds, flu, bronchial asthma, chronic bronchitis, and pharyngitis. Studies have shown that Lagundi can prevent the body's production of leukotrienes, which are released during an asthma attack. Lagundi contains Chrysoplenol D, a substance with anti-histamine and muscle relaxant properties. Even in Japan, lagundi is becoming recognized as an effective herbal medicine, especially since researches have shown that it contains properties that make it an expectorant and it has been reported to function as a tonic as well. More than that, most of the parts of the lagundi plant have medicinal value.
Herbal Benefits of Lagundi:
• Relief of asthma & pharyngitis
• Recommended relief of rheumatism,
dyspepsia, boils, diarrhea
• Treatment of cough, colds, fever and
flu and other
broncho pulmonary disorders
• Alleviate symptoms of Chicken Pox
• Removal of worms, and boils
Luyang Dilaw - Ginger (Zingiber officinale)
Luyang Dilaw, or Ginger Root (scientific name: Zingiber officinale) belongs to the family of, as its scientific name signifies, Zingiberaceae. The rootstocks of this erect, smooth plant are thick, and have strong aromatic qualities. Its edible roots, tops, and even its leaves are found to have medicinal value. The taste of luyang dilaw is distinct, brought about by the zingerone and shogoal substances that it has, giving the plant its pungent properties. As an herbal medicine, Luyang Dilaw has long been used as a cold, cough, fever, and sore throat remedy.
Medicinal Benefits of Luyang Dilao (Ginger Root):
• Relieves rheumatic pains & muscle pains
• Alleviates sore throat, fever and colds
• Ease nausea and vomiting
• Intestinal disorders and slow digestion
• Relief from tympanism and flatulence
• Treat intestinal worms
• Hinder diarrhea, gas pains
• Relieve indigestion (dyspepsia), toothaches
• Lower cholesterol levels
• Aids treatment of tuberculosis
Atsuete, or annatto, comes from the seeds of an otherwise inedible, heart-shaped fruit. The seeds lend their dark red hue as a food coloring for many Filipino fish, vegetable, and meat recipes. The seeds do not add much flavor. However, according to the Philippine Insider, Filipino cuisine categorizes the seeds as a spice, which is often used in conjunction with other spices.
Bauang, or garlic, is grown in the Philippines. Filipino garlic is smaller in size and more expensive due to its pungency and quality. According to Mt. Banahaw Tropical Herbs,
bauang is considered one of the Philippines
"power herbs," and it is also used for
medicinal purposes. Bauang is used as a
diuretic, stimulant, expectorant, and a
topical wound treatment. It is also hailed
for its antioxidant powers.
Onions are commonly used in combination with bauang to add flavor and aroma to various dishes. Native Filipino onions are pungent and strongly flavored. They are well-suited for pickling or sautéing. White onions are used in sandwiches and salads, and green onions are used as a topper for dishes such as rice porridge.
Sili, the Philippine's native chili, is a popular addition to Filipino cuisine. Many recipes
call for this spicy addition including main
courses, hot sauces, and dips. According
to thePhilippine Insider, popular Filipino
dishes chicken tinola and pork sinigang
are among just a few that feature native
chili in their ingredients.
Pandan is mostly an aromatic
ingredient, most commonly
used with plain white rice. Just
add a couple of leaves to your
rice as it boils, and it comes out
with a strong, inviting aroma.
Some regions even weave it onto
rice pots for an even stronger scent.
You can do the same with rice cakes,
puddings, and other Filipino desserts
The strong, pungent taste of bay leaves makes them a perfect fit for Filipino cooking recipes. The leaf has a wide range of uses, from meat sauces and dips to main dishes like adobo, menudo and mechado. Dried bay leaves are traditionally used; fresh bay is seldom available in local markets. The leaf itself is not usually eaten; like ginger, you can take out the leaves once you’re ready to serve. However, most people just leave them in and set them aside when eating.
The Papaya tree are trees that may be grown with the farming skill. Level 57 farmers may plant a papaya tree seed in a plant pot that has been filled with dirt from any gardening patch. A gardening trowel is needed to plant the seed, then it must be watered. This action is all performed in the inventory or backpack section of the screen. A planted Papaya tree takes 960 minutes (roughly 16 hours, may take longer if needed) to finish growing.
coconut palm, (Cocos nucifera), tree of the palm family (Arecaceae). It is one of the most important crops of the tropics. The slender, leaning, ringed trunk of the tree rises to a height of up to 25 m (80 feet) from a swollen base and is surmounted by a graceful crown of giant, featherlike leaves. Mature fruits, ovoid or ellipsoid in shape, 300–450 mm (12–18 inches) in length, and 150–200 mm in diameter, have a thick, fibrous husk surrounding the familiar single-seeded nut of commerce. A hard shell encloses the insignificant embryo with its abundant endosperm, composed of both meat and liquid.
The Traveler's Palm, also known as ‘Fan Palm' is not a palm at all (the trunk resembles a palm tree, hence the confusion) but it is one of the most recognizable trees in the tropics. It originates from Madagascar which is reflected in its botanical name, Ravenala madagascariensis. It is a member of the Strelitziaceae family, and therefore closely related to the Bird of Paradise .
The rambutan tree reaches 50 to 80 ft (15-25 m) in height, has a straight trunk to 2 ft (60 cm) wide, and a dense, usually spreading crown. The evergreen leaves are alternate, pinnately compound, 2 3/4 to 12 in (7-30 cm) long, with reddish rachis, hairy when young, and 1 to 4 pairs of leaflets, subopposite or alternate, elliptic to oblong-elliptic, or rather obovate, sometimes oblique at the base; slightly leathery; yellowish-green to dark-green and somewhat dull on the upper surface, yellowish or bluish-green beneath; 2 to 8 in (5-20 cm) long, 1 to 4 1/3 in (2.5-11 cm) wide, the 6 to 15 pairs of principal veins prominent on the underside. The small, petalless flowers, of three kinds: males, hermaphrodite functioning as males, and hermaphrodite functioning as females, are borne in axillary or pseudo-terminal, much branched, hairy panicles. The fruit is ovoid, or ellipsoid, pinkish-red, bright-or deep-red, orange-red, maroon or dark-purple, yellowish-red, or all yellow or orange-yellow; 1 1/3 to 3 1/8 in (3.4-8 cm) long. Its thin, leathery rind is covered with tubercles from each of which extends a soft, fleshy, red, pinkish, or yellow spine 1/5 to 3/4 in (0.5-2 cm) long, the tips deciduous in some types. The somewhat hairlike covering is responsible for the common name of the fruit, which is based on the Malay word "rambut", meaning "hair". Within is the white or rose-tinted, translucent, juicy, acid, subacid or sweet flesh, 1/6 to 1/3 in (0.4-0.8 cm) thick, adhering more or less to the ovoid or oblong, somewhat flattened seed, which is 1 to 1 1/3 in (2.5-3.4 cm) long and 2/5 to 3/5 in (1-1.5 cm) wide. There may be 1 or 2 small undeveloped fruits nestled close to the stem of a mature fruit.
are cultivated mostly for edible fruits. The majority of these species are found in nature as wild mangoes. They all belong in the flowering plant family Anacardiaceae. The mango is native to South Asia, from where it has been distributed worldwide to become one of the most cultivated fruits in the tropics. The highest concentration of Mangifera genus is situated in western part of Malesia (Sumatra, Java and Borneo) and in Burma and India. While other Mangifera species (e.g. horse mango, M. foetida) are also grown on a more localized basis, Mangifera indica – the 'common mango' or 'Indian mango' – is the only mango tree commonly cultivated in many tropical and subtropical regions. It is originated in India and Burma. It is the national fruit of India and the Philippines and the national tree of Bangladesh. In several cultures, its fruit and leaves are ritually used as floral decorations at weddings, public celebrations