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The Melting Pot of the English Language
Transcript of The Melting Pot of the English Language
The English language belongs to the West Germanic branch of the Indo-European family of languages.
Contribution of the Angles, the Saxons and the Jutes tribes.
Traditionally divided into three main periods:
Over many years English has been expanding gradually due to borrowing words from other languages
Roots from Latin and ancient "Greek".
Old English (c. 450 - 1100)
Early & Late Modern English
(c. 1450 - the present)
The Norman conquest of England
Invaded and Conquered England led by William the Conqueror, the Duke of Normandy.
It occurred during 11th century
By an army of Norman, Breton and French soldiers.
Eventually after the death of King Harold (ii) at the Battle of Hastings, the new conquerors (called the Normans) replaced the Anglo-Saxon as the ruling class of England.
They spoke Old Norman and eventually developed an English form which they called Anglo-Norman
Middle English after the Normans
After the Normans, English had became the third language in its own country.
It was also largely spoken than written language.
By 14th century noun genders were almost gone.
Adjectives which had 11 different inflections were reduced to just two (singular and plural)
Early Mid English shows french borrowings for example words like "countless, purgatory, witness"
Late Mid English "season, continue, sudden, final, honest"
They borrowed a huge number of words in age, -ance/-ence, -ant/-ent, -ment, -tion, con-, pre-
• Pronunciation of vowels changed and became shorter near the end of modern English
• A lot of new words were coming to the English language since the British had contact with a lot of people around the world and the Renaissance of Classic Learning (in the 16th century)
• The invention of printing came which made books cheaper and more people learning to read and formed standardization (fixed spelling and grammar)
• English Dictionary was published in 1604
• Late Modern English is mostly vocabulary
• In the 1900s a lot of words have been added to the English vocabulary
• Most of which are formed from modern technology and Greek/Latin words
• Oxford English dictionary was proposed in 1859
• Samuel Johnson dictionary, published in 1755 was influential in establishing a standard form of spelling
• WWI and WW2 helped to lessen the differences between social accents
• When the radio was developed people got familiarized with popular vocabulary from other places
• punctuation, grammar, and spelling are mostly the same but late modern English has many more words
• The industrial revolution/technology and the British empire were the result of these words
• Scientific revolutions needed new words to describe new discoveries
• Technology has a massive effect on modern English because of the creation of new words to describe things
• The rise of the British empire helped serve more words to the English language
Late Modern English (1800- present)
Early Modern English (1500-1800)
The Middle English Adjective
The Middle English adjectives works the same way as Modern English.
Middle English have two different types of adjectives (strong and weak)
Strong adjectives stand on their own before a noun
for example: the yong in yong sone (they often do not have -e) (schwa sound)
Weak adjectives form by a possesive and the modified noun.
For example: the yonge man and his sweete breeth, the young man and his sweet breath. (adjectives have a final -e)
Plural nouns are much easier, adjectives can have -e, weak or strong
for example: yonge sones, the yonge children, young sons, the young children.
Very few Celtic words have lived on in the English language. But many of our place names have Celtic origins, such as London, Dover and Kent.
The West Germanic Tribes
There were 4 main dialects
of Old English
And grammatical words like...
Generally, only a 6th of the words of Old English made it to Modern English.
The Old English period ended with the Norman Conquest.
The Middle English Noun
Norman-French would often replace the Anglo-Saxon word or they would both exist but would have different meaning, for example in English, pig (describing the pork) and meat (describing the beef)
In Norman-French, words were meant to signify a new reality: for example finance, parliament, castle etc.
Norman-French borrowings concerned the fields of culture, politics and religion whereas English words were used to describe everyday experience.
The Normans wrote English the way they heard it, without acknowledging the peculiarity of Anglo-Saxon spelling and pronunciation, which caused the spelling to change.
Nouns form by adding an -s
The possesive (genitive) form by adding -s to nouns in singular
for example: nominative day versus possevive daies
The dative case traditionally added endings to the Anglo Saxon noun.
In Middle English, these are mostly gone or reduced to a neutral shwa (like the "e" in "angel").
For example, in the dative on myn lif (on my life), the noun looks the same as the plain (nominative case) form of the noun in myn lif (my life).
English language did not exist until the West Germanic tribes settled in England.
They spoke a language which is now known as OLD ENGLISH.
Ancient inhabitants of Briton who now live in Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
These languages are now called the Gaelic languages
Around 850 AD, the Vikings invaded Great Britain and imported a vast amount of their language into English.
This North Germanic language had a fundamental influence on English.
nouns such as
verbs such as