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Transcript of Greece
Athens was one of the major cultural centers of Greece
The style of architecture of the ancient Greeks found in their temples and theatres are world famous.
Drama was born in Greece in Athens in festivals to celebrate Dionysus, the god of party.
Drama was a unique art created so the people could project their fears and emotions on a character or characters in a story.
Tragedy, comedy, and satyr (satire) were the three forms of Greek plays.
Other art forms such as painting and music were becoming popular in Greece, and panel painting and the lyre (a harp-like instrument) emerged.
The religion in Greece centered around the Olympian gods, imperfect but divine beings who ruled over Greece and took sides in wars.
Hellenistic culture (mix of Middle Eastern and Grecian)
Greece was so decentralized, it was hardly considered an empire. Truly, it was a collection of city-states, or polis, each ruled independently.
The city-states were governed differently, some as monarchies, some as oligarchies, and some as democracies.
Most city states were oligarchic.
Sparta was famous for its 5 Ephors, or state officials.
Famous monarchies include Macedonia and Espiros.
Athens was the first democracy, and as such became a hub for philosophy and art.
Early emperors brought a Golden age of architecture and literature, which were heavily infuenced by the Greeks.
Music was prominent in everyday life.
Sporting events also began to develop. Racing, swimming, and several ball sports were played at special campuses.
Public events such as gladiatorial combat, execution, chariot races, and musical performances helped connect the community.
Religion mirrored the Greeks, as it followed the same Olympian gods.
Rome began as a Republic, but is more famous for its time as an empire.
Julius Caesar fought for making Rome an empire.
Augustus Caesar succeeded in founding the Roman Empire, and ruled as emperor.
He created the principate form of government, one that combined elements from a republic (like the Senate) and a traditional monarchy.
Emperors were revered as god-like figures, whose authority was measured by the size and strength of their military.
Over time, the empire grew more monarchic as democratic views faded.
Zoroastrianism was main religion of Persia at the time.
Devotion to truth was important, and dishonesty was punishable by death.
Large cities, temples, and mausoleums were built.
Major cultural diffusion with Greece occurred in this time period.
Hellenism came with said diffusion.
Polytheism became increasingly popular.
Parthian architecture combined that of the Greeks and Achaemenids, but was still distinct.
Greek became the official language.
Art in this time period was a unique mix of Grecian and Iranian with elements of Achaemenid and Seleucid art styles, but was lost with the Sassanids.
Art and architecture were Hellenistic, architecture saw the rise of the squinch, allowing great superstructures to be built.
Monarchs lived in splendorous palaces.
The Grand School was a prestigious school in the capital that allowed very few students to attend.
Persia was lead by an absolute monarch believed to have divine right to rule.
A common image depicts Ahura Mazda passing the ring of rule from one emperor to the next.
Emporers would conquer new regions, but would allow previous governing bodies to remain, as long as they could collect taxes and take on the title of Persians.
The laws, like those depicted on the famous Cyrus Charter, kept the society running smoohly and efficiently.
King Cyrus was the father of civil rights, so slavery was outlawed and general fairness and justice was important to the Persian political system.
Many cultural aspects were shared among the three empires..
Rome and Greece worshiped the same gods, and Rome's literature heavily influenced by that of the Greeks.
Greece and Persia shared Hellenistic art, architecture, and culture.
All three empires were primarily polytheistic at one point.
Rome and Persia shared the idea of divine right to rule.
Greece and Persia shared a generally decentralized government, though the Greek was to a much greater degree.
Rome and Persia shared the absolute monarchy style of government.