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Transcript of MUSIC
Bob Dylan will forever be associated with the singer/songwriter movement. With a career spanning over 50 years, his influence on popular music is unparalleled and he is the most influential songwriter of our time.
Joni Mitchell is the quintessential female singer/songwriter. Her early works consist of songs with deeply personal lyrics, self-accompanied by only an acoustic guitar or piano.
Today’s singer/songwriters are rooted in the folk traditions of the early 60s but they are not afraid of Social Media, with many artists choosing to release their material via YouTube and iTunes.
Music is probably as old as mankind itself and plays a big part in many people’s daily life. Across many centuries of development in language, culture and creativity, music has significantly evolved in its different forms and styles. These styles include Gregorian chant, the Singer/Songwriter movement, Rock, Pop and Rhythm and Blues.
The lack of systematic notation of music during the early era of the Christian Church has made it difficult to determine the exact origins of Gregorian chant. According to Charlemagne (768-814), his father Pepin adopted the chant into the Frankish Kingdom, further developing the chant into a more systematic form of music notation.
Main contributors to the chant include Pope Gregory, the Great (590-604), who authorized and supported much of the establishment of the chant. Others, particularly Dom Prosper Guéranger (1833) and the Benedictine monks of Solesmes can be greatly attributed to its refinement.
Unlike other musical forms, the solitary instrument used in Gregorian chant is voice. However, in the cases where the choir or cantors require additional support, an organ may be softly and unobtrusively played.
Whilst polyphonic forms of music are commonly utilized in modern liturgy, the recent increase in interest of the chant's ability to make participants sense the majestic and glorious Divine Reality, has sparked a renewed popularity in its use.
Michael Jackson, Prince, Madonna, and Whitney Houston were the most successful musicians in the 1980s and major contributors to pop music. Their videos appeared on music television (MTV) and reached a mass global audience. Michael Jackson’s “Thriller” album is the best-selling album of all time; it sold 110 million copies worldwide and still to this day he is referred to as the “King of Pop”.
Electric guitars, drums, bass and vocals are the commonly used instruments in pop music. Pop music is written with catchy tunes and repeated choruses.
Today’s pop music is continually evolving with the use of social media, which includes Instagram, YouTube, Facebook, Twitter and iTunes.
Origins & Development
Origins & Development
Origins & Development
The singer/songwriter movement has its roots in the American folk revival of the 1940s and 50s. Singer/songwriters write and perform their own songs, often self-accompanied by piano or acoustic guitar. The lyrics are personal, sometimes political and the genre is associated with emotional honesty and spare instrumentation.
Whilst countless musical forms have undergone tremendous changes and development across many generations, music will always be an inherent and inseperable part of human expression.
Pop is the abbreviated term from the word “popular”. Pop music began in the 1950s during the
rock’n roll revolution.
After World War II, music was developing for a new generation. The first Top Twenty music charts was recorded after 1952 in America and aimed at the “teens”. The development of the television had also played a part in showcasing new artists and bands to a much larger audience.
By 1960, pop music’s major influence was the Beatles. By writing their own music, the Beatles set the standard for pop music. They dominated the charts in Britain and America from 1960 to 1970.
Origins & Development
R&B has changed many people's lives and has branched out to social media such as Facebook, Twitter and Instagram
Guitars, piano and drums have all been used to guide R&B to the future.
Rhythm and blues, often abbreviated to R&B or RnB, orginated from African-Americans in the late 1940’s. The term was originally used by record companies to describe recordings marketed mostly to urban African Americans.
The term has has had changes in it's meaning. In the early 1950s, the name "rhythms and blues" was known as R&B. Starting in the mid-1950s, theR&B had been used to refer to different music styles that developed from and incorporated electric blues, as well as gospel and soul music. By the 1970s, rhythm and blues was used as a known term for soul and funk. In the 1980s, a newer style of R&B developed,and was known as "Contemporary R&B".
Origins & Development
Rock music first rose to popularity in the United States in the 1950s, at a time when the country was greatly influenced by black and white musicians.
Rock music spread across to Europe and began to expand its popularity with the creation of an iconic English rock group which was self-titled the World’s Greatest Rock & Roll Band, the Rolling Stones. Rock music has been directly influenced by jazz, R&B, gospel, country and traditional folk music genres.
Frequently used instruments in Rock
are the electric guitar, drums, bass guitar,
synthesizers and keyboard.
This presentation was put together using a variety of online sources which were evaluated for their credibility using a five point checklist, including date stamp, references of sources, professional writing, author indentification and author qualifications and credentials.
The information source entitled, 'Abbey de Solesmes' can be noted for its high level of credibility because of the outstanding qualification of its authorship. The information was written by the monks accredited as one of this musical form's greatest contributors. Other sources, including the New Advent Encyclopedia, Adoremus Bulletin and the Gregorian Association were credible, but lacking in reference to any author qualification.
The information source “Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World: Volume 11: Performance and Production” has been evaluated as highly credible as all 5 evaluation criteria can be verified. Other credible sources include the website AllMusic.com, which is the largest music database of popular music in the world.
McMaster University Collection, (1413),
5070 - Music - Gregorian Chant
The first reference used was the website founded by the Shine Music school (http://www.shinemusic.com.au). This site is date stamped (2007 to 2014), and monitored by its teachers. This is an educational site that lists the contact details, names of the teachers with their qualifications listed and accompanied by their photos too. The site is professionally written and the authors identified making it a highly credible source.
Stevie Wonder, Jay Z, Beyonce are the most successful major contributors to R&B. Their film clips and tours have been shown on the music channels such as: "mtv" and "V" and have been given MTV music awards, meanwhile Beyonce alone has sold over 100 million albums and mixed tapes worldwide.
The first reference used was ranbd.about.com, it was discovered by Mark Edward Nero. The website is useful and legitimist, stamped and approved. The website is about the history of R&B and what it represents to people back in the early 1990’s till this day. The authors credentials can be sourced online and validated.
The most influential Rock artist is Elvis Presley who has been titled the King of Rock, began his career in the early 60s and throughout the 70s; it has been estimated that the King has alone sold over one billion records.
Another great contribution to Rock have been the Rolling Stones, who began peforming around London in the early 60s as a young group of friends and who grew into a world famous Rock band. They have managed to stay popular over the past 50 years!
Rock music has influenced society from the early 1960s until today, it’s changed our culture and attitudes towards self-expression through the use of music. Rock is ever-changing, especially with the introduction to YouTube and other social networking sites like Instagram and Facebook.
The reference rock music – Encyclopaedia Britannica provides an in-depth professionally written material about rock music. The author Simon Frith Jr, validates the information as credible and educational. Other sources used were rockmusictimeline.com which was very informative and credible however, it did lack the information of the author which could authenticate the information.
Gregorian Chant sources
Adoremus.org. 2004. What you really must know about Gregorian Chant. [online] Available at: http://www.adoremus.org/0604Chant.html [Accessed: 3 Jan 2014].
Gregoriam Chant Knight, K. 2013. CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Gregorian Chant. [online] Available at: http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/06779a.htm [Accessed: 2 Jan 2014]
Solesmes.com. 2014. Abbaye de Solesmes - gregorien. [online] Available at: http://www.solesmes.com/GB/gregorien/hist.php [Accessed: 3 Jan 2014]
The Royal School of Church Music 2008. Gregorian Association. [online] Available at: http://www.beaufort.demon.co.uk/chant.htm [Accessed: 2 Jan 2014].
Brooke Cahill, (2012), St. Gregory the Great [ONLINE]. Available at: http://saintsstuf.weebly.com/st-gregory-the-great.html [Accessed 24 January 14].
Damian, (2012), Plainchant Workshop for Dursley Schola [ONLINE]. Available at: http://cheltenhamcatholicadults.blogspot.com.au/ [Accessed 22 January 14].
eCatholic (2012), Gregorian Chant Mass [ONLINE]. Available at: http://www.iccorsicana.org/index.cfm?load=event&event=348 [Accessed 23 January 14]
McMaster University Collection, (1413), 5070- Music-Gregorian Chant [ONLINE]. Available at: http://mw.mcmaster.ca/scriptorium/images/5070w.html [Accessed 22 January 14]
Coral Vértice, https://archive.org/details/VeniCreatorSpiritus
Date Accessed: January 20, 2014
Patrick Dupré Quigley / Seraphic Fire, 2013, http://www.allmusic.com/album/ave-maria-gregorian-chant-mw0002565052/credits
Date Accessed: January 23, 2014
Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World: VolumeII: Performance ... - Google Books. 2014. Continuum Encyclopedia of Popular Music of the World: VolumeII: Performance ... - Google Books. [ONLINE] Available at: http://books.google.com.au/books?id=pJvzEzjahkQC&pg=PA198&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q&f=false. [Accessed 23 January 2014].
Singer/Songwriter | Significant Albums, Artists and Songs | AllMusic. 2014. Singer/Songwriter | Significant Albums, Artists and Songs | AllMusic. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.allmusic.com/subgenre/singer-songwriter-ma0000002855. [Accessed 12 January 2014].
Bob Dylan 1963, Bob Dylan Discography, viewed 20 January 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bob_Dylan_discography.
Carole King n.d., 5 Great Singer Songwriters, viewed 20 January 2014, http://rokpool.com/category/tags/carole-king.
James Taylor n.d., Elderly Thespian, viewed 20 January 2014, http://elderlythespian.blogspot.com.au/2011/09/music-review-james-taylor-sweet-baby.html.
Joni Mitchell n.d., 106: Joni Mitchell, ‘Cactus Tree’, viewed 20 January 2014, http://www.jmeshel.com/106-joni-mitchell-cactus-tree/.
Laura Marling n.d., Laura Marling confirms she has finished her new album, viewed 20 January 2014, http://www.nme.com/news/laura-marling/64599.
Martha Wainwright n.d., Martha Wainwright’s Triumphant Return With Come Home To Mama, viewed 20 January 2014, http://www.glidemagazine.com/22535/martha-wainwrights-triumphant-return-with-come-home-to-mama/.
Michael Kiwanuka 2012, Michael Kiwanuka & Dan Auerbach: “Lasan”, viewed 20 January 2014, http://news.twentyfourbit.com/2012/02/michael-kiwanuka-dan-auerbach-lasan/.
Neil Young, 1985, Neil Young News, viewed 20 January 2014, http://neilyoungnews.thrasherswheat.org/2011/06/neil-youngs-treasure-is-absolute.html.
Dylan, B 1963, ‘The times they are a-changin’’, on The Times They Are A-Changin’ (CD). Columbia
Mitchell, J 1971, ‘River’, on Blue, (CD). Reprise
Pop music sources
Billboard 2014. Billboard – Music Charts, Music News, Artist Photo Gallery and Free Video. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.billboard.com/ [Accessed 12 January 2014].
Shine Music School 2007-2014. The History of Pop Music Songs. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.shinemusic.com.au/musicresources/history-of-pop-music.aspx. [Accessed 12 January 2014].
Eastern Panorama n.d., The Beatles, viewed 20 January 2014, <http://www.easternpanorama.in/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=1229:the-evolution-of-music-part-xviii&catid=64:december>
Kevin Mazur/Wire Image 2013, Pink sets the mark for most adult pop songs no 1s < http://www.billboard.com/articles/columns/chart-beat/1560012/pnk-sets-mark-for-most-adult-pop-songs-no-1s>
Music By Reynolds 2013, Beyoncé performs at the United Center in Chicago, viewed 20 January 2014, <http://musicbyreynolds.wordpress.com/>
Pacific Coast News 2010, Katy Perry performs Victoria Secret Fashion, viewed 20 January 2014, <http://www.zimbio.com/pictures/DfLP5FgFM__/Katy+Perry+Performs+Victoria+Secret+Fashion/N1hWcV_x6Pd>
Pop watch 2009, Whitney Houston, viewed 20 January 2014, <http://popwatch.ew.com/2009/08/18/this-or-that-whitneys-how-will-i-know-or-i-wanna-dance-with-somebody/>
Source Unknown 1980, Young Madonna, viewed 20 January 2014, <http://unwrinkling.com/my-cross-to-wear/>
Virgin Media 1987, Michael Jackson-Bad, viewed 20 January 2014, <http://www.virginmedia.com/movies/movieextras/top10s/michael-jackson.php?ssid=5>
Yamaha Corporation 2014, Pop Band, viewed 20 January 2014, <http://sg.yamaha.com/en/music_education/pop_courses/pop_band/>
Michael Jackson, 1982, Thriller, Epic Records, (CD) West Hollywood, California
The Beatles 1965, Help, EMI Studios, (CD) London
Rock music sources
Rock music timeline - 50 years of rock & roll history with photos. 2014. Rock music timeline - 50 years of rock & roll history with photos. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.rockmusictimeline.com/index.html. [Accessed 21 January 2014].
Rock (music) Crucial rock musicians Encyclopedia Britannica. 2014. rock (music) Crucial rock musicians - Encyclopedia Britannica. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/506004/rock/93482/Crucial-rock-musicians. [Accessed 21 January 2014]
American Blues Scene n.d, Blues law: Robert Johnson vs. The Rolling Stones, viewed 25 January 2014, http://www.americanbluesscene.com/2013/05/blues-law-robert-johnson-vs-the-rolling-stones/
Archer guitar n.d , Electric Guitar, viewed 23 January 2014,
Better Life Idea n.d, 80s Pop Music Beginning of Modern Rock, viewed 23 January 2014, http://betterlifeidea.blogspot.com.au/2011/04/80s-pop-music-beginning-of-modern-rock.html
Rolandus n.d, Jupiter-80 Synthesizer, viewed 23 January 2014, http://www.rolandus.com/products/details/1165
Summer Hays Music n.d, Drums, Viewed 23 January 2014,
VIP seats n.d, The Rolling Stones Tickets, viewed 23 January 2014, http://www.vipseats.com/rolling-stones-tickets.html
Wikipedia n.d , Elvis Presley Aloha from Hawaii, viewed 25 January 2014, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elvis_Presley
RnB music sources
David/Paul Kim R&B group 2012, “The History of R&B”, viewed 24th January 2014. Available at:
Posted by Vincz Lee, Song Writer/Singer, Video Video: Freakish TV Avec Gianni Cigar, Dj Prems, Dj Nika & Vincz Lee, uploaded: 18th January 2013, viewed on the 24th January 2014. Avaliable at: http://www.vinczlee.com/?tag=dj-vincz-lee
Vincz Lee » dj vincz lee. 2014. Vincz Lee dj vincz lee. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.vinczlee.com/?tag=dj-vincz-lee. [Accessed 21 January 2014].
The History of R&B | eHow. 2014. The History of R&B eHow. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ehow.com/facts_5513155_history-rb.html. [Accessed 21 January 2014].
(Photo: Stockbyte/Stockbyte/Getty Images)
About R&B Music | eHow. 2014. About R&B Music | eHow. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.ehow.com/about_5097616_rb-music.html#ixzz2qtB8rrPz. [Accessed 21 January 2014].
Rhythm and Blues, 2013, Rhythm and Blues R&B, viewed 20th January 2014. Avaliable at: http://theefaction.wordpress.com/2010/08/02/know-your-socialist-rb/
Steve Wonder, Viewed 24th Jan 2014, avaliable at: http://popblerd.com/2011/01/28/into-the-mind-of-genius-stevie-wonders-little-seen-documentary/
Jay-Z/R&B Duets: Know The Ledge, Uploaded 2012, (represents R&B) Accessed on the 24th jan 2014, available at: www.iknowtheledge.com
Take broadly, singer/songwriter can refer to any artist who has a hand in writing their own songs.
Acoustic guitar was major
instrument used during the
Rap Music, also called hip-hop is a music genre formed in the United States in the 1970s that consists of a stylized rhythmic music that commonly accompanies rapping, a rhythmic and rhyming speech that is chanted. It developed as part of hip hop culture, a subculture defined by four key stylistic elements: MCing/rapping, DJing/scratching, break dancing, and graffiti writing. Other elements include sampling (or synthesis), and beatboxing.
Notable artists at this time include DJ Kool Herc, Grandmaster Flash and The Furious Five, Fab Five Freddy. The Sugarhill Gang's 1979 song "Rapper's Delight" is widely regarded to be the first hip hop record to gain widespread popularity in the mainstream. Hip hop's "golden age" (or "golden era") is a name given to a period in mainstream hip hop—usually cited as between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s—said to be characterized by its diversity, quality, innovation and influence.
Styles of Rap
new school of hip hop-
originating in 1983–84 with the early records of Run-D.M.C. and LL Cool J came predominately from New York City
Hip hop's "golden age" (or "golden era")
- usually cited as between the mid-1980s and the early 1990s. The artists most often associated with the phrase are Public Enemy, Boogie Down Productions, Eric B. & Rakim, De La Soul.
Gangsta rap and West Coast hip hop
- The subject matter inherent in gangsta rap more generally has caused controversy. The genre was pioneered in the mid-1980s by rappers such as Schoolly D and Ice-T, and was popularized in the later part of the 1980s by groups like N.W.A
It was during the mid-2000s that alternative hip hop finally secured a place within the mainstream, due in part to the crossover success of artists such as OutKast, Kanye West, and Gnarls Barkley. The alternative hip hop movement is not limited only to the United States, as rappers such as Somali-Canadian poet K'naan, Japanese rapper Shing02, and Sri Lankan British artist M.I.A. have achieved considerable worldwide recognition