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The Market Revolution
Transcript of The Market Revolution
How did the nation change during this time period?
Growth of the West
Rise of "Cotton Kingdom"
Growth of cities
Rise in immigration
Settlers who had moved west were cut off from European markets
Erie Canal (1825)
363 miles across upstate New York
Railroads and the Growth of the West
Robert Fulton (1807)
Revolution in Transportation and Communication
Innovations lowered transportation costs and connected the parts of the country like never before.
Still not the most efficient mode of transport
-Goods could travel between the region and the Great Lakes
-New cities along the way
Funded more by the state; New York became shipping center
-By 1860, more than 30,000 miles of track
-Between 1790-1840, 4.5 million people crossed the Appalachian Mountains
-6 new states entered the Union in 1815
-Could travel rapidly, both with and against the current
-Growth of cities along the Mississippi
Once people arrived in the West, cooperated to survive.
National boundaries made little difference to expansion.
Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)
East Florida sold to the United States by Spain
Impact of Westward Movement (by 1850)
-40% of population lived west of Appalachian Mountains
-Ohio's population grew to 2 million (3rd largest)
-Big name politicians (Clay, Jackson, Calhoun) from the West
Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, Arkansas, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Michigan, and Wisconsin
For example, Florida was annexed even as local Natives attempted resistance and Spain rejected purchase offers.
The "Cotton Kingdom"
Market revolution made the differences between North and South more obvious
-Factories producing cotton textiles=increased demand for cotton
-Invention of the cotton gin (1793) made growing and selling more efficient
Rising demand for cotton +
invention of cotton gin
Slave trade began within the United States
Slave trading firms gathered and shipped slaves
Slave coffles (groups chained together) became a common sight
Farming became a big business
Western cities experienced tremendous growth
1820-Urban population of 6 million
Factory system: Lowell, MA
Interchangeable parts and mass production
Women faced difficult working conditions and strict supervision, but developed a new sense of independence
Between 1830-1860, immigration skyrocketed.
Immigrants from what regions made their way to the present-day Midwest?
What were the major differences between Irish and German immigrants?
-Fear of how immigration would impact American political and social life
-Blamed immigrants for problems in society, including crime and lowering of wages
Immigrants from where were targeted the most severely? Why?
Alexis de Tocqueville
"Democracy in America (1835)"
Ralph Waldo Emerson, Walt Whitman, Henry David Thoreau
The Second Great Awakening
-Church attendance had declined
-Religious leaders organized revivals
New Ideas Concerning Liberty and Freedom
"No sooner do you set foot on American soil than you find yourself in a sort of tumult. All around you, everything is on the move."
Market Revolution=new economic opportunities
John L. O'Sullivan
Americans had a divine right to expand westward and a mission to extend freedom
-Stressed the importance of the individual
-Individual judgement over existing social traditions and institutions
-"Feel all confidence in himself...to never defer to the popular cry."
Personal Self Improvement
Inspired the expansion of democracy
Significance: Religion became a mass enterprise, with the growth of membership and options
Importance of industry, self-discipline, and morality
What groups did not benefit from this new national prosperity?
"Cult of Domesticity"
"In whatever situation of life a woman is placed from her cradle to her grave, a spirit of obedience and submission, pliability of temper, and humility of mind, are required from her."
Idea that a woman's place was in the home
Many workers (especially factory and industrial) saw their freedom limited
Rise of the first labor unions
"We are free but not free enough...we want the liberty of living."
Discuss the following statement:
"The market revolution transformed and divided American society and its conceptions of freedom."
1) Individualism and mobility for white men
1) Severely limited options for women and African Americans
2) New opportunities for economic freedom
2) Reduced economic independence for some groups
New Ideas About Freedom
Important Point to Remember:
NONE of this would have been possible without the support of the federal and state governments
Laws supported entrepreneurs while limiting interference by local governments
-Rise of corporations limited personal liability
-Encouraged competition in the marketplace
"The First Generation of Americans" tells how this "first generation" helped shape the young nation.
Write a 5-6 sentence summary of the essay, focusing on the characteristics of the "first generation of Americans" as identified in the essay.
The Market Revolution
The Market Revolution was characterized by a shift away from local or regional markets to national markets.
Characterized by developments in transportation, communication, and technology
Sectionalism in 1800s America refers to the different lifestyles, social structures, customs, and political values of the North, South, and West
1) Which of the following inventions DID NOT help fuel the agriculural boom in the first half of the 19th century?
A. The cotton gin
B. The mechanical reaper
C. The steamboat
D. The cigarette rolling machine
10) Which of the following statements best defines the "cult of domesticity?"
A. Women should exemplify the notions of virtue in fulfilling their duties to the family
B. Agriculure and manufacturing should primarily benefit local families
C. Slave women needed to be taught how to fulfull their duties as mothers
D. Women should be given more political rights
3) What territorial gain was made with the Adams-Onis Treaty (1819)?
A. The Philippines
D. Puerto Rico
4) During the 1840s and 1850s, which set of immigrant groups arrived in unprecedented numbers, resulting in a nativist backlash in popular culture?
a. Scots-Irish and Welsh
b. Dutch and French
c. Irish and Germans
d. Italians and Greeks
6) Which of the following statements best describes the Lowell system?
a. It revolutionized the production of steel in the United States.
b. It was so successful that it was eventually adopted throughout the United States and England.
c. It involved using mill girls from rural areas to work in textile factories.
d. It relied exclusively on cheap immigrant labor to undercut competitors.
8) The growth and profitability of Southern cotton did all of the following EXCEPT:
a. catapult the wealth of the average Southern white above most Northerners.
b. provide the raw material for manufacturing in New England.
c. accelerate the internal movement of slaves from the Southeast to the Southwest.
d. promote national and international economic ties.
7) Which of the following developments LEAST strengthened the increasing economic linkage of the North and the Midwest during the antebellum era?
a. The growth of canals and railroads
b. The spread of plantation agriculture
c. The federal attempts to create a national economy
d. The shift to market production
a. creation of a more economically and socially egalitarian society in the South.
b. increasing economic isolation of the South from the rest of the country.
c. rapid growth of textile mills and other manufacturing throughout the South.
d. increased political power the South was able to wield in Congress.
9) One impact of the widespread cultivation of cotton and other cash crops in the South was the:
a. along the Great Lakes region.
b. on farms in the Midwest.
c. in cities along the east coast.
d. on homesteads on the frontier.
5) The majority of immigrants to the United States in the 1840s and 1850s settled
a. The transcontinental railroad
b. The National Road
c. The Cumberland Gap
d. The Erie Canal
2) Which of the following connected the Great Lakes to the East Coast and fueled the economic rise of New York City?