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Danielle Ryann

on 11 May 2012

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Transcript of Rainbows

How They Occur
Cultural Perception
Where They Occur
Noah’s Thanksoffering by Joseph Anton Koch
The Rainbow Serpent - Aboriginal Dreamtime Story
A rainbow that doesn’t appear for forty years signifies the end of the world
N. American Indians
A rainbow is considered a daylight ‘Path of Souls’
A floating bridge of Heaven
Hawaii and Polynesia
Path to the Upper world
A bridge that connects the homes of gods and humans.
New Zealand
Entry to the afterlife
The base or pointing to highest point of a rainbow would bring death
A pot of gold at base of the rainbow protected by a mischievous Leprechaun
Australia Aborigines
Rainbow Serpent, creator of water, punishes those that break laws and lives under the waterfall
Path between Olympus and Earth, realm to the Gods
Iris: Goddess of the rainbow
Bow, God of thunder, rainbows, lightening and rain or of Love
Rainbows and Cultures
Path of Souls
Rainbow bridge
Yggdrasil, The World Tree in Norse Mythology
Rainbow Serpent
Laiekawai is the Hawaiian Goddess of the rainbow
Rainbow Flags
The use of rainbow flags has a long tradition; they are displayed in many cultures around the world as a sign of diversity and inclusiveness, of hope and of yearning
Gay Pride Flag
Italian Peace Flag
International Co-operative Movement Flag
Inca Empire Flag
Rainbows play a part in many myths and stories related to gender and sexuality issues in Greek, Native American, African, and other cultures.
red: light
orange: healing
yellow: sun
green: calmness
blue: art
lilac: the spirit
Art Culture
Because of the peacefulness and colourfulness of the rainbow, and it's overall beauty, the rainbow is often a popular choice for drawing or painting . And also very inspirational.
Overall, the rainbow is a very common inspiration in the whole arts society. For instance, the rainbow is often written about in poems, songs, or books. Rainbows make things more fun and bright!
Jons Kenton - Rainbow
Creation Stories
In some cultures, there are myths about how rainbows occur, or why they occur
The Rainbow Connection
-By Sarah McLaglan
Colours of white light
The sunlight is composed of several different colours that the human eye doesn't see separately
Sir Isaac Newton
When you look at the sun at noon, it appears as white
The sun colour spectrum
Light is made of a series of colours: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo and violet. Called visible spectra
Also comprises two other colours that we cant see:
infrared (that our eyes can’t detect but that our skin can feel, as heat)
ultraviolet (that cause sunburn)
Primary rainbow colours
Secondary Rainbows
Rainbows can only happen in dawn and late afternoon, this is because for a rainbow to occur the sun needs to be low - the sun also has to be behind you, and the rain in front.
There are 7 different types of rainbows
Primary Rainbow
Secondary Rainbow
Spurious or Supernumerary bow
Lunar Rainbow
Red Rainbow
Full Circle Rainbow
Light can be reflected more than once inside the raindrop. Rays escaping after two reflections make a secondary bow
The secondary bow has a radius of 51º and is outside the primary bow. It is broader, and its colours are reversed so that the reds of the two bows always face one another. The secondary is nearly always fainter than the primary. Its colours are reversed and more widely separated.
There is also a dark band between the primary and secondary bows that is called Alexander’s Dark Band.
Alexander of Aphrodisias first described the effect in 200 AD and it now carries his name.
Raindrops along lines of sight between the two bows cannot send light to your eye and so the sky is darker there.
Full Circle Rainbows
Newton originally named only five primary colours: red, yellow, green, blue and violet.
Later he included orange and indigo
If you can get up high enough in the sky (in an airplane), you would be able to see the rest of the rainbow. Pilots high in the sky sometimes even report seeing genuine full-circle rainbows.
When the sun and rain combine to make a rainbow, they really make a full-circle rainbow. We can't see all of the circle, because the horizon blocks it from our view.
Spurious or Supernumerary bow
Alexander's Dark Band
The supernumeraries are the closely spaced , pink and purple arcs on the inner side of the primary bow. If you look slightly inside a bright primary bow, sometimes you will see the supernumeraries. Supernumeraries are created by small, almost same sized raindrops.

The result, dark and light bands inside the primary bow and a broadening of it
When the wave crests leave the water drop they are no longer always in phase.
When completely out of phase the waves cancel and there is darkness.
When in phase there is light.
Lunar Rainbow
Red Rainbow
Eventually when the sun is 42º high only the tip of the bow is visible above the horizon.
At sunrise or sunset a rainbow's center, the anti solar point, is on the horizon. The rainbow is half in the sky, a semicircle.
As the sun rises the bow's center sinks.
The occurrence of a rainbow is due to the interaction of light with air and water and the boundaries between them. In a rainbow, raindrops in the air act as tiny prisms. Light enters the raindrop, reflects off of the side of the drop and exits. In the process, it is broken into a spectrum just like it is in a triangular glass prism.
The angle between the ray of light coming in and the ray coming out of the drops is 42 degrees for red and 40 degrees for violet.
The water droplets are so small, they can barley form the spectrum of colours we see in a rainbow.
Fogbows form by light refracting through the tiny droplets of water in the fog.
Fogbows are almost as large as rainbows but much broader.
On hills, mountains and in cold sea mists are where you will most often see a fogbow. But, they can still be found anywhere provided there is thin fog and fairly bright sunshine.
Fogbows are almost white with faint reds on the outside and blues inside. The colours are so washed out because the bow in each colour is very broad and the colours overlap.
Lunar rainbows are rare because moonlight is not very bright. Though they are still formed the same way as rainbows, so a bright moon near to full is needed, it must be raining
To the unaided eye they usually appear without colour because their light is not bright enough to activate the cone colour receptors in our eyes. Though colours still may be seen if the moon is bright enough
opposite the moon, the sky must be dark and the moon must be less than 42º high.
Red bows need a low sun so that the blue and green of its rays are weakened by scattering during the long journey through the atmosphere.
Sunset and sunrise rays travel long paths through the lower atmosphere where they are scattered by air molecules and dust.
Short wavelength blues and greens are scattered most strongly leaving the remaining transmitted light proportionately richer in reds and yellows. The result, red rainbows.
Isaac Newton, discovered how to produce the colours of the rainbow using a glass prism and a slit of light.
Bill Nye; Light and Colour
Things you're using:
Glass cup
White paper
1. Place mirror inside glass cup(make sure the mirror is clean and does not have finger prints). Rest the mirror inside the glass at a 45-degree angle.
2. Fill the glass cup with water
3. Place the glass on table, and have someone in your group hold white paper infront of the cup facing the mirror
4. Once all the lights in the room are off turn on your flash lights. Have a second person in your group shine the flash light on the mirror. Adjust the paper until you see a rainbow
The light reflects off the mirror through the water and onto the paper. The water molecules bend the light and create a rainbow on the paper
Arcana Caelestia
Arcana Caelestia, or Heavenly Secrets as some call it, is the first and longest of Emanuel Swedenborg's works, consists of eight Latin volumes, or twelve in the current English translation.

a new beginning when the old is swept away
unbroken divine love and care
the cyclical evolving of a new world
In this transformal story the rainbow is called a divine covenant sign - in other terms a life and death promise ... a divine pledge of:
Swedenborg explains that the rainbow represents the regenerate spiritual person
The main seven colours symbolise wholeness or holiness
He also speaks of the variety of rainbows sometimes seen around those in the spiritual realms - the rainbow of the 'aura', as it is sometimes called, picturing the spiritual state of the person.
Yoga teaches that there are seven centres or chakras in the human body. These are spiritual centres
There are 7 chakras that are linked in relation of the sequence of the colours of the rainbow
Each chakra represents an aspect of one's soul
There for the rainbow represents the entire soul and life in one's body
Red is the color of fire and blood, so it is associated with energy, war, danger, strength, power, determination as well as passion, desire, and love.

Orange combines the energy of red and the happiness of yellow. It is associated with joy, sunshine, and the tropics. Orange represents enthusiasm, fascination, happiness, creativity, determination, attraction, success, encouragement, and stimulation.

Yellow is the color of sunshine. It's associated with joy, happiness, intellect, and energy.

Green is the color of nature. It symbolizes growth, harmony, freshness, and fertility. Green has strong emotional correspondence with safety. Dark green is also commonly associated with money.

Blue is the color of the sky and sea. It is often associated with depth and stability. It symbolizes trust, loyalty, wisdom, confidence, intelligence, faith, truth, and heaven.

Indigo is a combination of blue and violet and holds the attributes of both these colors. Indigo represents great devotion, wisdom and justice along with fairness and impartiality. it is the color of intuition, perception and the higher mind.

Purple combines the stability of blue and the energy of red. Purple is associated with royalty. It symbolizes power, nobility, luxury, and ambition. It conveys wealth and extravagance. Purple is associated with wisdom, dignity, independence, creativity, mystery, and magic.
If there was one other colour in the rainbow, what do you think it should be and what would the colour represent
Reflective Emotions and Representations
Now, you get to try to partisipate in rainbow art culture. You can either draw a picture of a rainbow or write a poem on a rainbow.
Crow Indians called the Great Plains "the country of big sky". It is one of the World's best places to watch thunderstorms and rainbows. More tornadoes and supercell thunderstorms occur here than in any other part of the planet. The peak season is late April to early July, and the average date with most tornadoes is May 17
Top Rainbow Locations
The Great Plains (Tornado Alley) - Lubbock, Texas
Guyana Highlands - South Eastern Venezuela
Altai Mountains - Eurasia, Altai
West Spanish Peak - Colorado
Anjel Fall - Venezuela
The most beautiful place to look for rainbows is the south-eastern part of Venezuela, sometimes called Guyana Highlands. Hundreds of waterfalls, many of them more than half a mile tall, drop from the cliffs of the famous tepuis - spectacular mesa-like mountains.
In the Old World, one of the best places to see rainbows is in Altai Mountains. The meteorological crossroads of Eurasia, Altai gets summer rains from all directions, and rainbows can be seen almost daily from mid-May to early August.
In West Spanish Peak, after a thunderstorm is most likley when you'll see a rainbow. The mountains are so high, you can sometimes even see full circle rainbows. But best of all, the rainbows are so pure and bright at the West Spanish Peak.
Anjel Fall is the tallest (more than 1 km), and the most beautiful waterfall on Earth. If you are lucky to get there in a sunny day after a rain, you can see dozens of rainbows as the river flies down through layers of clouds and fog.
Where NOT to Look
The Arctic is not common for a rainbow because it is usually too cold there to have rain, it only snows. Therefor, a rainbow cannot occur. Though sometimes in the summer a short rain shower may occur if it is warm enough.
The tropics is not an ideal place for a rainbow either, because there the sun is too high overhead during most of the daytime. Still, if you are in the mountains, you sometimes can see the rainbow by looking downhill.
Again, desserts are not quite a great rainbow spotting area either. Desserts tend to be dry and it does not rain allot there. Which lowers the chance of a rainbow to occur.
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