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Events leading up to: The Road to the Civil War
Transcript of Events leading up to: The Road to the Civil War
The Road to the
1820: The Missouri Compromise
The FIRST Missouri Compromise
1845: Texas Annexation
The Republic of Texas is admitted to the Union as the 28th state
The U.S. inherited Texas' border dispute with Mexico which led to the Mexican-American War
1846-1848: War with Mexico
The US and Mexico go to war
American forces occupy Mexico City
The war ends with a US victory
The Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo is signed
Forced Mexico to cede territory to the US in exchange for $15 million
Compromise between the pro-slavery and anti-slavery factions in the United States Congress
Regulated slavery in the western territories
Prohibited slavery in the former Louisiana Territory, north of the parallel 36°30′ N except within Missouri
Intended to keep a balance between free and slave states
1848: Mexican Cession
The region of the present day southwestern United States that Mexico ceded to the U.S. in the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
1846 and 1847: Wilmot Proviso
Proposed by Congressman David Wilmot
Would have banned slavery in any territory to be acquired from Mexico in the Mexican War
Failed to pass in the Senate (where the South had more representation)
1848: California Gold Rush
Gold is discovered at Sutter's Mill in California
By 1849, a flood of 49ers head west looking for gold
Cities like San Francisco grow quickly
The railroad stretches from coast to coast
California grows so quickly, it becomes eligible to become a state
1850: The Compromise of 1850
Designed by Henry Clay to create a compromise between slave and free states
California = free state
Mexican Cession states - could decide for themselves on free or slave
Slave trade banned in Washington, DC
Fugitive Slave Act
1850: The Fugitive Slave Act
Law requiring that all runaway slaves must be returned to their masters
Abolitionists saw it as an attempt to spread slavery to the North
Free Blacks were often kidnapped and taken into slavery
Led to more anti-slavery resistance in the North
1852: Uncle Tom's Cabin
Anti-slavery novel by Harriet Beecher Stowe
2nd best selling book of the 19th century (1800s) after the Bible
Lincoln supposedly said to Stowe: "So this is the little lady who started this great war."
1854: Kansas-Nebraska Act
Created the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, opening new lands for settlement
Repealed the Missouri Compromise by allowing settlers in those territories to determine through Popular Sovereignty whether they would allow slavery within each territory
Pro- and anti-slavery elements flooded into Kansas with the goal of voting slavery up or down, leading to conflicts there
Formed to fight Kansas-Nebraska Act
Pro-business, roads, and tariffs
1854-1861: Bleeding Kansas
Mass immigration to Kansas by pro- and anti- slavery people
Inspired by an incident in the US Senate, John Brown and his followers attack and kill a large group of pro-slavery people
1855: The Attack on Charles Sumner
Sumner gives an anti-slavery speech in the US Senate
S. Carolina Congressman Preston Brooks attacks him with his cane
Sumner is so badly injured he can't work for 3 years
Event angered anti-slavery activists like John Brown
Republican Party opposed the extension of slavery into the territories — "Free speech, free press, free soil, free men, Frémont and victory!"
Democrats supported Kansas-Nebraska Act, warned that southern states would secede if Republicans won
Know Nothing Party ignored the slavery issue in favor of anti-immigration policies
Democrat James Buchanan wins
1856: Presidential Election
1857: Dred Scott Case
1857: Dred Scott Case
Dred Scott and his wife were slaves
Taken by owner to live in states and territories where slavery was illegal
Sued for his freedom
Case went to the Supreme Court
(under Chief Justice RogerTaney
) ruled he wasn't a citizen and could not sue
He is ruled property, not a person, under the law
1858: Lincoln Douglas Debates
7 debates in Illinois between Lincoln (R) and Douglas (D)
Previewed issues Lincoln would deal with as president
Major topic: slavery
Lincoln's fame increased, leading to a nomination for president
1859: The Attack on Harpers Ferry
John Brown leads an unsuccessful attack on Harpers Ferry, attempting to get weapons to arm slaves
Captured and hanged
Becomes a martyr for the abolitionist cause
Convinces South that abolitionists are causing slave rebellions
Brown is frustrated by the pacifism of the abolitionist movement
Believes he is an instrument of God, sent to punish slave owners
1860: The Election of Lincoln
Divisions in the South allow the Republicans to win the presidency
Though Lincoln has told them he will not end slavery, Southern states declare they will secede
1860: The Election of Lincoln
Henry clay crafted the Compromise of 1850. Daniel Webster supported it for the sake of the union. Stephen Douglas had the job of winning passage. By the end of September, Douglas succeeded and the plan, now known as the compromise of 1850 became a law!
John Charles Frémont or Fremont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890) was an American military officer, explorer, and the first candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party for the office of President of the United States
Abraham Lincoln Elected President (November 6, 1860) - Abraham Lincoln was from the northern part of the country and wanted to put an end to slavery. The southern states didn't want him president or making laws that would affect them.
South Carolina Secedes (Dec. 20, 1860) - South Carolina became the first state to secede, or leave, the United States. They decided to make their own country rather than be part of the USA. Within a few months several other states including Georgia, Mississippi, Texas, Florida, Alabama, and Louisiana would also leave the Union.
The Confederation is formed (Feb. 9, 1861) - The southern states form their own country called the Confederate States of America. Jefferson Davis is their president.
Abraham Lincoln becomes President (March 4, 1861) - Now that President Lincoln is in office, he wants to restore the Union. In other words, get all the states back into the same country.
The Civil War
The Civil War Begins (April 12, 1861) - The South attacks Fort Sumter South Carolina and starts the war.
More States leave the Union (April 1861) - within a short period of time Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, and Arkansas all leave the Union to join the Confederacy.
In 1855, after assisting the escape of several slaves, Brown and his five sons moved to Kansas just after that territory had been opened for the possible expansion of slavery by the Kansas-Nebraska Act
He and his sons murdered five reputedly proslavery settlers who lived along Pottawottamie Creek
we will hear more from him later......
On April 12, 1861, General P.G.T. Beauregard, in command of the Confederate forces around Charleston Harbor, opened fire on the Union garrison holding Fort Sumter. At 2:30pm on April 13 Major Robert Anderson, garrison commander, surrendered the fort and was evacuated the next day.
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