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Ling Zhi Yong

on 20 March 2015

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Early Years (Spanish Period 1521-1900)
20 March 2015
History of Philippines Press
Strong popular support for a free media among Filipinos.

Tradition of a fighting, anti-colonial press.

The Spaniards, the Americans, and the Japanese during World War II.

Pursuing of the colonial agenda.

Imposed stringent censorship.

Anti-colonial movements employed clandestine newspapers in their fight against the colonial masters.
The Samizdat
tradition remains strong, underground papers.

The press system is much like those in Europe and the United States because of the succession of colonial regimes.

Aspirations and ambitions of the Filipino elites also moulded the media.

There is no tradition of state- or party owned presses or broadcasting entities.

Newspapers, radio and television have always been in private hands.

Broadcasting, heavily commercial in orientation - Spurred largely by the drive for profits and for political influence.

Early 19th Century, newspapers were the carriers of political ideas.

Late 19th Century, newspapers helped in raising awareness
- Evils of nearly 400 years of Spanish colonial rule.
- In birthing the idea of an independent Philippine nation.

Profitable during war periods.
The newspaper editor Jose Luna Castro (1967) wrote that since the 19th century the Philippine press had been torn between
- “open and subsidized collaboration with the establishment”.
- “association with the dissenters of the day’.

Define the character of Philippines Journalism.
Post-Marcos Era; It's Implications
Joseph Estrada
and His Influence
on Media
Macro Eras
Ferdinand Marcos, elected president in
1965 – 1986.
Martial Law
= suspension of civil rights and forced military authority over the country.
Closed all newspaper & broadcasting stations.
Journalists and publishers were arrested or assassinated.
Philippines Express Daily
was allowed to publish.
Strict government suspension.
Military censor
on stories that did not contribute to “an atmosphere of tranquillity”.
Former Senator Benigno Aquino Jr.’s assassination.

Publication of his death, rallies and demonstrations were banned.

Opposition press rose in popularity
- Rebelled against the rules and eventually exposed regime’s abuses.

Public protest led by Aquino's wife, Cory.

People Power Revolution
Boycott business with ties to the Marcos’ regime.

The 1986 election exposed the full extent of corruption and the resistance of the Philippines.
Radio Veritas
- Primary communication platform.
- To inform Filipinos of political developments.
- Organize nonviolent protests.
- Carries news of Senator Aquino’s assassination.
- Spurred two million supporters to come to his funeral.

On February 7, 1986, Marcos held a snap election
- Nonviolent resistance movement.
- Mass mobilization effort at Epifanio De Los Santos Avenida.
- In support of the military resignations of General Ramos and Defense Minister Enrile on February 22.




New-hungry public = media explosion

Established entrepreneurs and big business families dominated media ownerships
- e.g
Philippine Daily Inquirer, Ang Pahayagang Malaya (The Free Newspaper)

Market-oriented media.

Opting out of the profession.
Corruption of journalists/ politicians/

Envelopmental journalism

considered pervasive.

Reluctance or inability of editors and publishers to enforce ethical standards of public relations people.

Corruption was still a way of life

Elected president in 1998 – 2001.

Formerly a movie action star.

Very conscious and intolerant of media criticism towards his media image.

Tried to control the media in two ways
- Intimidation
- Corruption

Understood that media freedom can be better controlled through market mechanisms rather than using force.
Used non-state mechanisms to clamp down on critical press.

Used “Envelopmental Journalism” to maintain favourable coverage.

Muzzled the press by putting pressure on media proprietors
- ABS-CBN’s network owner, Lopezes, pressured when reporting about the president when a family member marries President Estrada’s daughter.

Used advertisers to tighten to noose around critical news organizations.

Contributed to a virtual “privatisation” of media repression.
Activists, civic groups, organizations and opposition politicians resorted to
email-groups, websites and SMS

Journalists encouraged by editors to dig the dirt on the president.

Bribes and the fear factor no longer worked.
The Media during the Fight Against Estrada
Impeachment trial began in December 2000.

Live coverage of the trial from day one.

The Estrada crisis showed that the market can dictate and demand better and more independent reporting.
1637 - Successos Felices (Fortunate Events) is the first Philippine newsletter was launched by Tomas Pinpin who is known as "The Father of Filipino Printing".

Published to Advocate Political Reformation

La Solidaridad
focused on the Propaganda Movement.

- To raise the level of consciousness with respect to oppressive conditions prevailing in the country then.
La Independencia
La Libertad 
(1898), and
El Heraldo de Iloilo

December 18, 1898 -
La Revolution
 was focused on explaining that  “our claims are as great as our strength” and it aimed “to defend the rights that the Filipino have won.” It was published in Jaro, Iloilo.

March 24, 1899 -
Columnas Volantes
was published in Lipa, Batngas.  It contained  articles about general politics and military movements.  It was published by young professionals, who belonged to the Club Democratico Independiente.

November 18, 1899 -
Filipinas Ante Europa
El Defensor de Filipinas
, were published in Barcelona, Spain.  It was edited by Isabelo de los Reyes.
American Period (1898-1940)
The Manila Times (1898), The Bounding Billow and Official Gazette (1898), Manila Daily Bulletin (1900), and the Philippine Free Press (1908).

Manila Times founded by an Englishman, Thomas Cowan, came out on October 11, 1898. It closed after 32 years but later reopened with new owners.

This was the age of Modern Media characterized by the Introduction of new newspapers in 1898.

In 1919, the University of the Philippines offered formal degree in journalism/communication courses in country and Asia.
Japanese Period (1941-1944)

Manila Tribune, Taliba and La Vanguardia were allowed to publish under regular censorship by the Japanese Imperial Army.

Underground press.

The Board of Information was created by the Japanese Army and Osaka Mainichi Publishing Company.
The Golden Age
Philippine Journalism
Press censorship ended.

Pre-martial law period (1945-1972).

The Philippine press began to be known as "the freest in Asia”.

The press functioned as a real watchdog of the government, it was sensitive to national issues and critical of government mistakes and abuses.

In 1952, the National Press Club was organized "to promote cooperation among journalists and uphold press freedom and the dignity of journalists.
Marcos Years: Controlled and Alternative Press (1972 – 1985)
He take over and control of all privately owned newspapers, magazines, radio and television facilities and all other media communications.

Editors and journalists were among the first to be arrested and incarcerated in military prison camps.

Only the 
Daily Express
Bulletin Today
(Manila Bulletin)
were allowed to re-open.
Newspapers were later to be known as "establishment press”.

Among the outstanding heroes during the struggle against the Marcos regime was Joaquin "Chino" Roces, publisher of the pre-martial law 
The Manila Times
 and regarded as the Grand Old Man of Philippine journalism.
Democratic Period 1980
ESDA Period 1986
The assassination of opposition leader Ninoy Aquino, Jr. in August 1983 proved to be a turning point in media. There emerged what was then known as alternative media - radio and newspapers which defied government instructions on how to handle news stories.

Alternative media enjoyed greater credibility than pro- Marcos "establishment media.“

More dynamic media.
Newspaper Today
Largest are Luzon in the north
Mindanao in the south
Manila Bulletin
Philippine Daily Inquirer
Philippine Star
Manila Times
The Daily Tribune

Daily National Newspaper
Manila Bulletin
 (280,000 on weekdays and 300,000 on Sundays).
Philippine Daily Inquirer
, (260,000 and 280,000 respectively)
Philippine Star
Tabloids are written in Taglish, a combination of English and Filipino and have an entertainment gossip slant.
The most popular tabloid is 
 with a claimed circulation of 417,600. Another favorite is
 People’s Journal
 with claimed circulation of 382,000.
1998 Philippines Media Fact Book
Founded on February 2, 1900 for the purpose of engaging in the publishing business.
Manila Bulletin Publishing Corporation.
It started as a commercial newspaper, publishing advertisements of shipping company.
The oldest newspaper published in the country and the second oldest English newspaper in the Far East. 
Founded on December 9, 1985, the first private newspapers to be established under the Marcos regime.
Philippine Daily Inquirer, Inc.
INQUIRER.net is the official news website and member of the Inquirer Group of Companies.
Founded on July 28, 1986.
Philippine news and entertainment portal for the Filipino global community.
MediaQuest Holdings (51%).
It is the online presence of the STAR Group of Publications, a leading publisher of newspapers and magazines in the Philippines.
Local Newspaper
Abante (Manila)
Baguio Midland Courier (Cordillera)
Bicol Mail (Bicol) 
Bicol Standard (Bicol) 
Cebu Daily News (Central Visaya) 
Cebu Daily News
Daily Dipolongnon (Dipolog) 
Daily Guardian (Western Visaya)
Davao Today (Davao)
Inquirer Libre (Manila)
Island Sentinel (Mimaropa)
Mindanao Times (Davao)
MindaNews (Davao)
Negros Chronicle (Dumaguete) 
News Today (Western Visaya) 
Northern Dispatch Weekly (Cordillera, Cagayan Valley)
Nueva Ecija Journal (Nueva Ecija) 
Punto Central Luzon (San Fernando) 
Samar News (Eastern Visaya) 
Sunday Punch (Pangasinan) 
Visayan Daily Star (Bacolod)
Vox Bikol (Bicol)
Business Paper
Only published on weekends:

Business World
Business Mirror
Chinese Broadsheets
Universal Daily News
China Times
World News
United Daily News
Chinese Commercial News
Mostly published in Binondo, Manila's Chinatown
It keeps the community informed.

Newspaper pages have served as an effective forum for dialogue (and even debate) on national and local issues.

The increasing number of investigative stories focusing on diverse issues — graft and corruption in government (and business), environment, human rights, agrarian and urban land reform, and the Marcos hidden wealth.
Bad News
It may or may not affect the readers' decision.

It is exaggerating an non-issue/event or a "minor" one so as to create a startling or scandalous effect.

It is unwritten "editorial policy" in order to "sell" or increase circulation and of course, attract more advertisers.

Many Manila broadsheets work for local politicians, the police and military, the Philippine Information Agency, and broadcasting.

Culture of corruption can actually decides the result of election.
Introduced in 1922.

1st commercial radio station – KZKZ.

Oldest existing radio station – DZRH.

Dramatic growth since Marcos’s Fall.

June 2007 – 382 AM and 628 FM radio stations.

Survey 2004 – 20 hours on average listening to radio in Manila and Cebu.
Introduced in 1953 – Alto Broadcasting System (ABS) made it’s 1st telecast as DZAQ-TV Channel 3.

Television ratings compiled by
- AGB Nielsen
- Kantar Media
History 1946-1959
James Lindenberg – “Father of Philippine Television”.

Antonio Quirino’s request for television station license.

Antonio Quirino took over Lindenberg’s company and established Alto Broadcasting System (ABS).

Prior to the 1st telecast Antonio Quirino initiated the import of 120 television sets.
History 1946-1959, cont.
DZAQ-TV3 started on a 4 hours a day schedule.

Telecasted programs - borrowed movies.

Next – stage plays were transported to television.

Rights to air American TV programs and series.

The Lopez Brothers were in control of the TV media at this time.

History 1960-1972
More VHF TV stations were opened.

BEC’s Channel 3

1969 – Filipinos witnessed the live television coverage of Apollo 11 historic landing.

By 1960s news and public affairs programs were pioneered by Channel 2 and 5.

The 3rd country in the world to manufacture color TV sets.
History 1972-1986
Marcos Era.

Takeover of media firms.

All materials are reviewed before aired.

Kapisanan ng mga Brodkaster sa Pilipinas - 1973.

Broadcast Media Council - Presidential decree.

Used TV programs / events to misinform the world that Philippines was doing well.
History 1986-Present
1986 – Marcos’s regime came to an end.

ABS-CBN were returned to it’s owners.

In 1990s many UHF stations were launched.

Digital cable introduced in 2006.

Largest cable TV provider – Sky Cable Corporation.
Major Television Network
ABS-CBN Corporation

Associated Broadcasting Company (TV5)

GMA Network, Inc (GMA)

Radio Philippines Network (RPN)
Government Owned Networks
People’s Television Network (PTV)
- Established in 1974.
- Changed the name during Marcos era to Maharlika Broadcasting System (MBS).

Intercontinental Broadcasting Corporation (IBC)
- DZTV-TV 13 in 1977, run by Andres Soriano.
- In 1989, it was sequestered together with RPN.

Statistics – Access to TV 2008
Statistics – Media Popularity 2008
Metro Manila
1. Television
2. Newspapers
3. Radio
4. Cable TV
5. Magazines

Outside the capital
1. Television
2. Radio
3. Newspaper
- Media is a powerful tool
Plays an important role in political scenes.

Political leaders uses the same strategy.

Current ruling government controls the media.

Opposition uses media to fight against the government.

People get to know the truth through media.
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