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World Politics

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Mallory Baldwin

on 4 April 2014

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Transcript of World Politics

Developing countries
Annalee Lane
Kathryn Palombo
Katy Schumacher
Courteny Jones
Mallory Baldwin

Characteristics of a developing country
One or two developed cities
Agrarian and rural
Widespread poverty
Very little industrialization
Technologically less advanced
High rates of illiteracy, disease, population growth
Weak or no centralized government
Need for foreign aid
Ecuador
República del Ecuador (Republic of the Equator)
Presidential Republic- President Rafeal Correa
94% of population speaks Spanish (13 others)
Life expectancy (2011): 76
Paraguay
Language: Spanish, Guarani
Population: 6.687 million
Ethnicity: 95% Mestizo. 5% White
Government: Presidential, Constitutional Republic
Area: 157,048 sq mi, 2.3% water
GDP (nominal): $30.5 billion
Income Level: Lower middle
Somalia
Capital: Mogadishu
Located on what is called "The Horn of Africa"
Surrounding Countries: Kenya, Ethiopia, Djibouti
Known as the Federal Republic of Somalia
President: Hassan Sheikh Mohamud



India
Known as the Republic of India
President: Pranab Mukherjee
Located in South Asia
Seventh largest country by area
Second most populous
Nepal
Sources
Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, n.d. Web. 27 Mar. 2014.
"Military." Somalia Civil War. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Apr. 2014.
"Somalia Economy." Somalia Economy. N.p., n.d. Web. 29 Mar. 2014
"Somalia." Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014.
"Somalia." Somalia. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014.
"United Nations Department of Political Affairs - Somalia." UN News Center. UN, n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014.
"THIRD WORLD:definitions and Descriptions." Third World Definition. N.p., n.d. Web. 30 Mar. 2014.
"UN Envoy Speaks about Somalia." YouTube. YouTube, 04 Nov. 2013. Web. 30 Mar. 2014.


Culture and languages
99.9% are Muslim (Sunni)
Somali is the official language. Other languages also spoken include Arabic, Italian, and English.
Over 10 million people
85% Somali, 15% Bantu and other non-Somali
38% literate
Primarily agrarian
High risk of disease: typhoid fever, hepatitis A and E, dengue fever, malaria, Rift alley Fever, schistosomiasis, rabies
Life expectancy of around 50 for both males and females

Economy
Currency is the Somali shilling
Light industries: sugar refining, textiles, some petroleum
Crops: bananas, sorghum, corn, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats, fish
Natural resources: uranium and unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt
Small fishing industries in the north

Contributing factors
Livestock exports have been reduced due to health regulations
Rainfall is scarce for production
Lack of natural resources
Poaching in fishing territories
Lack of centralized government and counterfeiting has decreased value of Somalia's currency
30,000 shillings is the equivalent of one US dollar
Lack of proper technology to produce goods or products
Less regulations
No railways
Roads have little maintenance
Lack of security and maintenance make it difficult to establish functioning ports
Worst drought they had ever seen and a crippling civil war in 1992
Capital: Asuncion
Languages & Population
Home to 1.2 billion people
22 scheduled languages
Hindi and English Dominant Languages
350 million speak English
258–422 million speak Hindi
Population: 940 females per 1,000 males
2011 census
Income of
Developing Nations

World Bank:
4 income groups are set each year on July 1. Economies divided according to GNI per capita using the ranges of income.
*This is an abbreviated list of developing countries.
Definitions of Poverty
Chronic poverty
: describes people who are poor for significant periods of their lives, who may pass their poverty onto their children, and for whom finding exit routes from poverty is difficult.

Severity of poverty
is a description of the degree of poverty. (Dhamija, and Bhide 674)
Front
Back
Asuncion, Paraguay
Government
Paraguay is a representative democratic republic, with a multi-party system and separation of powers in three branches.
1. Executive power is solely the President (head of state and head of government).
2. Legislative power is the two chambers of the National Congress.
3. The judiciary is Courts of Civil Law and a nine-member Supreme Court of Justice.
Political Structure
Head of state: President, currently Ram Baran Yadav
Legal System- Supreme Court acts as the court of appeal and review, has powers of original jurisdiction—16 appellate courts and 75 district courts
National Government- 2 largest parties—the Nepali Council and the Communist Party of Nepal
National elections- last one was held in November 2013
Economic Structure
One of the poorest and least developed countries in the world
One-quarter of the population living below the poverty line
Agriculture provides a livelihood for 3/4ths of the population
Industrial activity mainly involves the processing of agricultural products
Challenges in Nepal’s growth include its landlocked location, civil strife, labor unrest, and its susceptibility to natural disaster
Population below the poverty line- 25.2%
Labor force- 18 million
Unemployment rate-46%
Agricultural products- pulses, rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, jute, root crops
Exports-clothing, pulses, carpets, textiles, juice, pashmina
Imports- petroleum products, machinery and equipment, gold, electrical goods, medicine
Located in Southern Asia between China and India
Population: 26.6 million
Sixty ethnic groups that speak 70 different dialects and 11 major languages
Major Religions: Hinduism (86%) and Buddhism (8%)
Population Issues
Overpopulation in Nepal has contributed to major amounts of pollution
About 1 million of Nepal`s 20 million residents are crowded into the capital of Nepal, the Katmandu valley, which is a little more than 12 by 14 miles
About 30 years ago Katmandu's population was 121,000, today it is about half a million and it is expected to double by the year 2020
Both Human and Industrial waste pollutes the rivers, and drinking water is minimal, tis is the biggest issue they are facing there
Housing is minimal in Katmandu and most families end up living in one room
The overpopulation is such an issue that lots of money and assistance have been given from international donors, including the World Bank, the Asian Development Bank, and lots of nonprofit organizations
President Ram Baran Yadav
Farming Issues
Terrain is rugged, rainfall is minimal, and the soil is of poor quality and difficult to farm
About 80% of Nepal's people rely on farming for their livelihoods
Land ownership has been historically done under a feudal system
Since the farmland was included in land ownership, lots of people were never able to work their way up and out of poverty because they were never given the opportunity
Political Structure for the Past Two Decades
Siad Barre regime ousted in January 1991 followed by anarchy and severe turmoil that Somalia is still recovering from
Somalia has been without a centralized government since Barre
In May of 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland: Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool
Bari and Nugaal declared themselves the Republic of Puntland
Transitional National Government created in October 2000
Transitional Federal Government created in December 2006
Foreign Aid
1993, two-year UN humanitarian aid effort alleviated some famine conditions, but withdrew in 1995 due to suffering some casualties while order had still not been restored
UN Assistance Mission in Somalia (UNSOM) coordinate the efforts to achieve peace, reconciliation, and stability
What exactly is wrong with Somalia?
Famine (1992 famine killed over 300,000 people)
Disease
Lack of medicines
No education
Unemployment
Lack of technology
Child soldiers
Pirates
Fragile government
Conflict with the al-Shabaab
"The period 2006-2011 was marked by the December 2006 intervention by Ethiopian troops, which by January 2007 had effectively dispersed the Islamic courts (Somali Islamic Courts Council). In its place, the militant wing al-Shabaab continued to fight against the TFG and foreign forces, and by 2008 it had regained control of much of southern Somalia, the territory held by the Islamic courts in 2006. Repeating the pattern of the Ethiopian intervention, in October 2011, at the invitation of the Somali Transitional Federal Government, the Kenyan Government launched Operation Protect the Country against the al-Shabaab, which retained control of parts of southern Somalia, though the TNG was installed in Mogadishu"("Military.")
Current Concerns
W.H.O: ~900,000 Indians die each year
contaminated water & polluted air
Discrimination much higher in rural areas
over 70% of population in rural areas
majority of poverty stricken are "casteless" & "untouchables"
"Caste System" Crimes
Female infanticide/foeticide
Child marriages
Bride burnings
Religion & Culture
2001 census:
Hinduism - (80.5% of population)
800 million adherents
Islam (13.4%)
Christianity (2.3%)
Sikhism (1.9%)
Buddhism (0.8%)
Cultural Controversy: "Caste System"
The Indian Caste System: A social hierarchy
Caste-based discrimination (hereditary)
Contemporary scholars argue system constructed by British colonial regime
Most prominent in rural India
Includes non-Hindu as "casteless"
What's Being Done
About Poverty & Discrimination?
1947 under Article 15 in Constitution of India
Caste system and untouchability illegal
anti-discriminatory laws & social welfare initiatives formed
Articles 341 & 342
Scheduled Castes/SC (Dalit) (16%)
Scheduled Tribes/ST (Adivassi) (8%)
Reservation of Jobs
Protection in urban areas
Caste Concerns
"Untouchables" inferior to "caste" Hindus
devaluation of worth as human beings
intense discrimination
denied access to Hindu wells
village schools: children made to sit away from caste Hindu children
women: frequently humiliated and violated
houses: located in low-lying parts of villages
liable to flooding
Government
Poverty Facts
Contributing Factors
Where to Go From Here
Horacio Cartes
Economy and Structure
Paraguay consists of seventeen departments and one capital district.
It is also divided into 2 regions: Chaco and the Oriental Region.
Language Breakdown by area:
Untouchables, Bihar, India, 2002
Sikh Activist Network:
Stop the crime against the Dalit ("untouchables")
Between 1970 and 2013 the country had the highest economic growth of South America, with an average rate of 7.2% per year.
% of people who lack a monthly income to cover basic needs
Rural areas: 41.20%
Urban centers: 27.6%

Top 10% of the population holds 43.8% of the national income.
The economic recession has worsened income inequality.
Caste System
1. Low income countries had GNI per capita of $1,026 or less.

2. Lower middle income countries had GNI per capita btw $1,026 and $4,036.

3. Upper middle income countries had GNI per capita btw $4,036 and $12,476.

4. High income countries had GNI above US$12,476.
Average Life Expectancy: 75 years, 8th highest in the Americas

Infant mortality was 20 per 1,000 births (2005)
Maternal mortality was 150 per 100,000 live births (2000)

Solution: The Mother and Child Basic Health Insurance Project.
Sources Cont'd
Allard, William A. Untouchables, Bihar, India. 2002. Photograph. National Geographic SocietyWeb. 3 Apr 2014.
Borooah, Vani. "Caste, Inequality, and Poverty in India."Review of Development Economics. 9.3 (2005): 399-414.
"Caste system in India." Wikipedia. N.p., 02 Apr 2014. Web. 2 Apr 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Caste_system_in_India>.
Dhamija, Nidhi, and Shashanka Bhide. "POVERTY IN RURAL INDIA: VARIATIONS IN FACTORS INFLUENCING DYNAMICS OF CHRONIC POVERTY." Journal of International Development. 25. (2013): 674-695. Web. 29 Mar. 2014.
Hensel, Julia. Chapter 2. Part.1 "the second night". 2010. Graphic. n.p. Web. 3 Apr 2014. <http://juliahensel.blogspot.com/2010/09/chapter-two-part.html>.
"Hinduism in India." Wikipedia. N.p., 26 Feb 2010. Web. 3 Apr 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:India_Hinduism11.png>.
"India." Wikipedia. N.p., 02 Apr 2014. Web. 2 Apr 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/India>.
"Languages with official status in India." Wikipedia. N.p., 25 Mar 2014. Web. 2 Apr 2014. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighth_Schedule_to_the_Constitution
Newborn baby girl found buried alive in Indian forest in ANOTHER tragic case of female infanticide Read. 2013. Photograph. LiveLeak.comWeb. 3 Apr 2014. <http://www.liveleak.com/view?i=935_1374710224&comments=1>.
Problems & Solutions
In 2012, Paraguay's government introduced the MERCOSUR(FOCEM) system in order to stimulate the economy and job growth through a partnership with both Brazil and Argentina.
Female Infanticide:
24 hour old baby girl buried alive
more likely to be ill
less likely to be adequately educated
more likely to cultivate marginal land
more likely to live in a climate of fear and oppression
Compared to "caste" Hindus:
"In short, the quality and quantity of their economic, educational, and psychosocial endowments are likely to be considerably inferior to that of Hindus.” (Borooah 412)
pushed onto a pile of burning rubbish
punished for walking on a path reserved for 'high' caste people
Kamlesh: 7
Caste related identification has lost much importance in urban workplaces
BUT, violence and discrimination still rampant in rural areas of India
Conclusion:
Sources Cont'd
Hinduism in India
Factors of Poverty
Lack of Education
Economic Structure
War & Disease
After World War II, politics became particularly unstable which brought about the Paraguayan Civil War of 1947.

In 1954, of the stable regime of dictator Alfredo Stroessner, who remained in office until 1989. Became an era of economic expansion, but also had a poor human rights and environmental record.
Land Concentration:
10% controls 66% land
30% are landless

This inequality has caused a great deal of tensions between the landless and land owners.

Illiteracy rate: Indigenous = 51%
General Pop. = 7.1%
2.5% of Paraguay's indigenous population has access to clean drinking water and only 9.5% have electricity.
United for your Home (2010)
Serves an extremely low-income population that lacks accessible financial services for housing, providing new houses and home rehabilitation.

For the Future of Our Children
The goal of this project is to support the improvement of living condition of families and the development of their children through safety, healthy and permanent houses.
http://lucieonthelam.files.wordpress.com/2012/06/kathmandu_street.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/c/c8/Kathmandu_Avion_01.JPG
http://www.timothysykes.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/09/kathmandu_trash.jpg
http://www.ekantipur.com/uploads/tkp/news/2012/gallery_07_07/Rambaran_Yadav_20120708082034.jpg
http://www.kailashjourneys.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/11/Ghandrung-Village-and-Annapurna-South-Nepal-Himalaya.jpg
http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/02117/nepal_2117497b.jpg
http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-KXzk_vK1pQg/TmvDHqaYJAI/AAAAAAAAAQM/mPmAv7DEYgU/s1600/countryside_of_nepal_by_bishwo-d3h0a7l.jpg
http://www.himalayanchildren.org/images/nepal/nepal-poverty.jpg
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Poverty_and_slums_in_Kathmandu_in_Nepal.jpg
http://nepalaheaven.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/02/nepal-flag2.gif
http://www.idsa.in/event/PoliticalDevelopmentsinNepalProblemsandProspects
http://www.ipcs.org/seminar/terrorism-in-nepal/nepal-internal-challenges-and-external-influences-933.html
http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/1993-08-01/news/9301270154_1_katmandu-world-bank-gateway-capital
http://www.indexmundi.com/nepal/economy_profile.html
http://country.eiu.com/article.aspx?articleid=1291548713&Country=Nepal&topic=Summary&subtopic=Political+structure
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/nepal.htm
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