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Transcript of Anatomy Timeline
Strives in Anatomy
384 BC – 322 BC
Alcmaeon of Croton
- Born in Crotona, Italy
- Physician and Anatomist who worked on dissecting animals
- First to locate and describe the optic nerve and Eustachian tube
- First to propose that the brain was responsible for consciousness, intelligence, & emotions.
- First to make inquiries that there are internal causes of illnesses
- Born in Agrigento, Italy
- Stated that the heart distributed heat to the body and that a substance he called pneuma flowed through the blood vessels.
(Father of Medicine)
- Born in Cos, Ancient Greece
- First to document nail clubbing
- Hippocrates stated that the environment can affect ones health in good or bad ways
- Observed disease and its effects on the body
- Believed that disease came from natural causes not from a higher power
- Spoke of the importance of the relationship between patient, physician, and disease in title diagnosis and treatment of illness.
- One of the most noted philosophers and scientists of the ancient world
- Studied the internal structure of animals because he was unable to study humans internally
- Said to have dissected over 50 different species of animals
- His dissections of plants and animals led to
the creation of the classification system
- animal embryology
The Ebers Papyrus
- Written in hieratic Egyptian writing
- Consists of 700 magical formulas and remedies
- Accurate description of the circulatory system
- Contains chapters on contraception, diagnosis of pregnancy and other gynecological matters, intestinal disease and parasites, eye and skin problems, dentistry and the surgical treatment of abscesses and tumors, bone-setting and burns.
- Oldest known surgical treatise on trauma
- Written right to left in Ancient Egypt's hieratic script (cursive form of Egyptian hieroglyphs)
- Consists of 48 cases pertaining to wounds and trauma
- Established that the heart, its vessels, liver, spleen, kidneys, hypothalamus, uterus and bladder were recognizable to the ancient egyptians
Edwin Smith Papyrus.
- Leader of a school of medicine in Alexandria
- Performed first dissection on a human with Herophilus.
- Considered plethora (hyperemia) to be the primary cause of disease
- Made note that some of our body parts were totally useless for other organisms
- Correlated many body parts with their right functions
- Ancient Chinese Physician
- Credited with being the first surgeon in the world to use the technique of general anesthesia
- Expert acupuncturis
Mondino de Luzzi
- Credited as the “restorer of anatomy”
- Staged public dissections
- Wrote the book, Anathomia Mundini which was deemed as the first european book since the classical antiquity that was fully devoted to anatomy
- First to reintroduce the systematic teaching of anatomy into the medical curriculum after this practice had been abandoned for many centuries
- Some of his anatomical theories of the body were inaccurate
Leonardo da Vinci
- One of the most significant artist-anatomist of all time
- Dissected human bodies
- Produced his most precisely drawn dissections
of the human body
- Greek Anatomist
- Known as, "The Father of Anatomy"
- Alongside Erasistratus performed the first
- Discovered new parts of the brain
- First to distinguish nerves from tendons
- Went more in depth of studying the human heart and its arteries and veins
- Greek Physician
- Stressed importance of clinical observation – examining a patient very thoroughly and noting their symptoms.
- Focused on the spinal cord and how the regulation of blood flowed
- Dissected pigs and apes and studied their bone structure and muscles
- Galen believed in the use of opposites – ex: if you were running a fever you'd be treated with something cold vice versa.
- Known as the "father of anatomy"
- At the age of 29 Andreas published his seven-volume De humani corporis fabrica (On the Structure of the Human Body), where he used the information from disections to lead anatomy in the direction of the scientific method.
-Harvey published a book on the motion of the heart and blood in animals.
Antonie Van Leewenhoek
-Used microscopes in his work.
-The use of microscopes allowed scientists to examine the fluids of the body, cells and tissue.
-Henry Gray is associated with the idea of gross human anatomy also known as Gray's Anatomy.
-Gross anatomy is the branch of anatomy that deals with the structure of organs and tissues that are visible to the naked eye.
-Harvey described accurately, for the first time, how blood is pumped by the contractions of the heart, circulates throughout the body, and then returns to the heart.
-His ideas about circulation and the heart being a pump were enormous breakthroughs that helped overcome major primitive ideas.
Anatomy Act 1832
-The study of the body became so popular and the thirst for knowledge grew so much that there weren't enough bodies for dissection.
-Body-snatching and even anatomy murder were practiced to obtain cadavers.
- The British Parliament passed the Anatomy Act which provided the bodies by allowing the dissection of only the destitute or already dead.
- Damadian created the world's first magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) machine in 1972.
-The new technology allowed us to understand what is going on inside the body without dissection.
Bambach, Carmen. "Anatomy in the Renaissance". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/hd/anat/hd_anat.htm (October 2002)
"History of Anatomy." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 08 May 2013. Web. 18 Aug. 2013.
"A SHORT HISTORY OF HUMAN ANATOMY." A SHORT HISTORY OF HUMAN ANATOMY. N.p., n.d. Web. 18 Aug. 2013. http://emsu.8m.com/anatomy.htm