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Regeneration of Lungs After Affect of Smoking
Transcript of Regeneration of Lungs After Affect of Smoking
Chemicals mix inside to form tar which stick to cilia (short, microscopic, hairlike vibrating structure that line upper airways + protect against infections).
Regeneration of Lungs
Table of Contents
Current State of Research
Pros/Cons & Implications
Deteriorates lung's cleaning & repair system by trapping cancer-causing chemicals in the lungs by forming a tar that sticks to the cilia lining the upper airways
Smoking permanently destroys alveoli (flexible, stretchy, expansive air sacs in lungs)
When lung's cleaning system is damaged, germs, dirt and chemicals from cigarette smoke remains in airways, instead of exiting your body by cilia
Inhaled smoke damages alveoli so much that they become less flexible (reduces amount of space lung has for gas exchange)
Makes it harder to breathe and causes the heart to work harder.
tissue engineering can turn into lung regeneration therapies
can create bioartificial lungs based on decellularized lungs
current data implicates the existence of spatially limited progenitors
No worries about organ donation
The body does not reject the organ (lungs)
found reagents for lung regeneration while testing on animals
regeneration would seem unnatural & would be playing with Mother Nature by merging with technology
Goes against religious beliefs/cultures
Abuse of technology
many research has been conducted on stem cells to regenerate organs
Current State of research
Pros and Cons
Social and Ethical Implications
After the Effects of Smoking
By: Areej Baseer,
& Minahil Jabeen
What Smoking Actually Does To Your Lungs
Note: Cilia are hair-like projections that line the upper airways. They protect body from infections and help remove dirt and debris from the lungs. This is what is happening when you cough or sneeze.
Note: Alveoli help absorb oxygen as we inhale and release carbon dioxide (which is harmful) as we exhale.
might be able to use fetal tissue as an alternative for lung regeneration
destruction of embryos to create new cell lines raises moral & religious concerns
disputes over federal funding for research
disagreement of creating new cell lines from "leftover" embryos or from stored embryos that have been "dead"
also raises safety concerns of the procedure
tried using bone-marrow derived stem cells, retinoic acid, growth factors & other approaches to promote/facilitate regeneration
A disease where cancerous cells grow out of control and take over normal cells in the lung.
The chemicals in the smoke causes mutations in key genes in the cells of the lungs which then causes cancer.
Note: Progenitor cells are like stem cells, they can differentiate into specific types of cells, but can be pushed to differentiate into its "target" cell.
Note: Reagents are substances or mixtures used in chemical reactions & analysis.
Did You Know?
There are over 4,000 chemicals in cigarettes, about 70 of which are cancer-causing.
Increases the risk of developing cancer.
Decellularized pair of rat lungs
used a technique called "perfusion decellularization" to create a perfect match for a patient with the organ of any suitable donor
"wash" donor organ of its cells until it becomes a scaffold (colourless organ)
place it in a bioreactor & repopulate it with patient's blood cells, which have been reprogrammed to behave like stem cells
As we all know, DNA is composed of four bases: Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), and Thymine (T).
In this diagram, Adenine is coded white, Cytosine by green, Guanine by red, and Thymine by blue.
DNA is read by the cell and used to produce protein (shown by the blue cubes).
When smoke is inhaled, mutations can occur in the DNA.
Causes some of the bases to change (G is mutated to a T).
This then causes the protein in the lower panel to be made incorrectly, and cancerous cells form.
A group of cancer cells is called a tumor which is a swelling of a part of the lungs caused by an abnormal growth of tissue.
In this case, "abnormal growth of tissue" is the uncontrollable growth of cancer cells.
What is Lung Cancer and How does it Form?
Lung cancer is a disease of cells that grow uncontrollably, taking over normal cells.
There are two major types of lung cancer:
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) - most common type & spreads most slowly.
Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) - less common and spreads faster.
Lung Regeneration is the action or process of regrowing the lungs in a laboratory.
Field of Tissue Engineering has been around for 20 years.
In 1952, an American scientist by the name of Roy Stevens discovered stem cells in cancerous growth in mice.
By 1970, scientists could keep stem cells alive in a dish and if given medium (nutrients), they found that the cells would keep dividing.
By changing the medium, scientists realized the cells could change into other types of cells or make them into specialized cells such as muscle, bone, nerve or skin cells.
Researchers discovered a group of stem cells inside the lungs that are able to regenerate
Next step is to understand how to trigger its growth
Another technology that can lead to regeneration of lungs is something called biochemical signals.
A long process but generally what this is:
Researchers at Weill Cornell Medical College found biochemical signals in mice that trigger generation of new lung alveoli
Believed but not proven that humans have ability to regenerate alveoli but only to a degree until they can't due to smoking or other ample chronic damage
How they went about this:
Removed left lungs of mice & found out that specific group of blood vessels in remaining lung received message to begin to repopulate alveoli
Removal of left lung initiates receptors (organ or cell able to respond to an external activity) that responds to growth factors in this case that then promote rise in protein and in turn, regeneration of tissue and reformation of functioning alveoli.
A future possibility: One day, we hope we can discover if and how this process works in humans and potentially work towards treating millions of people with lung cancer.
Regenerating lungs is not common, but it is not impossible either. It can be done with work, research, work again and even more research. Hopefully one day, we can find a way to regenerate lungs and change history.This incredible field of science can bring light to the world of health & medicine & give a whole new perspective of the capabilities our bodies have.