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Chapter 5: Culture and Diversity Issues in Healthcare

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Marah O'Sullivan

on 23 March 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 5: Culture and Diversity Issues in Healthcare

Chapter 5: Cultural and Diversity Issues in Healthcare

Outline of Chapter Topics
Patient Diversity
Communication between provider and patient
Cultural differences in concepts of health and medicine
Alternative medicine
Spirituality, culture and health
Social Implications of illness
Provider diversity
Patient Diversity
Population of American Caucasians will reduce while the population of minority groups will increase.
This can cause problems for healthcare providers.
Health and access to healthcare services are impacted and differentiate by many co-cultures.
Biomedical Views of Health and Medicine
The biomedical model is mainly used in health in western society.
Immigrants who come from other countries have a fear of certain practices in the U.S.
Adherence may be hard to accomplish when providers recommend certain treatments.
Ethnomedical Views of illness/health
Understanding the Ethnomedical belief systems is lacking sufficient training.
This causes a multitude of communication issues among providers and patients.
Other cultures believe in spiritual forces causing sickness.
Some immigrants prefer to use biomedical treatments and others prefer natural or spiritual healing.
Most Americans have a sedentary lifestyle and unhealthy diet.
Most immigrants who come to live in the U.S. change their lifestyle to portray how Americans live.
American food makes continuing traditional diets hard to maintain.
Communication Between Provider and Patient
Lack of proper healthcare for minority groups and new immigrants is an issue.
History of inequality and the mistreatment of Native Americans and African Americans.
Language barriers pose as another problem.
Unfamiliarity with the U.S. healthcare system is an issue.
Cultural and Diversity Issues in Healthcare

Kelsey Zuchowicz and Marah O’Sullivan
Within the United States, over forty-seven million people speak a language other than English. When people from various cultures join one another in similar healthcare settings, cultural notions of illness and health can be seen as drastically different. If cultural differences and notions of illness and health are not taken into consideration between healthcare providers and patients, complications can arise and cause further issues. Future health care providers need to have an understanding of patients who have different viewpoints concerning medical practices and health care beliefs.
Spirituality, Culture, and Health
Many health related practices are rooted in religious and spiritual traditions
Religion is an important aspect to be considered when discussing care and procedures
Relatively few health communicators have examined the impact of religious and spiritual influences on health

Religion and Psychological/Physical Health Outcomes
Religious beliefs and practices are associated with social and psychological mechanisms that can enhance health
Church membership allows one to expand their social network when new to a community
Social support groups like AA, help those by the use of a "Higher power"
Health care providers are not prepared to discuss religious topics

Changing Social Perceptions of Health Issues through Communication
Communication provides vital role in how people perceive health issues
Alter social perception of health concern through interaction with others
Support groups
Cancer survivor v. Cancer victim
Use of narrative to transform their own and others perceptions

Provider Diversity
Racial/ethnic diversity issue
Differences in training
Providers are socialized into unique cultures based upon many factors
Bio medical approaches v. non conventional treatments

Mental Illness
More than 44 million suffer from a diagnosable mental illness
Most common: depression, bi-polar, schizophrenia, OCD
Carries a strong social media
More recently eating disorders recognized
Mass media portrayal

Stigma and Disease
Some health problems are viewed negatively by society
Social stigma or mark of shame, disgrace, or taboo that is attached to people and their problems

US culture influenced by obsession with sexuality
Leads to lack of communication
Some religious groups still see AIDS as a curse from God
Disease carries strong social stigma

Individuals within social network of person with cancer “often in subtle but unmistakable ways distance themselves from the dying”
Is associated with death/dying in our culture, which is a taboo
Shows a need to create a patient agency

Relatively new idea
Previously seen primarily as a moral issue
“low character”

Social Implications of Illness
Influenced by social forces and negatively

Alternative Medicine
Many patients second-guess telling their use of alternative medicine with their health providers.
Healthcare providers are discussing the negatives and positives of alternative medicine among patients.
Alternative medicine can be seen as a different route to biomedical treatments.
Pop Culture Reference - Family Guy
Question #1
How can Americans be perceived as better health care practitioners when other cultures perceive them in a negative light?
Question #2
With the growing popularity of alternative medicine, what are some methods that both patients and providers can take in order to have more open discussions of this treatment in terms of health care?
Questions #3 and #4
How can we remove the taboo of discussing mental illness or death/dying in our society?
How have you personally dealt with a difficult diagnosis of a loved one?

Current Event
"Being Married May Help Cancer Survival"
20% reduction in deaths of those who were married versus those who were single
Those who were single were also 17% more likely to have their cancer metastasize or move to another area of the body

Cultural and diversity issues exist dynamically in healthcare
Challenges exist to understand these issues
Without an understanding of these two factors, effective patient care and treatment will not occur


Image Citations
Diversity hands
[Photograph]. (2013). Retrieved February 15, 2014, from: http://www.raleighcharterhs.org/aboutus/diversity.asp

Child health
[Photograph]. (2012). Retrieved February 15, 2014, from: http://www.radonleaders.org/sites/default/files/childhealth-794095_0.JPG

Diversity and health care
[Photograph]. (2012). Retrieved March 22, 2014, from: http://www.radonleaders.org/sites/default/files/childhealth-794095_0.JPG

Diversity adults
[Photograph], (2012). Retrieved February 15, 2014, from: http://www.tchd.org/img/diversity_adults.jpg

Main argument for diversity
[Photograph], (2010). Retrieved February 15, 2014, from: http://pharmpsych.com/2014/01/14/main-arguments-diversity/

Natural homeopathic medicine
[Photograph], (2011). Retrieved February 15, 2014, from: http://sansscience.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/natural-homeopathy-therapy.jpg

Meditating woman
[Photograph], (2009). Retrieved February 15, 2014, from: http://www.alternativemedicine.com/delta-waves/meditation-101

Alternative medicine
[Photograph], (2010). Retrieved February 15, 2014, from: http://panacea-bocaf.org/alternativemedicine.htm

[Photograph], (2011). Retrieved February 15, 2014, from: https://encrypted-tbn2.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcR3XvH7X3auF4c1yUnZxrft4SIVgPdKxPsJvRqH_femspNxfVA
CNN Health (2013) the chart. Being married may help cancer survival. Available at: http://thechart.blogs.cnn.com/2013/09/23/marriage-may-improve-cancer-survival-odds/ Accessed March 10, 2014.
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