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Education

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Marie Patton

on 3 August 2014

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Transcript of Education

Federal Government Involvement:
Table of Contents:
Early Education in New England
Early Education in The Middle Colonies
Early Education in the South
Federal Government Involvement
Historical Federal Funding of Public Schools
Modern Funding of Public Schools
No Child Left Behind Act
NCLB: A New Era in Education
Comparison Chart
Local School Board
State Board of Education
Conclusion
Works Cited
URLs for Images
Early Education in New England
Early Education in the South
In the South education was not a priority, there was no religious push to teach reading this caused public education to lag behind the rest of the country for many generations.

Those who did receive an education were generally taught by private tutors in their home or as part of a bigger mission in the church to convert them to Christianity.

Public schools, once established, were poorly run and delegated to a group or corporation rather than the town government.
(Cooper & Ryan)
State Board of Education
Works Cited:
Cooper, James M., Kevin Ryan. Those Who Can, Teach. 13th ed. Wadsworth Cengage Learning, 2013. Print.

Heise, Michael, The Political Economy of Education Federalism. Emory Law Journal, Vol. 55, p. 125, 2006; Cornell Legal Studies Research Paper No. 06-041. Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=939833

Lips, Dan. “A Nation Still At Risk: The Case for Federalism and School Choice.”Backgrounder 2125 (2008):1-10. The Heritage Foundation. Web. 10 June 2014.

Martin, Benton. "An Increased Role For The Department Of Education In Addressing Federalism Concerns." Brigham Young University Education & Law Journal 1 (2012): 79-110. Education Research Complete. Web. 15 June 2014.

Pinder, Kamina Aliya. "Federal Demand And Local Choice: Safeguarding The Notion Of Federalism In Education Law And Policy." Journal Of Law & Education 39.1 (2010): 1-36. OmniFile Full Text Select (H.W. Wilson). Web. 10 June 2014.

Robinson, Kimberly Jenkins. "THE HIGH COST OF EDUCATION FEDERALISM. (English)." Wake Forest Law Review 48.2 (2013): 287-331. Business Source Complete. Web. 11 June 2014.

Local School Boards
Deciding what to teach and how
School board members are community members that are elected to serve their community's educational needs.
Each local school board has a good amount of freedom in deciding how to manage the school district.
The level of accountability and freedom for the teachers and administrators varies within each district.
Districts that are able to secure highly qualified teachers and allow a substantial amount of creativity in the creation of their curriculum have better results.
Local needs are served best by those living within the community, parents, teachers and administrators have a voice.
Education
Maintaining Local Control
By: Marie Patton
Introduction:
Research Question:
Should education in The United States of America remain a mostly local interest?

Rationale:
Since Education began in the colonies it has been regarded as a local and state issue with fairly little federal intervention until the last sixty years. Education is not is mentioned in the constitution therefore it is assumed to be the responsibility of the state governments.

Main Points:
To look at the history of education in the U.S. and determine what level of government is best equipped to provide superior oversight and insight for educational reform.
Early Education in the Middle Colonies
Here in the middle colonies there was a great number of religious and ethnic groups.

Each group wanted control of the education of their children in their culture and ways.

Private venture schools were licensed by the civil government, but not funded by it, their main focus was religious training, but they also offered practical subjects.

Public funds were not expected to pay for the education of everyone's children until much later than other areas in the colonies.
(Cooper & Ryan)
Education was not mentioned in the U.S. Constitution because the framers feared a too-strong federal government.

Early in the colonial history there were no formal schools, but children would be taught reading, writing, arithmetic and religion in their homes or apprentice with tradesmen or housewives

The first law requiring parents to educate their children was passed in Massachusetts in 1642, the Old Deluder Satan Act and was based on religious conviction and the need to read the Bible in order to avoid being fooled by Satan.

This law required that every town of 50 or more families had to pay a man to teach reading and writing, creating town schools that were locally controlled.

For the first time precedent was set that if a parent failed to educate their child the government was obligated to take on the responsibility of education.

The New England Primer was published in 1690 and remained in use as the basic school text for over 100 years.
(Cooper & Ryan)
Historical Federal Funding of Public Schools
It stated that each township would set aside one of their sections for the maintenance of public schools.
The first Federal intervention in education came in 1787 in the Northwest Ordinances

In 1862 & 1890 The Morrill Acts established land grant institutions and called for non discrimination in college admissions or "separate but equal" institutions.
All educational policies were controlled through local and state governance.
Modern Funding of Public Schools
In 1965 the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA) was passed.
This would mark the federal government's most far reaching legislation to be passed by congress to date.

The bill must be reauthorized every five years

ESEA targets schools with large numbers of children in poverty and through Title 1 gives funds to help close the achievement gap between these children and those with better socioeconomic standing.
In 2001 it was reauthorized as...
The No Child Left Behind Act (NCLB)
Requires annual statewide assessments in reading and mathematics

Each state designs their own assessments in line with their own academic standards

Every public school teacher must be highly qualified and licensed by the state

Schools that do not perform or show improvement face negative consequences

The federal government gave 40% more funding to k-12 education
(Martin)
Conclusion:
The state and local school boards
Education is best served when those involved are committed at the local and state levels. At the local level the needs and challenges of the students can be assessed and goals put into place that will meet those specific needs (Pinder).
The need to do standardized testing annually takes away from the learning environment in today's schools. Students are being taught to the test and how to take a test in order to stay within the guidelines established by NCLB (Lips).
Fear of failure has created an environment within which states are willing to sacrifice and lower standards that are difficult to meet rather than push the students to the higher bar (Robinson).

Direct URLs To Images:
(Heise)
(Cooper & Ryan)
NCLB: A New Era in Education
All public schools are affected by this legislation and must now subject their students to annual testing.
The Common Core curriculum initiative has come into play along with NCLB, this sets standards in each state that match national expectations
Each state has the ability to manipulate their standards and tests in order to create the illusion of improvement.
Proficient
Basic
Colorado's standards are well bellow the basic NAEP Basic Level
States with higher standards
States with lower standards
Exercises general control and supervision of schools

Establishes the academic standards and their assessment for the state

Makes recommendations to the governor and state legislature for the improvement of education

Establishes and enforces minimum standards for the operation of all phases of elementary and secondary education from the state to the local school system level
(Cooper & Ryan)
Schoolhouse picture
https://www.cmich.edu/library/clarke/ResearchResources/Michigan_Material_Statewide/One_Room_Schools/PublishingImages/clark6.jpg


New England Primer

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:New-England_Primer_Enlarged_printed_and_sold_by_Benjamin_Franklin.jpg

Middle Colonies Map

http://englishcolonizationofna06.pbworks.com/f/1317276363/Middle%20Colonies.jpg


Log School house

http://education-portal.com/academy/lesson/13-colonies-colonial-life-economics-politics.htm
l

Southern Colonies Map

http://trek2thecolonies.wikispaces.com/file/view/economics_south.jpg/48757795/economics_south.jpg
Full transcript