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NIPAH VIRUS (NiV)

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Judy Wong

on 21 June 2016

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Transcript of NIPAH VIRUS (NiV)

Fun Fact
Nipah virus was inspiration for the MEV-1 Virus in Contagion

Nipah Virus (NiV)
Emerging Infectious disease
CDC - Category C agent
BSL4 pathogen
Pteropid Fruit Bats: Pteropus vampyrus and Pteropus hypomelanus
Family: Paramyxoviridae
Genus: Henipavirus
RNA Virus
Bangladesh and India
In 2001, reappeared in select districts of Bangladesh
Sporadic outbreaks of encephalitis
Northwest and western regions
Direct Human Transmission
Different strain of NiV than one in 1999 in Malaysia and Singapore

Bangladesh
Drivers for emergence
Seasonal pattern in South East Asia
December to May
Associated to bat breeding season and palm sap harvesting season
Cultural Tradition
Contamination of raw date palm sap by bats

Symptoms in Humans
Incubation time: 5-14 days
Presents with 3-14 days with:
Fever
Headache
Drowsiness
Disorientation
Mental confusion
Coma in 24-48 hours
Acute respiratory distress
Neurological symptoms
seizures, convulsions, personality changes
Latent infection

Relapse encephalitis
After years of initial exposure
Malaysia
Kampung Baru Sungai Nipah
First outbreak in 1999
First thought to be Japanese Encephalitis
283 suspected cases, 1998 to 1999
109 deaths
Culling of 1 million pigs
Pigs exported from Malaysia to
Singapore infected abattoir workers
Symptoms in Animals
Subclinical infections in pigs
Acute febrile illness
Porcine respiratory syndrome
Nasal discharge
Open mouth breathing
“Barking pig syndrome”
Hemoptysis
Neurological symptoms:
twitching, spasms, weakness, uncoordinated gait
Sudden death
Transmission
Close overlap of bat habitats/fruit orchards and piggery
Urine, feces, saliva in partially eaten fruit
Pathogen spillage to pigs
Human contact with infected pigs or bats
Case fatality rate = 74.5%
Diagnosis
Acute Detection
Reverse Transcription PCR:
Throat and nasal swabs
CSF, urine, blood samples
Convalescent Detection
ELISA
IgM and IgG levels
Immunohistochemistry in fatal cases
Treatment
Primary Treatment: Intensive Support Care
Ribavirin – antiviral drug; needs further testing
No Vaccine Available for humans yet
Scope of the Virus
Philippines- no characterized yet – undercooked meat from sick horses
Virus isolated in bats in Cambodia
Viral RNA in bats in Thailand, East Timor
Antibodies in bats found in China, Vietnam
Domesticated animals in Bangladesh, India, Malaysia
High Risk Groups
Exposed to raw date palm sap
Individuals in hospitals during seasonal outbreak times
Family and caregivers of Nipah infected patients
Exposure to bats

Prevention Strategies
Avoid exposure to sick pigs, bats, and infected people
Avoid eating raw date palm sap
Virus can survive up to 3-7 days in sap
Heat above 100C for 15 minutes
Fruit peels and washed properly before consumption
Hand washing hygiene
Virus inactivated by soaps, detergents, and disinfectants
Separate fruit plantations and animal farms
Quarantine those with known exposure
NIPAH VIRUS (NiV)
Emerging Infectious Disease
Judy Wong
References
http://www.searo.who.int/entity/emerging_diseases/links/nipah_virus_outbreaks_sear/en/
http://www.worldhealthsummit.org/fileadmin/downloads/2013/WHSRMA_2013/Presentations/Day_3/Wang%20Linfa%20-%20The%20Threat%20of%20Emerging%20Infectious%20Diseases%20in%20Asia.pdf
http://www.who.int/csr/disease/nipah/en/
http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/nipah/diagnosis/index.html
http://www.cdc.gov/vhf/nipah/pdf/factsheet.pdf
http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/49/11/1743.full
http://www.cfsph.iastate.edu/Factsheets/pdfs/nipah.pdf
http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Media_Center/docs/pdf/Disease_cards/NIPAH-EN.pd
http://www.healthmap.org/site/diseasedaily/article/nipah-virus-fatal-emerging-infectious-disease-raises-concerns-21412
http://www.thedailystar.net/2-die-of-nipah-virus-in-naogaon-62907
https://www.survivalkit.com/blog/world-health-organization-releases-list-of-deadliest-pathogens/
https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=http%3A%2F%2F2.bp.blogspot.com%2F-gKEbVbjm2NE%2FUXSXxzJupGI%2FAAAAAAAAAAw%2FwEKe_oT2Qss%2Fs1600%2FContagion%2BPoster.jpg&imgrefurl=http%3A%2F%2Fcolgateimmunology.blogspot.com%2F2013%2F04%2Fnipah-virus-real-life-contagion.html&docid=8Z2lfS4vX1MknM&tbnid=ykn5nbf_mlEfeM%3A&w=300&h=240&bih=735&biw=793&ved=0ahUKEwiLi_7WqqXNAhUEpx4KHT8TASUQMwh5KDwwPA&iact=mrc&uact=8
http://reference.medscape.com/features/slideshow/bioterrorism
https://knauss2013.files.wordpress.com/2013/09/batsinblanket.jpg
http://www.mfablog.org/nightmare-in-south-korea-100000-animals-buried-alive-each-day
Full transcript