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The Policy-Based Profession

Social Work Policy SWK 328

Rhondda Waddell

on 3 April 2017

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Transcript of The Policy-Based Profession

The Policy-Based Profession
Popple & Leighninger
The Policy -Based Profession
Chapter I
Defining Social
Welfare Policy
Chapter 2
Social Welfare Policy Analysis
Chapter 3
Policy Analysis a
Historical Perspective
Chapter 4
Chapter 1


LEAD Day Legislative Education and Advocacy Day March 23-24, 2015 Tallahassee, Florida

Understand the terms necessary to understand policies and bills

SB – Senate Bill
HB – House Bill
Bill – a form or draft of a proposed statute presented to a legislature, but not yet enacted or passed and made law.

Policy – a definite course of action adopted and pursued by a government, ruler, political party, etc.

Understand how a bill becomes a law

Track a bill that you are interested in or want to advocate for

Find the Senator or Representatives that wrote or support the bill

Find YOUR LOCAL State Senator or State Representative to petition action


Legislative Goals for the National Association of Social Worker

Legislative Goals for Florida-NASW Chapter


It recognizes that although a professional provides services on behalf of the client, it is often not the client who requests the services, defines the problem, or pays the professional.

Hospital social work practice.
Who requests the services for the clients?
Who often defines or diagnoses the problem?
Who pays for services?

Abraham Flexner


Early in the 20th Century, in its development as a profession, due to the influence of Abraham Flexner, social work adopted a model based on the medical profession.

This assumes that the professional is essentially a business person and that they are selling his or her expertise as a trained social worker. This is Micro-Practice.

However, due to market pressures and external
influence that dictate practice, the market-based
model changed to a policy-based model.


Early social work focused on dealing with the problems of individuals rather than changing social structures that might cause those problems.

Most problems presented themselves through individuals and individuals were the most immediate targets for change

American ideology places the responsibility for success or failure on the shoulders of individuals

The “professional role model” social workers chose to follow—medicine—also focused on treating individuals.


Take a five minutes to write down three of your social positions/statuses and the social roles attached to each status.

Then, identify which social institution supports them.

We will share in class.


However, when people fail to perform roles adequately or social institutions fail to sufficiently support people in their role performance, social stability is threatened.

Examples of role failure are: Someone read page 4

Example of failure of social institutions to support individual role performance are: Someone read page 5


Dependency: occurs when an individual is not adequately fulfilling a role and social institutions are not providing adequate supports to enable the individual to fulfill a role.

Example: CPI is called to a home to investigate neglect due to father not fulfilling his role of providing basic needs for his children. However, father is unemployed and has been searching for a job for the last 5 months in a community with a 12% unemployment rate.

Interdependence: When an individual is doing everything necessary to fulfill a role and the appropriate social institutions are functioning well enough to support the person’s role performance,


It dictates what we can and cannot do in our practice

It drives our practice

We have an obligation to serve our clients and speak on their behalf by taking social and political action

We do this by advocating, policy analysis, and lobbying which is all apart of our Social Work Ethics and Values.


Working with aspects of social institutions that fail to support individuals in fulfilling role expectations.

This is referred to Macro-practice or Social Wwork administration, policy, planning, community development.

This is the focus in the study of social welfare policy.


Help individuals having difficulty meeting individual role expectations.
This is working with individuals, families and small groups.
Micro-practice or clinical social work.

Social work profession has two targets:


Each person in society occupies a number of social positions or statuses (daughter, wife, etc.)

Attached to each of these positions are a number of social roles (taking care of children, etc.).

These statuses and roles are located within social institutions that support people in their efforts to meet role expectations successfully.

We focus on the person and their environment. This is key for Social Welfare Policy

Social work is the core technology in the social welfare institution; the institution in society that deals with the problem of dependency.

This causes problems for the community that requires a response.

Social Welfare Policy
SWK 328
Learning Objectives:

1. Learn the Function of Social Work Policy

2. Explore the Dual Targets of Social Work

3. Discuss the Dominance of Micropractice
Learning Objectives:

1. Learn the definition of Social Welfare Policy
2. Discuss why social workers are interested in social welfare policy
3.Understand the multilevels of social welfare policy

Micro level: When you as a worker translate macro and mezzo level policy into actual services to clients. This is the interpretation and implementation of the policy.

At this level, individuals are called Street-level

Read middle of paragraph on page 26 ‘ Recognizing the importance of micro level policy

Read the example on page 26-27 and discuss.

Levels of Social Welfare Policy

Macro level Policy: broad laws, regulations, guidelines that provided the basic framework for the provision of services and benefits.

Most commonly associated with the public sector: laws and regulations. Title XX and the Social Security Act, ADA, Older American Act.
For profit sector influences macro policy rather than developing it (lobbying)

Not-for-profit generates macro level policy.

Multiple Levels of Social Welfare Policy

Social Welfare historically grew out of the private not-for-profit sector.

It really was not until the 1930s that government became involved in the large scale provision of social welfare services and this was due in large part of the Great Depression.

However, this is now changing with the private, for-profit sector providing social welfare services.

Social Welfare Policy in All Sectors of the Economy

As an academic inquiry/discipline it is a subfield of sociology, political science, history, economics, and social work. In some schools, it is a basic area of study and usually refers nearly exclusively to the activities of government.

Social Welfare policy also refers to a specific area of the professional social work curriculum. We must cover this content according to the Council on Social Work Education (CSWE), the accrediting body for social work education.

Social Welfare Policy as an Academic Discipline

Social Policy is “not the social services alone, but the social purposes and consequences of agricultural, economic, manpower, fiscal, physical development, and social welfare policies that form the subject matter of social policy: (Martin Rein).

Libraries, parks and recreation, aspects of the tax codes and family law are part of social policy.

Social policy deals with the integrative system and the overall quality of life; the continuing struggle of humanity for equality

Complicating Factors

Policy, in general means, principles, guidelines, or procedures that serve the purpose of maximizing uniformity in decision making.

So applied to social welfare a beginning definition would be principles, guidelines, or procedures that serve the purpose of maximizing uniformity in decision making regarding the problem of dependency in society.

Basic Definition

Policy: a definite course of action adopted and pursued by a government, ruler, political party, etc.
A course of action or inaction chosen by public authorities to address a given problem or interrelated set of problems
A ‘standing decision; characterized by behavioral consistency and repetitiveness on the part of both those who make it and those who abide by it
A pattern of action that resolves conflicting claims or provides incentives for cooperation.

Basic Definition

Social Welfare: institution that deals with problems of dependency

Dependency: when individuals are not fulfilling critical social roles or when social institutions are not functioning well enough to support people in their role performance.

Social Welfare system deals with these situations in order to maintain social equilibrium

Social Welfare Policy
Basic Definition

Read it out loud pages 19-20
Multiple meanings of social welfare policy

The impact of policy on social welfare clients

The Story of Sarah

SWK 328 - Chapter 2

Defining Social Welfare Policy

Concerns those interrelated but not necessarily logically consistent, principles, guidelines and procedures designed to deal with the problem of dependency in our society.

Policies may be laws, public or private regulations, formal procedures, or simply normatively sanctioned patterns of behavior

Is a subset of social policy

As an academic discipline is less concerned with specific policies that it is with the process by which those policies came into being, the societal base and effects of those policies, and the relationship between policies.

As a professional endeavor is focuses on the relationship of policy to practice and the way that practitioners as individuals and as members of organizations influence the policy process.

Social Welfare Policy Review:
A working definition

Mezzo level Policy:

Midlevel policy is administrative policy that
organizations generate to direct and regularize their
operations. Personnel Procedure Manuels; financial policy manuals; policies for
program implementation (these grow out of macro level
policies such as Food Stamps).

Does anyone have experience in these areas?

Levels of Social Welfare Policy

Social Welfare Policy and Social Policy. What is the difference?

Social Welfare Policy is a subcategory of Social Policy.

Social policy shapes the overall quality of life in a society, the living conditions of its members, and their relations to one another and to society as a whole.

Factors Complicating the Definition of Social Welfare Policy

Types of Descriptive Analysis:
II. Process Analysis
Ethical Evaluations

Evaluating the underlying values inherent in a
particular policy.

Example are the Nazi regime’s policy of concentration camps.


Types of Descriptive Analysis:
II. Process Analysis
Quantitative evaluation:

Data-based evaluation of whether policies achieve their
intended goals and at what cost. Two parts to this:
Effectiveness or Outcome evaluations
Efficiency or Cost-effectiveness evaluations


Types of Descriptive Analysis:
II. Process Analysis
1. Logical Evaluation

Similar to content analysis in that it looks at the content of a social welfare
policy in detail and in addition, assesses a policy’s internal rigor and consistency.
Assessing the consistency between a policy’s goals and the means for achieving these goals.
Read the report of the Ford Foundation Project on Social Welfare and the American Future and identify inconsistencies. See page 46-47.
Assessing the difference between intended and unintended consequences of a policy; its manifest or latent goals.


Types of Analysis
Process Analysis: concerned less with content but more on how
a policy comes into being.
Looks at interactions among stakeholders: public officials, bureaucrats, lobbyists, media, professional associations, etc.
Examine the example in the book re: the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980. Who are the stakeholders? What was the final product in terms of the legislation?


Types of Descriptive Analysis:
2. Choice Analysis
D. Financing benefits

How are the benefits financed? Who pays for them?
Taxes, voluntary contributions, fees.

You have public governmental organizations; private nonprofits,
and private for-profits.

All the above organizations provide social welfare services and are funded ‘dynamically’ in various ways with different levels of accountability.


Types of Descriptive Analysis:
2. Choice Analysis
C. Delivery Structure

Concerned with how the delivery system is
structured: provides details of how services or benefits will be delivered.
Examines the degree of centralizations
and/or coordination within the system.
Is there coordination among agencies that
provide the services?
Are services spread out (decentralized) or
delivered under one roof (centralized)?


Types of Descriptive Analysis:
2. Choice Analysis
B. Types of Benefits

In-kind are actual goods or services. School lunch program is an example

In-kind benefits can seem to undermine individual choice and sense of responsibility.
However, in-kind ensure that the provisions will be used exactly as intended whereas with universal cash benefits, people can spend money on ‘non-essentials’.

Vouchers are a compromise between the two: used like cash but are targeted for particular purchases. Food stamps is an example.


Types of Descriptive Analysis:
2. Choice Analysis
B. Types of Benefits

What are the types of social benefits
to be provided?

Cash – What is a Cash Benefit?? What is an example of Cash Benefit

In-Kind – What is an In-Kind benefit? What is an example of a In-Kind Benefit ?


Types of Descriptive Analysis:

2. Choice Analysis
Bases of allocations
Universal versus categorical: particular categories of the
poor such as low-income women and children, elderly individuals, those with handicaps.
Example: Supplemental Security Income (SSI) is a categorical public assistance program.
They are based on need and are therefore considered a selective allocation.


Types of Descriptive Analysis:
2. Choice Analysis
Bases of allocations:
What are the bases of social allocations; who will
benefit from a policy?

Two types of allocations: universal and selective.
What are universal allocations? Example?
What are selective allocations? Example


Types of Descriptive Analysis:
2. Choice Analysis (Letter D in Outline): a systematic process of looking at the options available
to planners for dealing with a social welfare problem. It “may be framed in program proposals, laws and statutes or standing plans which…” become programs.

What is the form and substance of the choices that make up the policy design
What options did these choices foreclose (not use).
Four dimensions that Choice Analysis can examine:
A. Bases of allocations C. Delivery Structure
B. Types of Benefits D. Financing Benefits


Types of Descriptive Analysis:
Content Analysis (Letter A in Outline): the most
straightforward type of policy analysis

Describes existing policy in terms of the policy’s intentions, how it
defines the problem, goals, objectives.
Most often used in agencies; is the policy that they are
implementing. Found in procedural manuals, annual reports,
brochures, etc.


There are different methods to use when analyzing a policy

This section deals with the different methods:
Descriptive Analysis
Process Analysis


Both of these approaches are conducted by academics usually at the doctoral level.

They are concerned with generating new knowledge/theories for understanding society.

Can be used by other academics and policy makers.

Reading the Table from the top down shows the level of
sophistication required for policy analysis diminishes.

Academic social science research is the most rigorous and complicated followed by applied research.


“Policy analysis is the disciplined application of intellect to the study of collective
responses to public problems (in our case, social welfare)” - - Leslie Pal p. 33.

Look at Table 3.1. It is a typology for categorizing different approaches to policy analysis.
Four major dimensions on which policy analysis approaches vary across the top.
Policy Analysis Approach


Review the outline at the beginning of the chapter. See page 31 in the book
You will follow this outline to write your Policy Paper. Depending on what type of analysis
you use for your research paper., will determine what sections of the outline you will concentrate on :

Historical analysis
Social analysis
Economic analysis
Political analysis
Policy/Program Evaluation


Social Welfare Policy Analysis:
Basic Concepts


Arguments Against:
Some say selectivity should be turned into universal allocations
to eliminate the stigma associated with selective allocations
Critics of selectivity argue that it creates a two track systems. Benefits are of a lesser quality; are not as important as the benefits for the majority.

Arguments For:
Universal allocations are relatively stigma free
Selectivity is cost effective; resources available to those in need
Example: Social Security – Wealthy should not collect

2. Choice Analysis
Bases of allocations there are arguments for and against each type of approach.


Types of Descriptive Analysis:

2. Choice Analysis
Bases of allocations
Universal Allocations: benefits that are made available to an entire population
as a social right. Social Security for the elderly and those with disabilities. Unemployment Insurance
Selective Allocations: the allocation of benefits is based on individual economic need. Usually determined through an income test; those below a certain income level are eligible to receive benefits. Always tied to income. No consensus that this is a right.


Process Analysis
Three types:
Logical Evaluation
Quantitative Evaluation
Ethical Evaluation

Descriptive Analysis
Four types:
Content Analysis
Choice Analysis
Comparative Analysis
Historical Analysis


The last level of analysis is citizen analysis. Person obtains information required to be an informed citizen.

Journalistic and practitioner policy analysis: people who conduct analysis
at this level are not educated specifically in policy analysis/research.

Journalist must understand policy analysis in order to inform citizens

Small part of professional role. Social workers need to understand policy analysis in order to function in their jobs


Results are published in-house and/or are used for funding agencies,
Boards of directors (annual report).

Purpose is to define and specify ways to ameliorate (definition?)
social problems.

Social planning and agency planning/policy management
are conducted by those with a master’s or doctoral degree in applied social professions.

Engage in policy analysis as only part of their jobs


Learning Objectives:
1. Explore the meanings of policy analysis
2. Learn different policy analysis methods
3. Discuss Policy Analysis as Science, art, and Politics
This is a historical analysis of a social agency in a mid-west city.

Break into three or four groups and read through it and answer the following questions:

How has the direction and spirit of the agency changed over time?

Identify the various elements that have shaped the direction and spirit of the agency?

Using the Historical Analysis Outline in Chapter 3, identify where each questions is being
addressed in the Benton Park Historical Analysis

Generalizing Beyond the Facts: the writer or researcher produces a broad generalization
based on limited facts and fails to test the generalization with negative examples.

Example: Reducing all the diversity of history to “one thing”: failure to explore the complexity or to explore the context within which trends, policies, social problems exist.

Step 4: What does the evidence have to say in relation to your hypotheses or guiding questions?
Sources for primary and secondary data are provided in the appendices on historical analysis and library research

Your interpretation must be careful and systematic.
These common errors can lead to misinterpretation of historical evidence (pg. 64)
What is Cross-Cultural Error?
What is Presentism?
What is Generalization?

Cross-cultural error: Lack of understanding of values and customs of another culture.
Example: White social welfare historians lack of understanding of the importance of self-help groups in African American communities as a form of social welfare organization.

Presentism: When we read characteristics of our own time into the past.
Example: In 1941, at the age of 14, Pope Benedict served in the Hitler Youth. Many today are appalled at this and question his politics.

However, a historical analysis of the Hitler Youth reveals that all German boys at the age of 14 were conscripted into the Hitler Youth after 1939. There was no choice.

Step 3: Evaluate and interpret the evidence:
Is the evidence authentic?
What was the condition of the witness of the event?
What was the intent of the document in question?

Always read the historical documents with an understanding of the
time and context in which they were written

Do NOT evaluate the material from the past from a present-oriented point of view.

Step 2: Gather evidence related to the guiding questions or hypotheses such as:

Primary data: records made at the time an event occurs by participants or direct observers.

This includes diaries, letters, and oral histories (see appendix B). It may also include board
and committee minutes, testimony from congressional hearings, administrative records, and
newspaper articles about an event written at the time of the event

Secondary data: which have reconstructed events by someone without firsthand knowledge of events

How has Geel, Belgium historically dealt with the issue of the mentally ill in terms of foster care?

How effective were these policies?

Why or why not were these policies effective?

Step 1: Formulate your hypothesis(es) or guiding question(s) related to the issue or program of interest.

Smith’s study showed how people using the social welfare programs
were not passive recipients of care.

They influenced the shape of the social policies and programs, in this case, orphan asylums.

They used orphan asylums as a way to provide for their children when their own resources failed or were failing Smith’s historical analysis examined the policy and programs from the point of view of the clients, the recipients of services—the ‘anonymous policymakers’.
Examined their strengths and problems

What do you think of when you hear the words ‘orphan asylums’?

Begin reading the case history at the beginning of the chapter.
Take turns reading the section out loud.

What happened?

What would have been the likelihood of changing the policy if they had not done a historical analysis?

Understanding and appreciating policy analysis from a historical perspective

Historical context of social welfare policies

Methods of policy history

Case Study: The Benton Park Crisis Center

How policy determines the major goals of service, characteristics of clients,
who will get services, and what kind of services.

Complexity and difficulty defining social welfare policy;

Methods of policy analysis: descriptive, process analysis,

Outline for the policy analysis paper

SWK 328 – Chapter 4

10 minute activity:
Break into groups of three and read The Use of Orphan Asylums.
Discuss the following and then share with the rest of the class:
Why did Eve Smith conduct this research?

Were the children truly orphaned? How did the orphan asylums deal with the children’s parent(s)?

How are the orphan asylums of the past different from today’s Foster Care?

Do you believe that orphan asylums would work in today’s society? Why or why not?

Understanding policies from the past helps us evaluate present proposals and claims for success

For example,
TANF has a welfare-to-work component that was absent in its predecessor AFDC.

Yet people considered this new component in TANF as a dramatic shift when in fact
it follows a long history of welfare-to-work initiatives.

This was due to how TANF was marketed with claims that it would, “end welfare as we know it”.

The strategies used by policy makers in the past and;
identifying their underlying assumptions about the causes of social problems and

The impact of social, political, and economic factors on policies of the past and the programs they designed

Helps us understand the evolution of policies over time

The similarities and differences between policies of different periods

The criticism levied against particular approaches

Policy Analysis from a
Historical Perspective
Learning Objective:

1. Learn historical context for social welfare policies
2. Explore methods of Policy History
3. Discuss The Benton Park Crisis Center
What We Have Covered To Date
What Will We Cover In This Chapter
Historical Context of Social Welfare Policy
Role of History in Understanding Policy
The Role of History
Case Example: The Issue of Orphan Asylums
Active Learning: The Use of Orphan Asylums
The Use of Orphan Asylums
Methods of Policy History: Specific Guidelines Get Started
Specific Guidelines to Get Started
Specific Guidelines To Get Started
Specific Guidelines To Getting Started
Specific Guidelines: Common Errors to Avoid
Specific Guidelines Common Errors to Avoid
Active Learning/Homework:
The Benton Park Crisis Center
Chapter 5

Social/Economic Analysis
Economic analysis of effects of policy on individual behavior has been one of the driving forces behind financial assistance policy.

Guided by the doctrine of less eligibility: a person living on welfare should always be worse off than the lowest paid working person.

Apply the 90% selfish hypothesis, assumes that if people can do as well or better on welfare than they can by working, then most people will live on welfare.
So, we have had welfare reform resulting in TANF designed to make life on welfare less secure so as to motivate people to work hard to get off the rolls.

Effects on Individual Consumer Behavior

Economic Analysis

Economic perspective on behavior:

“90% selfish” hypothesis

Asks what the effects of a policy are likely to be on individual behavior.

Assume that people will be utility maximizers; behaving in the way that will result in the greatest benefit with the lowest cost to them.

Effects on Individual Consumer Behavior

Economic Analysis

Opportunity cost: Concerned with how the cost of a
certain policy compares to policy alternatives.

Consists of all the outcomes/benefits that must be sacrificed if a policy is adopted rather than an alternative policy.

Use opportunity cost to assess alternative social welfare policies

Opportunity Cost

Economic Analysis

Importantly, macroeconomic analysis asks what the effects of the larger economy are on the social problems.

Some assert that, “welfare reform initiatives have always been failures because they insist on incorrectly identifying the cause of welfare dependency as individual inadequacy” (p. 89).

And…”have paid too little attention to the broader economic and social-structural factors that are responsible for the crystallization of a large underclass and persistent welfare dependency” (p. 89).

Macroeconomic Analysis

Economic Analysis

Macroeconomic analysis: aggregate economic performance; concerned with output, income, inflation, and unemployment, the GNP, etc.

Looking at collective economic health.

Re: social welfare policy analysis, asks what the effect of an existing or a proposed policy is or will have on aggregate economic performance.

Will the policy increase or decrease productivity, profits, employment?

Macroeconomic Analysis

Economic Analysis:

Outline in Chapter 3

Economic Analysis

SWK 328 – Chapter 5

Social and Economic Analysis

Economic Analysis

Therefore, examining the economic ramifications of social welfare policies are of keen interest to our society.

Ask questions related to what the effect of a given policy, or policy proposal, might be on the distribution and consumption of scarce resources.

Economic Analysis

Choice is resource allocation addresses questions
of effectiveness, efficiency, and equity

Most social welfare policies spend a lot of money. Where do they get the money?

Economic Analysis

Must understand the concept of scarcity. Economics is based on the assumption that there is not now, nor will there ever be, enough resources to satisfy all of our needs and wants.

Economics, therefore, is concerned with the matter of choice: How do we choose to distribute scarce resources?

What is Choice?

Hypotheses Underlying the Policy – Outline F

Identify the hypotheses or theories on which the
policy is based.

Not very easy to do, but as every social policy can be considered an experiment,
one can find the underpinning hypotheses and theories of a policy.

They are rarely explicitly stated in the policy.

A hypotheses is the if-then statement. If we X, then Y will happen.

Goals of the Policy Under Analysis: Outline E

Goals have stated goals, but also unstated goals.

Stated goals are your manifest goals; your intended goals

Unstated goals: you latent goals; also called operative goals.

This is the single most important item in understanding why there are so many policies that seem to make no sense yet are never reformed.

Example: read the section on TANF

Goals of the Policy Under Analysis: Outline E

Goals are a general and abstract statement of the state of affairs the policymakers
seek to accomplish. It is a benchmark: a statement that provides general direction to the activities of the programs set up under the policy.
Examples of goals?

Objectives are derived from goals and are specific, concrete, measurable statements.
Examples of objectives?

Goals of the Policy Under Analysis- Outline E

The next stage of the social analysis is to
understand the goals of the policy

Policy goal: the desired state of affairs that is hoped to be achieved by the policy.

Usually have more than one goal and often these are in conflict with one another, due to the conflicts in the value structure of U.S. society and the political nature of policy making.

For example, child welfare policy pursues two incompatible goals which are what?

Social Values - Active Learning

Divide into four groups. Define and discuss each of the values
and provide examples.

Group one: Achievement and Success; Activity and Work; Moral Orientation;
Humanitarian Mores

Group two: Efficiency and Practicality; Progress; Material Comfort;

Group three: Equality; Freedom; External conformity; science and secular rationality;

Group four: nationalism-patriotism; democracy; individual personality; racism; sexism and related group superiority themes

You will have 20 minutes to complete this. Each group will
share their findings with the class.

Social Values Related to the Problem – Outline D

In policy we must examine the role of values in understanding social welfare policy.
Values constitute what is probably the most important dimension for understanding social welfare policy

In order to understand society’s response to (support or oppose) social welfare problems, you must understand what values support a policy and what values a policy offends.

What major U.S. values lead people to support or oppose various responses to social welfare problems?

Robin Williams, a prominent sociologist identifies fifteen major value orientations in U.S. society.

Theory of Human Behavior Undergirding the Policy
– Outline C

Every policy is based on some implicit theory of human behavior

Example: public assistance seeks to increase participants
labor-force participation,

Example: child welfare policy seeks to improve people’s level of parenting, etc.

Determining what theory of human behavior underpins the policy.

Social Problem Analysis – Beginning -Step 4

Step 4: Identify the inconsistencies in the problems and the policy presented

Policy is often a response to more than one problem which can create tensions and inconsistencies in the policy.

Review the work requirement in TANF with providing child care.

Social Problem Analysis – Beginning - Step 3

Step 3: Break problems down into primary problems and derivative (or secondary) problems.

Example: When discussing Mental Health Policies; what are the primary and what are the derivative problems?

Most social welfare agencies deal with the derivative problems.
Who deals with the primary problem?

Social Problem Analysis – Beginning - Step 2

Step 2 is to clearly and completely
identify and define the problem the policy

This is at the heart of the policy; decipher what problem the formulators of the policy under analysis had in mind when they designed the policy.

Sometimes the definition can be very vague and misleading; complex

Remember, “For whom is this a problem; Who will benefit as a result of the policy?” Ex: Pheonix Homeless (pg 76).

Delineation of the Policy Under Analysis
– Beginning - Step 1

Identify the realm you are concerned with.
Example: Child Welfare:

Realms government-sector activities or for-profit,
of not-for-profit, voluntary sector activities.

Bottom line, “Specify the policy you wish to analyze as carefully as possible and keep that specification before you all during the analysis”.

You must always keep in focus your hypothesis/guiding question, ultimately answering it in the conclusion

Delineation of the Policy Under Analysis: Step 1

Define your boundaries:
What are you going to analyze and what are you not going to Focus your Question or Hypothesis

Stay focused
Example: Child Welfare

Do you want to analyze the overall topic of child welfare policy?

Or only the policy that deals with child abuse and neglect?

Or only child abuse and neglect in your state, etc.
Or the federal policy such as Adoption Assistance
and Child Welfare Act of 1980.


In this chapter we will be following the outline
presented at the beginning of chapter 3:

III. Social Analysis


IV. Economic Analysis

Theory of Human Behavior Undergirding
the Policy- Outline C

Social Exchange Theory
“Minimax” Principle: people will make choices based on an assessment of which course of action will minimize costs and maximize rewards.

Behavior is explained as :
rewards - cost = outcome

Example for both: criminal justice re: penalties for crimes.

Rational Choice Theory
Assumes people are purposive/goal oriented; make choices based on self-interest.

Humans have sets of hierarchically ordered preferences and in choosing behavior, make choices with respect to costs and benefits of various alternative behaviors.

Facts Related to the Problem

Population Affected by
the Problem – Outline B

What are the characteristics of the population affected by the problem?

How large is the population, growth trends
Age, sex, race, family structure, geographic distribution

Completeness of
Knowledge Related to
the problem – Outline A

How many facts do we know about the problem;
Is often incomplete
Example: why are people poor?

What is the state of knowledge regarding cause-effect relationships
Example: mental health policy example

Learning Objectives:

1. Learn facts related to social problems
2. Become familiar with the theory of human behavior undergirding the policy
3. Discuss social values related to social problems
Chapter 6
Politics and Social Welfare Policy
Step 3: Policy Implementation- Final Stage
This is the phase where people translate the abstract objective and procedural rules to the street-level reality where the problems occur.

The details of implementation are the closest part of the policy world for social work practitioners: the street-level bureaucrats.

What further affects policy implementation?

Step 3: Policy Implementation- Final Stage
The policy itself does not state how it is to be implemented; that is up to the governmental or private entity that will be administering the policy.

Policies are broadly stated; long on mission and short on detail.

During implementation, the details are developed/created. This is sometimes referred to as ‘secondary legislation.’

Step 2: Legitimation
In this phase, the policy solution or set of solutions is formally legitimized.,

Coalitions further refine the solutions. There is further negotiation and compromise to hammer out the final details.

Once this is complete, then the policy is enacted through the legislative process.
Relate this to what is happening with the legislature in Tallahassee right now? Where are they in the process?

Step 1: Problem definition
“From a political perspective, a problem is one that touches a significant number of people or a number of
significant people and about which a case has been made that a change by the government will improve things.”

Social problems are defined by particular individuals and groups, and acceptance of these definitions by society is based largely on the power of the definers.

How does change happen? There are 3 major theories to explain change:

Rational Decision Making
Conflict Theory

Elitist Model
The Thinkers:
Policy as reflecting the goals of elite groups of individuals or what C. Wright Mills called the ‘power elite.’

Power elite represents the interests of the wealthy, corporate leadership, the military, and well-financed interest groups

Those on the lower end of the socio-economic ladder are viewed as powerless.

Resources, according to this model, flow downward from elites to the masses; they do not arise from mass demands.
Example: Appalachian coal miners

Public Choice Theory

The Focus:
On the economic dimension applying economists view of human behavior
that stresses individuals pursuing their own private interests.

Understanding the difference in the stakeholders goals is important to know.

The goal of politicians and bureaucrats is to win elections and to expand their power.

The goal of voters is how policies will affect them.

The Reality not every voice manages to make it to the debate

The playing field is uneven; large institutions (lobby groups) have more power than interest-based groups with personal membership (advocacy groups).

Institutions have come to dominate interest representation in the federal government.

The critique of pluralism focuses both on who gets what and how and who get left out and how.

Pluralism: Developed by Robert Dahl and Nelson Polsby.

The ideal:

Assumes a ‘marketplace of ideas’ where numerous groups and
interests compete for power and influence in making policy.

Assumes all voices will be heard; individuals participate in decision making through group membership in organized groups

Power is widely diffused rather than centralized where all stakeholders have a voice in shaping policy

Who makes policy? Which individuals and groups have the power to get their policy goals adopted?

There are several theories regarding the above question. They are:

public choice

Power is a relationship. It can be assigned, based on the possession of particular skills or knowledge, or tradition and authority.

The relationship is the various ways that those exercising power achieve their credibility or legitimacy.

I would argue that power, just like respect and trust, has to be earned by the person ‘in power’.

Learning Objectives:
1. Learn about the politics of policy making
2. Explore models of policy making
3. Discuss phases in the policy process
4. Work in groups preparations for the mid-term presentations

What do we know?
Who are political stakeholders?
Example: violent Russian Revolution of 1917.

Example: non-violent removal of British rule in India through the efforts of Mahatma Gandi.

Conflict Theory
Sudden and major change as a result of existing conflict and contradictions build into society.

Marxist say that this sudden change occurs along class lines; between the working class and dominant elite.

As a result, policymakers tend to do the politically feasible thing:
incremental modifications in existing policies and program.

In reality, policy making can be very messy; isn’t nice and neat
like the rational decision making process.

Rather, change occurs in small steps, based on a series of compromises.
Rapid change can upset the status quo and shift the balance of power.

Decision makers review range of existing proposals, identify goals, values, and consequences of each policy proposal alternative.

Based on this develop a policy that is enacted.
Similar to problem solving approach in Social Work.

Rational Decision Making
The nice, neat package.

Concern over an unmet need or social problem leads
to galvanizing formal and informal public concern.

Citizen groups gather information; develop general policy and lobby for change

control of behavior in which A gets B to do something that B would not otherwise do the ability to influence people through physical force, rewards or punishments, or propaganda and similar ways of shaping opinions.

-“who get what, when, and how.”

It is about how groups organize to try to get their needs
met and to achieve their goals.

It has everything to do with power.

Break into Groups of 3- Read the case study at the
beginning of Chapter 6 and be prepared to answer the
following questions:

Who are the major stakeholders regarding this particular policy?

What is the power base of the policy supporters?

To what extent is the policy an example of incremental change, or rational decision making, or change brought about by conflict?

What are the political aspects of the implementation of the policy?

Chapter 6
Chapter 7

Fighting Poverty
Therefore, social workers interested in improving the lives of poor people should direct their
efforts to improving educational and work opportunities and supportive services rather than loosening work requirements.

As the economy slows, TANF caseloads are increasing.

TANF has never reached the core of the onion.

Initially, the decline of caseloads left money for states to increase services for those hard to employ.

But as caseloads increase, this ‘virtuous circle’ becomes a vicious circle.


Research on the effects of TANF participation on
children includes the findings that:

There is little evidence of either widespread harm or
benefit to school-age children

Increases in family income may have positive effects on children

Such benefits as have been found may be greatest for the most disadvantaged children

TANF increased children’s participation in child care

In the few studies of adolescents, the effects of TANF participation on school performance were negative.


The “work first” philosophy, that just being in the labor force will change behavior and promote upward mobility faster than getting further education, has it backwards.

The cost of child care and transportation remain serious obstacles to escape from poverty for former TANF recipients.


Is TANF succeeding?

Like former welfare-to- work programs,
TANF has had limited success

People leave the welfare rolls but over half of them remain in poverty

Two thirds have no health benefits nor sick leave.


Economic Analysis – Active Learning

Economic Analysis

Length of Time on assistance in TANF limits benefits for any one to two years and five years for the total.

This is based on the stereotype that once people get on assistance they never leave. See Table 7.4 on page 132.

65% of the people on welfare at any one time are clearly stuck in the program.

Of all the person who ever begin a welfare spell, 59.25 % will receive assistance for less than two years.

Social Analysis

Family Size Stereotype is that AFDC recipients have very large families. However, 1995
data indicate an average 2.5 children for moms on AFDC compared to an average of 2.1 children for those not on AFDC.

See figure 7.1Age of Mothers Younger than those not receiving AFDC, averaging 30 years of age.
Education Less for AFDC mothers. Nearly half of AFDC mothers never completed high school. TANF recipients educational levels are lower than AFDC recipients.

Social Analysis

Race of Recipients 37.5% are whites and 35.6% are African American.

See Table 7.1. Yet, 64 percent of recipients are members of various minority groups. Proportion of white population on TANF is much smaller than that of other ethnic groups.

In absolute numbers, the greatest number of people receiving benefits is white.

Social Analysis

Size 5.3 % of the households in the country received AFDC in early 2000s.
Number has decreased in 2006 to 2.3 %. See Table 7.1 and Table 7.2

Cost AFDC rolls have been steadily growing, but the expenditure, adjusted for inflation, has declined since 1976. Cap for TANF is $16.5 billion. See table 7.3. Average total monthly income of AFDC mothers in 1993 was $381. Adjusted for inflation, in 2003, for a family with two children, the average income was $365 per month.

Social Analysis: The Reality

There are inherent contradiction regarding child poverty and adult dependency :

Raise benefits to reduce child poverty, run the risk of encouraging adult dependency.

We then call for reform to reduce adult dependency by cutting benefits which will increase child poverty.

So we have calls for reform to reduce child poverty by increasing benefits.
And so it goes.

Social Analysis

One: public welfare deals with the problem of child poverty. Therefore, provide cash
and other benefits to lift them out of poverty.

Second: public assistance is concerned with the problem of adult dependency, people who are perceived as not doing the things necessary to be fully functioning, contributing members of society. Therefore eliminate benefits.

Social Analysis

Problem Description.

The reason for our inability to develop an effective
plan for welfare reform is that public assistance addresses two different problems and the solutions to these problems are inherently contradictory.

Social Analysis

The major provisions of H.R. 3734, the 1996
welfare reform are on the following pages 126:

Read them out loud in class.

No modifications have been made since it was passed.

Historical Analysis

Fear of revolution if something was not done. Hence the Social Security Act of 1935
. First national framework for a social welfare system. Out of this case the Aid to Dependent Children established to serve single mothers with small children. Turned into AFDC.

By 1950s, AFDC was not withering away and was providing benefits to a number of people considered undesirable (unwed mothers, not white and “not nice.”)

Historical Analysis

Not until the Great Depression that state and federal government actually began to
play a major role. Could not deal with the massive economic problem of an urban industrial society through local programs supplemented by private relief. Turned to the federal government for help.

Women had a right to insurance against widowhood, the primary threat to their livelihood. Aimed at children of parents of worthy character. Was not intended for the children of unwed mothers and was based on traditional understanding of the family.

Historical Analysis

Prior to that public assistance was given through local voluntary organizations and gifts from wealthy donors.

This was called indoor relief meaning that assistance was provided to people only through institutions such as poor houses, orphanages, mental hospitals, schools for the deaf and blind, etc.

Historical Analysis

Public assistance defined: the obligation of the government to provide an
economic safety net for people, and of people’s right to expect such a safety net based on citizenship.

Has a very short history in the U.S. In this country, there was no such thing as a large public assistance system until the 20th century.

Historical Analysis

The former programs are referred to as social insurance, a category with little stigma,
and the latter as welfare, a highly stigmatized category and one always considered in need of reform.

The new TANF program reinforces this stigmatization process through its institutionalization of the idea that remaining home to rear children is not a legitimate social role for poor women.


States now have more control of the program with the federal governmentproviding only general guidelines.

With TANF, states only have to spend the amount equal to at least 75 percent of their historic spending level, and provide options for the additional 25 percent to be spent for purposes other than direct assistance.

This population gets at the core of the debate of deserving and undeserving poor.


Public assistance is the public program designed to aid the very poorest members of our society.
Almost entirely comprised of women and children.

Feminist scholars argue that we have systematically separated programs used by men and whites out from programs largely used by women and minorities.


Public Assistance is the hot button! As of August 22, 1996, H.R. 3734, the Personal
Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996.

Replaced the architecture of the public assistance system that has been in place since the 1935 signing of the Social Security Act, by replacing the AFDC program with a new program called Temporary Assistance to Needy Families (TANF).


SWK- 328: Chapter 7

Temporary Assistance to Needy Families


Recent Welfare Reform Efforts.
In the 1980s Ronald Reagan began a long conservative trend in society and pressure for
substantial welfare reform began to mount.

First was the Family Support Act of 1988 a make work pay effort or workfare through JOBS.

Culminated in the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 in what Thomas Corbett labels the “make work pay” strategy and the “make ‘em suffer” strategy.

The make ‘em pay strategy is counterproductive to becoming self-sufficient. Recipients are required to attend school, participate in work training, immunize their children, etc. If not, they are penalized by reductions in their welfare grants.

Historical Analysis

Macroeconomic Issues.
Even though social welfare policy is public assistance,
at its core it an economic policy.

This is a result of the failure of our economy to provide a place for everyone to work.

If you listen to the media and politicians you would be led to the conclusion that public assistance is breaking the bank and driving our economy into ruin and is a major contributor to the federal budget deficit.


1. Learn about recent welfare reform efforts
2. Explore macroeconomic issues
3. Discuss TANF's success
Break into groups of 3 and 4 and answer the following questions on this page and the next page.

How much Does Public Assistance Actually Cost?
Is the Cost of Public Assistance Growing?
What are the prospects for employment of welfare recipients?
Now, answer the big question on the preceding slide: Is the cost of welfare breaking the bank?
Is Public Assistance a Work Disincentive?
What are the economic Survival Strategies of Welfare Recipients?
What are the Effects of Public Assistance on Family Structure?

Chapter 8
President Bush had proposed to convert the program to private retirement accounts.

This transition would cost $2.2 trillion over ten years and would leave citizens dependent on the success or failure of their individual investment strategies.
This idea has not met with widespread approval.

Contemporary Analysis of Social Security

Demographic changes are creating a time at which there will be more people receiving Social Security than paying into it.

The trust fund could be depleted by, perhaps, 2029.
Some adjustments are necessary.

Contemporary Analysis of Social Security

In 1960, 35% of older Americans were poor; by 2001, the number had dropped to 10%.

There is still room for improvement.
Social Security is not enough to keep people above the poverty line without other sources of income

In 2001, 11% of older whites and 22% of African Americans and Hispanics were still poor after receiving Social Security

Changes to Social Security

In the decades following the Depression, various changes were made in Social Security

One of them was the introduction of the Cost Of Living Adjustment (COLA).

The COLA provided automatic payment increases as wages and taxes rose.
Social Security gradually but significantly reduced poverty among elders.

Changes in Social Security

Social Security has the appearance of a
universal program, one available to all citizens.
However, it excluded two large groups in the labor force: farm workers and domestic servants

This was partly because such workers sometimes received benefits like room and board in addition to wages.


Other titles in the Act established the following:
a system of unemployment compensation,
assistance for blind people,
and the public assistance program for dependent
children we now call “welfare.”


It designed a complex of social insurance and public assistance programs that became the Social Security of 1935.

Three of its titles were for the elderly:
Title I gave funds to match state Old Age Assistance grants

Title II, “Federal Old-Age Benefits,” is the retirement program we now call “Social Security
Title VIII provided funding through payroll taxes on both employers and employees.


The Great Depression put one-fourth (one in four people) young and old, out of work.

As it was dealing with the immediate problems of unemployment, the Roosevelt administration was also working to make future retirement without poverty possible.


Before 1935, there were few government or private pension.

Most elders relied on whatever savings they had managed to accumulate or hoped that their children would take care of then

Most escaped poverty by continuing to work as long as they could.

1n 1930, almost 60% of men over 65 were still on the job


SWK 328 – Chapter 8

Aging: Social Security, Pensions and Retirement

Some have defaulted on their pension obligations entirely.

Corporations contribute to a federal Pension Benefit Guaranty Corporation (PBGC)
, created in 1974.

The PBGC can take over these responsibilities.
But because of increasing defaults and bankruptcies the PBGC is now $23 billion in debt.
Legislative regulation of pensions is now being discussed.

PBS Frontline takes a hard look of Pensions, PBBC and how policies set in place created the debate on retirement and Social Security debate.

Can you afford to retire?

Contemporary Analysis

Private pension have existed before and after Social Security.

In some industries, they have allowed comfortable retirement for those receiving them

However, in recent years, some corporations have decided to deal with their financial difficulties by converting their pension systems to contributions to individual retirement accounts rather than guaranteed payments after retirement.

Contemporary Analysis

There are other ways to meet the trust fund shortfall:
Increasing the amount of income subject to the payroll tax Increasing the retirement age

Repealing the Bus tax cuts which are three times the size of the shortfall over the next 75 years.

Contemporary Analysis of Social Security

Learning Objectives:

1. Learn about The Social Security Act
2. Explore historical social security programs
3. Discuss Changes in Social Secuirty
Chapter 9
Mental Health
Managed Mental Health Care

What is managed care?

SWK 328 – Chapter 9


Active Learning:

Group Two:

Managed Care in an Agency Setting: Interview
with a social work staff member.


Group One:

How Does Managed Mental Health Care Work:
Interview with a social work provider.


Managed Mental Health Care

Some research indicates that those with moderate mental illness do well in MCOs

Those with more serious conditions fare worse.
Primary care physicians are less likely to recognize symptoms such as clinical depression

People with schizophrenia receive fewer services, including less hospitalization, and very few support services.

Managed Mental Health Care

Costs can be contained but it is difficult to know why. Why do we think it difficult?

Is it that services are being delivered more efficiently or that fewer services are being delivered?
Treatment outcomes are hard to specify and evaluate?
MCOs differ greatly in size, organization, facilities, and range of services, so it is difficult to compare them?

Managed Mental Health Care –
Why do we continue with MCO’s?

It is the belief that MCOs succeeded in cutting costs
By 2000 health costs and insurance premiums were rising again.

One reason for this is that the initial savings were for one-time-only;
switching to less expensive treatment arrangements
Another reason is that MCOs were holding down profits to compete for customers.

Now that most eligible people are enrolled, MCOs can raise premiums.

The Costs of Mental Health Care

But by 2001, they were going back up to 8.7%.
The nation spends about $19 billion on health,
more than the pre-Iraq war defense budget.

During the 1980s, costs increased 11% per year.

In the early 1990s they dropped to 8.7% and then to 5%
as managed care organizations (MCOs) appeared.

Managed Mental Health Care –
Why do we continue with MCO’s?

Managed care may be defended as an improvement in services, but it is driven by a need to control the rapidly rising costs of care.

Managed care is now the major form of administrating and financing health care in the United States.

More than half of all people who have health insurance are part of a managed care plan.

Managed Mental Health Care

Some MCOs operate under a system called capitation.
The insurance company pays the MCO a set rate per person
regardless of what services are required.

The MCO then manages access to services to stay within that overall budget, which includes a profit to the MCO.

There are significant problems with both limitations/capitation and the overall MCO system. CBS News:60 minutes documents these problems.

Managed Mental Health Care

MCOs limit the amount and type of care given

Specify limits to what it will pay for each type of care
Specify who may and who may not provide the care.

The people who make the decisions, re: specifying limits,
are called case managers.
They review service utilization and must authorize the length of certain services prior to treatment.

Those with wealth usually can get whatever health care they want.

Incidence and Treatment of Mental Health Problems

The Four “Uns” are often used to by insurers and employers to describe the
difficulties in planning for and funding mental health services:

What does this mean?

The Problem that Managed Mental Health Care
was Developed to Solve

Read the opening vignette. What are the three issues that are addressed
in the vignette?

Is the major problem the rising costs of treatment for mental difficulties?

Is it the need to improve the current state of care for people with emotional problems and mental illness Is it the perceived need of companies in the health care business to expand into new market areas?

What is managed care?

For most managed care programs, people delivering health services are called providers.

Who are the providers?
Social workers

Who are the customers?
Businesses or other bodies, such as state health or Medicaid departments, that contract with
a managed care organization.

Who are the Clients?
Clientele and clients are the people receiving health or mental health care. Sometimes they are called the consumer, the patient, or the beneficiary.

What is managed care?

A system used by groups to manage costs while maintaining high-quality health and medical services.

NASW adds the following: “cut costs by monitoring access to and the quality of medical care”.

A MCO is a managed care organization.

Learning Objectives:
1. Learn about managed mental health care
2. Explore the history of managed care
3. Discuss managed care effects on social work
Chapter 10
Substance Abuse Policy
NIMH and NIAAA and The Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA) all deal with
mental illness and substance abuse issues: research, treatment, prevention, community awareness, etc.

Below are websites that provide excellent resources in this area.

Mental Illness and Substance Abuse

There are important interactions between mental illness and substance abuse.

Half of drug addicts have mental disorders and many with mental problems depend on drugs and alcohol to relieve their pain (self-medicate).

These two problems when presented together in someone are known as a dual diagnosis.

However, people and programs who treat each problem are often different and do not necessarily communicate with each other.

Mental Illness and Substance Abuse

The politics of substance abuse policies are complicated by the long list of stakeholders:

Self-help groups and citizen’s groups like Mothers Against Drunk Drivers (MADD)

People who abuse drugs and their families

Providers of substance abuse services (71% of social workers have had some contact with clients who have had substance abuse problems)

Law enforcement and the Alcohol beverage and advertising industry

Public health advocacy groups Pharmaceutical industry
Illegal drug dealers Politicians Taxpayers

Politics of Substance Abuse Policies

As a presidential candidate, Obama vowed to bring change in policies related to medical marijuana use.

Advocacy groups applauded the change but raised their concerns about more than two dozen California cases that are hanging in a limbo in federal court.

The move comes at a time when the Obama administration is taking a tougher stance on the problem of drug and weapons trade along the U.S.-Mexico border.

Other states that permit marijuana for medical purposes are Alaska, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Maine, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington.

Obama Administration Drug Policy

Signaling a drastic shift in the Bush administration's policies on drugs, Obama's appointed Attorney General, Eric Holder, he said federal agents will relax their enforcement of marijuana laws and go after only those distributors who violate both state and federal law.

California is one of 13 states that have either legalized or decriminalized the use of medical marijuana and permits its sale for medical purposes. However, it still violates federal law and under the previous administration, authorities targeted medical marijuana sellers under federal laws even if they complied with state laws.

Obama Administration Drug Policy

High-Intensity Drug Trafficking Area Program was established.
The HIDTA program provides additional federal funds to those areas affected to help federal, state, and local law enforcement organizations invest in infrastructure and joint initiatives to dismantle drug trafficking organizations.

The Federal Role in Reducing International Drug Trafficking
tighten procedures for certifying foreign countries for eligibility to receive U.S. aid based on their cooperation with U.S. surveillance, interdiction, and eradication efforts.

Drug Legalization and Illicit drug legalization is not a viable alternative, either as a philosophy or as a practical reality.

Bush Administration Drug Policy

Bush adopted the National Governors Association policy:
The Federal Role

The profits from illicit drug trafficking can be effectively used to help state efforts to dry up the demand for these drugs. Fund drug and alcohol abuse education, drug courts, treatment, prevention, and law enforcement efforts, including the initiative to combat and clean up methamphetamine production laboratories, at the state and local levels of government.

Intensified Eradication and Interdiction of Federal funding for use of the National Guard in drug and border enforcement was thought to deserve continued support and urge the use of U.S. military forces in interdiction efforts.

The Second Bush Administration Drug Policy

Treatment returned to prominence with the Clinton administration.

The criminal justice system was redirected to find alternatives to incarceration for non-violent,
first offenders.

Drug Courts, proliferation of for-profit treatment centers, not-for-profit treatment centers were established.

Recent Efforts

The Reagan administration continued reduction of the supply approach with the “War on Drugs.” This lasted for a decade. This is also known as interdiction.

However, interestingly, it was during this time that drug use was declining! However, it greatly increased the number of law enforcement personnel. So, why then, was the push away from treatment to interdiction?

George H.W. Bush continued Reagan’s policy but admitted failure by the end of the 1980s.
Over a million people were imprisoned for drug offenses, 48 percent of them African Americans.

Recent Efforts

Early government drug control efforts favored a reduce supply approach, trying to cut off the import,
manufacture, and sale of drugs, rather than providing treatment for those addicted.

The Nixon administration brought more attention to treatment by creating the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) in 1970 and the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) in 1973.

Recent Efforts

A History of Substance Abuse Legislation in America

You Tube Video :
Alcohol was once illegal
There are vigorous campaigns to make marijuana legal

Cocaine, morphine, and heroine were once available in over-the-counter remedies for colds, aches, and a variety of common ailments

The Colonists in general and some of the Founding Fathers were heavy drinkers Alcohol is an important part of the rituals of some major religions
Hallucinogens are an important part of Native American religions.

The Problem of Substance Abuse

Review Table 10.1:

Prevalence of Past Month Alcohol and Illicit Drug Use and Past Year Dependence and Treatment for Twenty-five Metropolitan Statistical Areas.

What does it say?

The Problem of Substance Abuse

The construction of substance abuse as a social
problem is more problematic than most.

Consider some of the following facts:
Some substances, like alcohol, are legal and commonly used in moderation

Some substances, like marijuana, are illegal but have clinically recognized medicinal uses

Many legal drugs are subject to misuse
It is often difficult to define the difference between use and abuse

The Problem of Substance Abuse

SWK 328 – Chapter 10

Substance Abuse Policies

Learning Objectives:

1. Learn about the problem of substance abuse
2. Explore Social Policies that address SA
3. Discuss The separation of treatment between those with MH & SA problems
Chapter 11
Child Welfare Policy
Children’s Defense Fund http://www.childrensdefense.org/
The Child Welfare League of American http://www.cwla.org
National Family Preservation Network www.nfpn.org
Annie E. Casey Foundation www.casey.org
Child Welfare Information Gateway www.childwelfare.gov


Early research suggests that reunification is not happening as expected.

Also, though kinship care is less expensive than traditional foster care, it is apparent that the caring kin, particularly if they are grandparents, need some of the same resources and supports that foster parents usually get.

So, in fairness to the grandparents, the efforts to save money should be shelved.

Current Proposals, continued.

The current favorite reform in child welfare is kinship care. Kinship care is where the child is removed from the abusive home and
placed with a relative, often a grandparent.

This is attractive because it promises to keep some family bonds intact and keep open the door to eventual reunification.

It is also useful because many children subject to placement are African American and there are not enough African American foster families to care for them.

Current Proposals for Policy Reform

Why was it adopted so rapidly?
P.L. 96-272, the Adoption Assistance and Child Welfare Act of 1980 or “Reasonable Efforts”
is the requirement that child welfare agencies provide services to prevent the necessity for placement and that courts determine whether the agency has made “reasonable efforts” to accomplish this.
The states figured that family preservation services as a way to demonstrate that they were making reasonable efforts.


The Emergence of Family Preservation.
The beginning of Family Preservation movement is 1974 when the Homebuilders Program was piloted in Washington State.

Three psychologists submitted a grant application proposing to develop “super foster homes” or foster placements backed up with lots of training and professional consultation.

The funding source suggested that they put a staff member in to live with the family before placement. In-home services.


This worked for a while with the number of children in foster declining. However, a
number of factors in the social environment caused this trend to reverse.

Crack cocaine epidemic, economic problems leading to increased poverty and unemployment, AIDS, and a sharp rise in births to single mothers especially teens.

By 1991, the number of children in foster care had risen to an all time high. You had a corresponding decrease in the number of foster families. Why?
Increased employment of women outside the home, low payment made to foster parents, inadequate support services for foster parent, and a lack of training opportunities for foster parents.


The study was Maas and Engler’s, Children in Need of Parents published in 1959.

They found that foster care was not temporary and that the parents of the children in foster care either had no relationship or a negative relationship with the child placement agency.

Called Orphans of the Living.
Numerous other studies were conducted throughout the 1960s that came to similar conclusions.


However, in the late 1950s two things happened that shook the public’s confidence in the foster care system.
First, several studies of foster care were published which found serious problems in the system.

Second, was the explosion of the number of child abuse referrals, which lead to the explosion in the number of children placed in foster care which resulted in a huge increase in cost.


In 1909, the report of the first White House Conference on Children gave support to the foster care movement.

Foster care continued to grow and by the mid-century it was the placement of choice for normal children who could not remain in their homes.
It became a standard item in the child welfare worker’s tool kit.


The basic idea of placing dependent children in a family setting caught on and had a tremendous impact on child welfare practice.

Towards the end of the nineteenth century people such as John Finley, Charles Birtwell, and Homer Folks began to develop sound administrative procedures for child placement.

This included keeping the child in his/her home community; thorough study of the child and the prospective foster home; financial support for the child; and careful supervision of the placement.


This did receive criticism. They would contact parents and persuade them their child's best interest lay in placement.

Catholics accused the Protestants who ran the Children’s Aid Society of snatching Catholic children to be raised as Protestants.

And finally, there was a lack of study, a casual nature of the placement process and lack of follow-up supervision after placement.


Took homeless children from New York City and transported them to the country and placed them with farm families.

Sent them by trains to towns in the Midwest. Would advertise and place children. No money was exchanged.

Children would become part of the family that meant that they did a lot of work. In 1875, placed a total of 4,026.


Foster Care—From Solution to Problem.

Characterized by the same child rescue approach that characterized the societies for the prevention of cruelty to children.

The idea of foster care came from the Reverend Charles Loring Brace, who founded the New York Children’s Aid Society in 1853.


It was the discovery of child abuse by the medical profession using advances in radiological techniques.

Woolley and Evans investigated the home situations of a sample of children who had injuries and found that the infants’ parents were “unstable…neurotic…psychotic”.

These findings exploded into an anti-child abuse crusade six years later when pediatrician Henry Kempe published the results of his research on child abuse under the name the “battered child syndrome.”


Child Abuse Becomes the Dominant Theme.
Child welfare was originally a small and broad-based area of social welfare.

In 1955, there were only 5,000 professional employees of public child welfare agencies nationally.

A series of events in the 1950s changed this to an expansion of the child welfare system at the same time narrowing its focus almost exclusively to child abuse and neglect.


When this was proposed at the 1912 annual meeting of the American Humane Association (AHA) it was voted down.

Carstens left his post as the director of the Massachusetts Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.

He founded what ultimately became known as the Child Welfare League of America (CWLA) in 1921.
AHA and CWLA remained in competition until AHA began to shift towards protection.


C. Carl Carstens was the foremost advocate for a social work approach to child welfare. He was a social worker.
Proposed child protection rather than child rescue.
This provided services to families in order to prevent further maltreatment; sought the causes of maltreatment; and sought prevention through environmental reforms.


Social Work Takes Over
Social work became involved because of the many problems with the child rescue movement.

It was not concerned with prevention; did not recognize that child might love his/her parents and might want to stay home; not concerned with the life of the child once removed.

Social work as a profession along with a scientific approach to approaching social problems was emerging.

More people wanted a social work approach directed towards the problem of child maltreatment.


There emerged anti-cruelty societies in every major city in the country concerned with law enforcement.
In 1877, the American Humane Associated was incorporated to provide coordination, information and assistance among the local societies.
The Societies for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children were born. They were not concerned with the underlying conditions or with welfare. They were concerned with investigation, removal, and prosecution.


The Child Rescue Movement began with an incident in New York City in 1873.
Henry Berg philanthropist established in 1866 the New York Society for the
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals.

A charity worker named Etta Wheeler told Bergh and his attorney about
Mary Ellen Wilson, an eight-year-old girl who was being abused by her

They sought custody of her and prosecuted the stepparents. Gained
widespread media coverage and formed public opinion resulting in the
passage of 1875 “an Act of the incorporation of societies for the prevention of cruelty to children.”


Two developments account for this.
First, the position in the economy radically changed.

Children no longer had direct economic worth but assumed vast emotional worth.

Children could no longer work in a more technologically advancing industrial age, the decline in birth and death rates, and the rise of the compassionate family.

Therefore society considered children worthy of protection.


Our country’s attitude towards children has changed:

from noninterference and no rights for children

to government intervention and the rights of children

for a certain level of care by the end of the nineteenth century.


Another model was based on structural family therapy using family systems theory that looked at family and other systems.

Work over a longer period of time with family.

Homebuilders is the policy of choice for dealing with child abuse and neglect.

It is in place in some form in every state and are provided by both public and private agencies.

It is heavily evaluated. Is so popular that a backlash is forming, because these research studies lack any kind of control or comparison groups posing methodological problems.

Overview, continued

Models of Family Preservation
There are numerous models that differ in length and intensity and also in psychosocial theory base.

See Figure 11.1 Service Delivery Contrasts between Traditional Social Services and Family Preservation Services.

Original model was Homebuilders, being the shortest and most intense. Was cognitive-behavioral.

Overview, continued

Services are usually given from four to six weeks for intensive intervention and up to three months for longer less intensive work.

The child must be at risk of placement, but able to remain in the home if intensive services are rendered.

Social workers have smaller caseloads and work intensively with the family up to twenty hours a week.

After services have been rendered, the agency takes on a supervisory role leaving the family to function on its own with increased problem solving ability.

Overview, continued

The solution to the overburdened foster care system is family preservation.

In order to prevent removal of child, there is an effort to provide intense services delivered in the child’s home over a brief, time-limited period.

Overview, continued

The child welfare system faces a double bind: protect abused and neglected children, yet keep families together.

It has been found that once a child is removed from the biological parents, the amount of clinical services provided to the child and parents actually declines. Thus making reunification just that much more difficult. Why?

No money pumped into remediation, or even prevention for that matter.

Overview, continued

Other concerns or unanticipated consequences are that as child abuse reports have increased, the need for foster care has increased.

Yet, the number of licensed foster homes has not been able to keep pace.

Between 1990 and 2003, there was a 27% increase in children in foster care yet a number of foster homes increased by only 16%.

Overview, continued

First, increased awareness of the problem resulting in 9,563 maltreatment reports in 1967 to 3,000,000 maltreatment reports in 2003 called in per year.

Second, funding for child welfare has not increased fast enough to allow agencies to deal with the massive increase in reports while still attending to broader child welfare concerns.

These broader concerns are day care, child health, poverty, mental or behavioral disorders, etc.

Overview, continued

Child Abuse Reporting policies have a broad mandate that has focused more and more on issues of child abuse and neglect through the provision of protective services.

Why has this happened?

Overview, continued

Composed of government and private agencies whose responsibility it is to:

Respond to the needs of children reported to public child protection agencies as being abused, neglected, or at risk of child maltreatment

Provide children placed in out-of-home care with developmentally appropriate services

Help children find a permanent home in the least restrictive living situation that is possible.

Overview, continued

The Children’s Defense Fund: 2,583 children are abused
or neglected each day;

4 children are killed by abuse or neglect each day; 5 children or teenagers commit suicide each day

How we express our concern for the problems that these children face is through the child welfare system.


SWK 328 – Chapter 11

Chapter 11: Child Welfare and
Family Preservation

By 1993, family preservation became an explicit part of federal policy with the passage of P.L. 103-66, the Family Preservation and Support Program.

Has a 25 percent state-matching requirement. These two public laws have made family preservation the policy of choice in the 1990s for dealing with child maltreatment.

All states have some form of family preservation program in place


Three major concerns were identified:

The first was that foster care was not temporary.
Second, was that you had foster care drift in that children in foster care were placed in numerous homes, not just one.

And third was that there was rarely any kind of long-term plan for the children.

As a result a new approach to foster care was
developed in the late 1970s and 1980s know as
permanency planning. See 1 through 5.


There was a widespread outcry from the public and as a result was the development of child abuse reporting laws.

In the 1960s the Children’s Bureau developed a model law that was adopted by thirteen states by 1963.

By 1966 every state had mandatory child abuse reporting laws with a huge increase in the number of reports. See Table 11.1.

It also caused a massive increase in staff but it was not able to keep pace with the increased demand for services. See Table 11.2.

This trend has continued with this one service, child protection, to have completely taken over public child welfare agencies.


Government became more involved and funding began to shift from private to public.

The 1909 White House Conference on Children resulted in the establishment in 1912 of the U.S. Children’s Bureau that was charged with investigation and reporting on child welfare.

This was followed in 1918 by the Infancy and Maternity Health Bill; 1935 Social Security Act that under provision of Title IV, Aid to Dependent Child and Title V, Maternal and Child Welfare.


The second factor was the emergence of child protection at the end of the nineteenth century.
Common law interpretation of children and women’s rights changed.

The system of family law began to change towards government intervention.
Equal rights between mother and father regarding children and that children were vital to the future of society and therefore needed protection.


Learning Objectives:

1. Learn about The Child Rescue Movement
2. Explore The problems that face children
3. Discuss current policies for reform
Know Your Stuff
Know Your Stuff
Know Your Stuff
Know Your Stuff
Know Your Stuff
Know Your Stuff
Know Your Stuff
Know Your Stuff
Know Your Stuff
Review Syllabus
Prezi Chapter 1
Class Activity
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Roll Call
Prezi chapter 2 /Angie's Lesson
Class Activity
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Roll Call
Prezi Chapter 3
Class Activity
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Roll Call
Prezi Chapter 4
Historical Perspective
Class Activity
SLU Core Values:
Community & Respect
Roll Call
Prezi Chapter 5
Class Activity
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Roll Call & Lead Day
Prezi Chpt 6: Policy Making & Seeds of Peace Guest
Class Activity
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect

Roll Call
Prezi Chapter 7
Class Activity
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Roll Call
Prezi Chapter 8
Class Activity
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Roll Call
Prezi Chapter 9
Class Activity
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Roll Call
Prezi Chapter 10
Class Activity
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Roll Call
Prezi Chapter 11
Class Activity
SLU Core Values: Community & Respect
Th Benton Park Exercise:

1. This is a historical analysis of a social service agency in the mid-west.
Break in to three of four groups and answer three following questions:
1. How has the direction and spirit of the agency changed over time?

2. Identify the various elements that have shaped the direction ans spirit of the agency?

Rob Rafferty's 6 Principles of Public Policy Making: Decisions and Actions by people & government officials to make laws

1) Scarcity-Tradeoffs
2) Diversity-Ideas & Opinions
3) Change- Dynamic Always Changing
4) Costs and Benefits- Who pays who benefits?
5) Unintended consequences-Avoid Poor Design
6) Crisis- Influences the Policy Process

President Obama Quote: "We never want to let a good crisis go to waste"
Dr. Barbara Gottschalk
Seeds of Peace Video Up Next
Lobbyist Work Hard Video up next
TANF @ 10
In general manage care is the major form of administration and financing of health care in the U.S.
What percentage of Americans age 12 and over is currently using illicit drugs keep in mind Dr. Carl Hart's video?
Less than 10 percent
The race/ethnic group with the lowest rate of substance abuse is:
The Volstead Act, prohibited the sale of alcoholic beverages because it?
Deprive the government of huge tax revenues. Resulted in greatly increased criminal activity.
The term interdiction is also used by the NSA when an electronics shipment is secretly intercepted by an intelligence service (domestic or foreign) for the purpose of implanting bugs before they reach their destination.
Public Enemy Number One
However, opium, heroin, and morphine were once what?
Common over-the-counter remedies.
The raising of the legal drinking age accomplished what?
A reduced number of fatal automobile accidents
The number of people addicted to drugs who also have mental health problems is what amount?
More than half
Social workers fill what roles related to substance abuse except which one?
They are case managers, counselors, administrators of substance abuse programs, but are not criminal investigators.
What is child welfare as a formal service delivery system responsible for?
Protecting and promoting the well-being of all children, promoting family stability, taking responsibility for addressing social conditions that negatively affect children.
Although child welfare has a broad mandate, this area of social welfare policy is focused on what?
Child neglect and abuse
As the number of reports of child maltreatment has increased, the proportion that are substantiated has what?
The first family preservation program was called what?
The Homebuilders Program
What are the goals of family preservation?
To stabilize the family crisis, to increase the family's coping skills, to allow children to remain safely in the home...NOT provide financial assistance.
The earliest child protection agencies considered themselves to be what kind of agency?
Law enforcement agencies
The earliest child protection service delivery agencies were offshoots of what?
Societies for the prevention of cruelty to animals
Check out this video.......
Historic Time of Child Welfare
Taking Action Chpt. 12
Learning objectives:
1. Discuss Program Evaluation
2. Negotiation Skill Development
3. Political Skills

Roll Call
Chapt 12: Building Coalitions
Practice Test
Building Coalitions: Focus on formulating, promoting, changing or opposing a policy.

Information Dissemination: Documentation/data on social problems and needs are essential.

Lobbying: the purposive, goal-directed, planned process of attempting to influence the position of the decision maker, usually an elected one.

Political Skills

Strategy refers to overall plan for a negotiation, whereas tactics refer to the maneuvers used to implement the strategy.

Preconference strategies: Time for planning and development of the overall negotiation strategy.

Conference strategies: Heart of negotiation “dirty tricks” tactical concessions.

Postconference strategies: Skill at problem-solving and cooperation

Strategy and Tactics

The analytical skills of policy analysis, need assessment, and program evaluation often result in finding the significant needs are not being met.

They often reveal the steps needed to meet these needs. Then negotiation and persuasion is needed.

Distributive bargaining: the division of resources

Integrative bargaining: problem-solving model “ win-win” approach

Attitudinal bargaining: attempting to manipulate the opponent’s attitudes.

Interorganizational bargaining: bargaining within the organization to resolve conflict

Interactional Skills: Negotiation and Persuasion

You must find out the goals of the program for evaluation purposes

You want to describe the characteristics of the organization in order to set the new approach and to help you determine what changes have occurred.

Do process evaluation to examine the way services are being carried out in the new program.

Define outcomes that can be measured to determine whether the project’s goals are being met (to determine if the program achieved what it wanted).

You will need to measure the outcomes (using qualitative or quantitative/mixed methods research approach).

You will need to write a report.

Program Evaluation

Group One Group Two Group Three
Analytical Skills Interactional Skills Political Skills
Policy Analysis Problem Solving Building Coalitions
Needs Assessment Relationship Building Information Dissemination
Program Evaluation Communication Lobbying

Policy Action Skills for Social Workers

Campaigns for political office rely heavily on volunteers to do everything from answering the phones, to stuffing envelops, to going from door to door.

Social workers are encouraged to run for office.

The first woman elected to the US House of Representatives was Jeannette Rankin, a social worker and Republican from Montana in 1916.

What does PAC stand for?

Political Action for Candidate Election

The preconference stage: All of the activities that occur prior to sitting down at the negotiating table.

The conference stage: Heart of the negotiation when all parties meet to hammer out an agreement.

The postconference stage: The final stage dominated by distributive bargaining conducive to problem solving.

Stages of Negotiation

Policy Practice for social Workers

Taking Action

Class Activity:

1. Students should be placed into small groups as they enter the classroom. Each group should be supplied with 3 large sheets of chart paper and several markers.

2. Once students are settled, the teacher should explain to students that they will be working with their groups to brainstorm definitions for 3 words that will be important to the day's lessons. Establish the rules for brainstorming and group participation (i.e. one person in the group is the recorder, all others should contribute ideas in round robin fashion without commenting on ideas of others, group should discuss all ideas and come to consensus about the definitions for the three words, etc.).

3. Once brainstorming guidelines are established, have the recorders for each group record the three words below. A different sheet of paper should be used for each word.

Conflict Negotiation Compromise

4. After words are recorded, give students a set amount of time (2-3 minutes) to brainstorm all the ideas they can about the word conflict. Repeat this process for Negotiation and Compromise.

5. Once students have a list of words, phrases, and ideas that relate to each of the 3 words, they should begin the next step. They will need to work as a group to decide on a definition for each word. They cannot use a dictionary to devise the definition. All students in the group will need to agree with the definition for each word. At the bottom of the chart paper, each group should write its definition for each word. This process should take 10-15 minutes.

6. After all groups have finished, each group should choose a spokesperson to share the work done by the group. Those people who are not speaking should carry the large pieces of chart paper to the front of the room and hold them while the speaker shares the definitions the group came up with for each of the three words. When the group has finished presenting, their words and definitions should be posted in the room. This should continue until all groups have presented and posted their ideas.

Chapter 13

Roll Call
Chapt 13: Conclusion
Class Activity
SLU Core Values: Community
and Respect
Lessons from Policy Analysis
Discussion: Compassion and Protection
Realistic Expectations
The realization that human behavior is resistant to improvement, however, some rather positive lessons are listed:
Lower your expectations-expect change to cost much more than predicted because behavior change is difficult to accomplish.
Creaming is okay-concentrate on the target population with the fewest problems in order to at least help a few that are able to be helped.
Don’t expect to scrape the bottom of the barrel, realize that no social welfare policy will be able to reach everyone and every problem.
Don’t allow the best to defeat the good-policies should be measured against other policies rather than against some ideal standard.
Be multifaceted but not holistic-the holistic approach would cost so much be so complex that it would not be practical for large numbers of people who need help.

Our Expectations for Social Welfare Policy Are Unrealistic

Social welfare policies are influenced much more by social values than they are by data from empirical research.

For example, Congress continues to pass reform packages that feature time limits on assistance.
These time limits are based on the work ethic, with its assertion that work can be found by anyone who tries hard enough.

One of the ongoing challenges to policy makers will always be to make the process more rational and data based.

Ideology Driving Out Data in Social Welfare Policy

On the one side is the desire of people to make the lives of others better: compassion is the effort to alleviate present suffering, deprivation, or other undesirable conditions of the population, that the benefactor is not exposed.

On the other side are aspects of policies that are designed to benefit their promoters and of the community at large, the motivation is protection.

Pumphrey states there needs to be a balance between compassion and protection.

Compassion and Protection

The primary issue in practically every area of social welfare policy is what?

Every policy reform we have discussed has as its driving goal the reduction of expenditures, or else a fear that costs will get out of control.

Social workers realize that policymakers are greatly concerned with cost and try to sell policies based on cost reduction.

Does this always work?

The Bottom Line Is
The Bottom Line

Chapter 13


Ted Talk David Brooks:
The Social Animal
Family Feud Final Review
Full transcript