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Comparison of the Apache, Coast Salish and Inuit People

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on 1 November 2013

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Transcript of Comparison of the Apache, Coast Salish and Inuit People

Comparison of the Apache, Coast Salish and Inuit People
Geography and Climate
Geography and climate affected all aspects of first nation’s culture. It is what made them who they were. Apache people lived in the southern USA (Arizona, New Mexico, and Texas). It is a hot desert, with many canyons and valleys. Their vegetation was cacti, desert grasses, etc. The Coast Salish people lived along the northwest coast of Canada and the US. They lived in a heavily forested area with many mountains and rivers. The climate here is very temperate; not extreme. Bear, moose, cougars, and salmon (among others) were plentiful here. The Inuit lived in the Arctic region (Northern Canada), where it is cold and barren. The land was also home to polar bears, seals, walrus, whales and many others. These three regions were all extremely different.
Housing
As one might expect, the housing for the Apache, Inuit and Coast Salish peoples was very different from each other. For example, the Apache peoples lived in thatched houses, tipis, or a domed room dwelling called a wickiup. These shelters would not last in the Arctic region where the Inuit resided; they built houses made of snow (called igloos) during the winter, and in tents covered with caribou skin in the summer. Only the more central Inuit people lived in igloos all winter, most only lived in one temporarily, or lived in large sod houses. Then there are the Coast Salish people who lived in long houses constructed of cedar planks. Several families could live in one of these, although each family got their own fire pit for cooking. We can conclude that these three first nations groups had very different requirements for their living arrangements; there were not many similarities.
Tools, Weapons, and Technology
Each group of first peoples had their own needs, and developed different technologies to meet them. The Inuit peoples had to hunt caribou, so they created small bows and arrows to do this. They learned to utilize the resources they had (as did any first nation culture) and made many small objects, such as snow goggles and pins out of antler, bone, or walrus ivory. Hunting Arctic animals was not an issue for the Apache tribes; they needed things for their war-like raids. They had bow and arrow sets, long spears, and shields made from the hide of a buffalo, all things the Inuit people would not have much use for. They were also very advanced in their bead work and basketry. Once more, the Coast Salish first nations made far different things with their resources. They created magnificent canoes made of whole cedar trees, totem poles to tell stories, and many kinds of art in general. Since these coastal people lived in such close proximity to the water, fish was plentiful. They became very skilled at making fishing nets and fish hooks or rods (these are not useful when you are not around water, as were the Apache). You can see how not everyone in our modern world has the same requirements, and it was certainly no different back then.
Food and Food Preparation
The same type of foods are not available everywhere today, and we can say the same thing for the first nations people. The Inuit people did not have access to the corn of the Apache people, of the berries and fresh food the Coast Salish did. They instead hunted larger mammals such as caribou and whales, and learned how to use them to their fullest extent. They caught fish and hunted seals while they moved around with the seasons. The Apache tribes had a much stronger southern/Mexican influence than what could reach up North, and ate much corn, seeds and nuts. In addition, they hunted large game. The Coast Salish ate much seafood (salmon, clams, etc.), and enjoyed eating as fresh as possible. They also had some different cooking methods such as boiling, smoking, and even baking. All the peoples tried to preserve their food for less plentiful months, whatever method they used.
Social Organization
The social organization was very different among the three groups. The Apache tribes were mostly matrilineal, the Coast Salish was bilateral, and the Inuit people were patrilineal. The Coast Salish people probably had the social organization most similar to us; they had laws, each group had its own tribal government, and wealth meant power and status. The Inuit people had groups ranging from a few to hundreds of men and women, and were a very peaceful people. They tried to always settle disputes peacefully, through contests of strength. Among the 13 different American Apache tribes, each was led by its own tribal-council-elected chief. Here, the women were in charge of the house. We can now say that the social organization is varied between the regions. The groups all had different kinship patterns, and ways of living in general.
Clothing

Clothing is very dependent on the region you live in, so it is no surprise to find that these people had very different styles. Apache people wore small animal skin dresses or shirts to keep cool, while the Inuit layered marine animals’ intestines to make things more waterproof. The Coast Salish people dressed for their marine climate wearing anything from fringed cedar bark skirts to absolutely nothing. Apache men wore leather shirts and moccasins, and the people were very decorative with their fringe and beading. Inuit people found it essential to wear parkas made of caribou skin/fur and seal skin boots called ‘Kamik’. A mothers’ parka was different, though, it had a large hood to carry babies and young children. The members of Coast Salish tribes wore capes of cedar bark to shed the rain in their wet environment, or weather robes made of any bird skin. They often went barefoot. As you can see, different climates and regions call for different clothing requirements.
Bibliography
Housing:

Inuit - Tuck, James A. "Inuit." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 11 Oct. 2013.
Coast Salish - Garrod, Stan. Indians of the Northwest Coast. Don Mills Ontario: Fitzhenry& Whiteside Ltd, 1980. Print.
Apache - Basso, Keith H. "Apache Indians." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 16 Oct. 2013.

Tools, Weapons, Technology:

Inuit - Tuck, James A. "Inuit." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 11 Oct. 2013.
Coast Salish - Garrod, Stan. Indians of the Northwest Coast. Don Mills Ontario: Fitzhenry& Whiteside Ltd, 1980. Print.
Apache - The authors' names are Laura Redish and Orrin Lewis and the title of our site is Native Languages of the Americas.

Food and Food Preperation:

Inuit - Tuck, James A. "Inuit." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 11 Oct. 2013.
Coast Salish - Garrod, Stan. Indians of the Northwest Coast. Don Mills Ontario: Fitzhenry& Whiteside Ltd, 1980. Print.
Apache - The authors' names are Laura Redish and Orrin Lewis and the title of our site is Native Languages of the Americas.

Clothing:

Inuit - Tuck, James A. "Inuit." World Book Advanced. World Book, 2013. Web. 11 Oct. 2013.
Coast Salish - Ashwell, Reg. Coast Salish: Their Art and Culture. Currey BC: Hancock House Publishers Ltd, 2006. Print.
Apache - The authors' names are Laura Redish and Orrin Lewis and the title of our site is Native Languages of the Americas.

Social Structure:

Inuit - Ipellie, Alootook. The Inuit Thout of It. Buffalo NY: Annick Press, 2007. Print.
Coast Salish - Garrod, Stan. Indians of the Northwest Coast. Don Mills Ontario: Fitzhenry& Whiteside Ltd, 1980. Print.
Apache - The authors' names are Laura Redish and Orrin Lewis and the title of our site is Native Languages of the Americas.

Foreword
What did the Apache, Coast Salish, and Inuit peoples have in common? Well, they all shared the basic first peoples ideas around nature and respect, but what about the other aspects of their cultures? Here, I compared the 3 peoples in 6 categories; geography and climate, housing, technology, food, clothing, and social organization.
This is a map of Canada and the USA with an overlay of the peoples boundaries (inside these two countries)
Pink - Inuit
Red - Coast Salish
Blue - Apache
A view of the Apache area landscape.
A view of the Arctic.
The Coast Salish west-coast.
An Apache tipi and wickiup.
An Inuit igloo
and tent.
A cedar-plank
Coast Salish
long house.
An Inuit bow and arrow.
An Apache
buffalo hide
shield.
A Coast Salish canoe.
Marine mammals were a large source of food for the Inuit people.
Apache tribes ate
much corn; they
attained this food
by trading with other
southern peoples.
Salmon, among other fish and shellfish, was a large part of Coast Salish culture.
A Coast Salish chief.
An Inuit chief.
Women were a very important
part of Apache culture.
Apache moccasins.
The Coast
Salish people
wore cedar bark
skirts.

An Inuit Parka.
Thanks For Watching!
By Elena Moss
Full transcript