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Children of Low Socio-economic Status
Transcript of Children of Low Socio-economic Status
Issues and Controversies
What is being done to help these students achieve?
The Implications for Secondary Curriculum
Use of SAS
-Plethora of Information.
-Menu "dig down".
-Executive summaries or table of contents.
-Articles are repeated for different standards.
Pennsylvania Department of Education (2013). State report status: Status of Pennsylvania Public Schools. Retrieved from http://paayp.emetric.net/StateReport#pie.
Commission of no child left behind (2006). Improving achievements for all students: Is NCLB Accountability producing results. Retrieved fromhttp://www.aspeninstitute.org/sites/default/files/content/docs/nclb/AtlantaReport060606.pdf.
Children in low SES
Economically disadvantaged students
Students from major racial and ethnic groups
Students with disabilities
Students with limited English proficiency.
How are these students subgroups performing compared to other subgroups?
Adequate yearly progress (AYP) is the measure by which schools, districts, and states are held accountable for student performance under Title I of the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB).
Under NCLB, AYP is used to determine if schools are successfully educating their students. The law requires states to use a single accountability system for public schools to determine whether all students, as well as individual subgroups of students, are making progress toward meeting state academic content standards.
Progress on those standards must be tested yearly in grades 3 through 8 and in one grade in high school. The results are then compared to prior years, and, based on state-determined AYP standards, used to determine if the school has made adequate progress towards the proficiency goal.
According to the law, states have the flexibility to define this yearly progress, but it must include the following elements:
State tests must be the primary factor in the state’s measure of AYP.
For secondary schools, the other academic indicator must be the high school graduation rate.
States must set a baseline for measuring students’ performance toward the goal of 100 percent proficiency by spring 2014. The baseline is based on data from the 2001-02 school year.
States must also create benchmarks for how students will progress each year
A state’s AYP must include separate measures for both reading/language arts and math. In addition, the measures must apply not only to students on average, but also to students in subgroups.
To make AYP, at least 95 percent of students in each of the subgroups, as well as 95 percent of students in a school as a whole, must take the state tests, and each subgroup of students must meet or exceed the measurable annual objectives set by the state for each year
In Pennsylvania out of 1472 schools, 48.2 percent made AYP.
The rest of the Pennsylvania schools fall into making progress, warning, or on an improvement plan.
Inferior elementary and secondary schools in low SES areas
o Lack of resources for low SES districts
o Lack of experienced and highly qualified teachers
o Poor and unsafe school conditions
Lack of school-readiness skills
o Limited early childhood skills
o Lack of high quality early childhood programs
o Lack of parental awareness and ability to foster school-readiness skills
Priorities: Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
• Low SES & Segregation
• Discussion Prompts: Do you think students from low SES backgrounds face segregation in schools today? What are some examples of this? What can we do as a nation to address this concern?
Stull, J. C. (2013). Family socioeconomic status, parent expectations, and a child's achievement. Research In Education, (90), 53-67. doi:10.7227/RIE.90.1.4
Crosnoe, R. (2009). Low-income students and the socioeconomic composition of public high schools. American Sociological Review, 74(5), 709-730.
Crisis from the beginning…
Children from low-SES families
are more likely to experience growth retardation and inadequate neurobehavioral development in utero (DiPietro et al. 1999, Kramer 1987). They are more likely to be born prematurely, at low birth weight, or with asphyxia, a birth defect, a disability, fetal alcohol syndrome, or AIDS (Crooks 1995, Hawley & Disney 1992, US Dep. Health & Human Services 2000b, Cassady et al. 1997, Vrijheid et al. 2000, Wasserman et al. 1998). Early health problems often emanate from poor prenatal care, maternal substance abuse, poor nutrition during pregnancy, maternal lifestyles that increase the likelihood of infections (smoking, drug use), and living in a neighborhood that contains hazards affecting fetal development (toxic waste dumps) (US Dep. Health & Human Services 2000a).
Cognitive and Academic Attainment
For over 70 years ﬁndings on the relationship between SES and intellectual/
academic competence has accumulated. McCall (1981) presented evidence that the
association between SES and cognitive performance begins in infancy. Numerous
studies have documented that poverty and low parental education are associated
with lower levels of school achievement and IQ later in childhood (Alexander
et al. 1993, Bloom 1964, Duncan et al. 1994, Escalona 1982, Hess et al. 1982,
Pianta et al. 1990, Walberg & Marjoribanks 1976, Zill et al. 1995)
Although the link between SES and children’s social and emotional well-being is
not as consistent as the link with cognitive attainment, there is substantial evidence
that low-SES children more often manifest symptoms of psychiatric disturbance
and maladaptive social functioning than children from more afﬂuent circumstances
NUTRITION Among the most oft-cited linkages between SES and well-being is access to resources (Klerman 1991). Klerman’s model includes seven paths linking low income to health, inability to purchase goods and services essential for health and inability to secure appropriate health services
Programs that advocate economically disadvantaged children and their families
The main goal of the Head Start preschool program is to increase lower SES children's school readiness; to start them off on a level playing field with their middle SES peers. Medical and dental services for the child and social services and classes for the parents are also part of the program. An emphasis is placed on encouraging parents to be involved with the program, volunteer in the classroom, interact positively with the child at home and attend workshops on topics like nutrition, shared-book reading, preparing for jobs/job interviews and so on.
The Parent-Child Home Program
THE MISSION STATEMENT: "The Parent-Child Home Program, a research-proven home visiting model, prepares young children for school success by increasing language and literary skills, enhancing social-emotional development, and strengthening the parent-child relationship.“
Perry Preschool Project
Overview of the Program
Created in 19626 in Ypsilanti, Michigan; a blue-collar town with high crime and poverty rates, the Perry Preschool Project is a great longitudinal study of the effects of compensatory preschooling for at-risk children. 123 African-American 3 and 4 year-olds were randomly assigned to the program of to no preschool. On average each child in the program attended for 2 years, 3 hours a day, 5 days per week (Schweinhart & Weikart, 1988). Once every week teachers visited each child's home to meet with the parents, discuss the child's progress, encourage parents to interact with their kids at home and become involved in all aspect of Perry. These meetings were scheduled at the parent's convenience. Monthly group meetings with many of the parents and teachers served as social supports for the parents (Zigler, Taussig, Black, 1992). They were a time to discuss their lives, children, child-rearing practices and much more.
Do these programs work?
Conclusions: So it seems that children who are living in poverty have better chances of graduating from high school if they participate in an exact replication of the Mother-Child Home Program or the Parent-Child Home Program. Even only completing half of the program still shows better chances of high school graduation than not participating in a verbal-interaction program.
So it seems that Head Start (or preschool in general) helps bring at-risk children/low SES children closer to starting school with the same levels of knowledge as their middle class counterparts. However, one downside to Head Start is that is may actually be widening the achievement gap between similarly disadvantaged children because Head Start simply does not have the resources to accept every at-risk for school failure child. For some families, paying for preschool is not an option, so if the child gets waitlisted at Head Start and never gets in, the child will not attend preschool and therefore end up starting kindergarten behind his/her peers.
Alexander. (1993). Socioeconomic status and child development. (Master's thesis, University of Arkansas at Little Rock,).
Bloom. (1964). Socioeconomic status and child development. . (Master's thesis, University of Arkansas at Little Rock.)
Cassady. (1997). Socioeconomic status and child development. (Master's thesis).
Crooks. (1995). Socioeconomic status and child development. (Master's thesis, University of Arkansas at Little Rock,).
DiPietro, E. A. (1999). Socioeconomic status and child development. (Master's thesis, University of Arkansas at Little Rock,).
Duncan . (1994). Socioeconomic status and child development. (Master's thesis, , University of Arkansas at Little Rock.)
Hess. (1982). Socioeconomic status and child development. (Master's thesis, University of Arkansas at Little Roc.)).
Kramer. (1987). Socioeconomic status and child development. (Master's thesis, University of Arkansas at Little Rock,).).
Klerman. (1991). Socioeconomic status and child development. (Master's thesis, University of Arkansas at Little Roc.)).
McCall. (1991). Socioeconomic status and child development. (Master's thesis, University of Arkansas at Little Roc.)
Pianta. (1990). Socioeconomic status and child development. (Master's thesis, University of Arkansas at Little Roc.)).
Schweinhart, L. J. (1998). the High Scope Perry Preschool Study through age 40Ypsilanti, Mich: High Scope Press.
U.S. Dep. Health & Human Services, (2000b).Socioeconomic status and child development
Vrijheid. (1997). (Master's thesis, University of Arkansas at Little Rock,).
Walberg&Marjoribanks. (19971995). Socioeconomic status and child development. (Master's thesis, University of Arkansas at Little Roc.)).
Wasserman. (1998). Socioeconomic status and child development. . (Master's thesis, University of Arkansas at Little Rock,)
Have you ever encountered any students from low SES?
If so, what have you done in terms of your content area curriculum in order not to leave anyone of them behind?
Which of the following categories of curriculum did your behaviors fall into?
PA Title 22, Chapter 4