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Transcript of Greek Mythology
Golden Fleece 4 Great Adventures Background Adventure Pelias steals the kingdom from its rightful heir, his cousin Jason.
Pelias agrees to give the kingdom back... if Jason brings back the fabled Golden Fleece from Colchis.
Jason, being the heroic kind of guy, agrees and recruits his fellow Greeks to go with him on his quest.
The merry band sets forth on their ship, the "Argos." Half-Gods and Heroes Greek Superstars Starring: Jason, Hercules, Orpheus, Castor, Pollux, and Peleus (father of Achilles) Arrival Jason arrives at Colchis and asks King Aetes for the Golden Fleece. Aetes agrees, but only if Jason completes an impossible task
(of course!). Plow field with fearsome bulls Success! Sow field with dragon teeth Defeat the "crop" of armed men that will rise from the ground Yoke two bronze-hoofed, fire-breathing bulls Wrong! The King had expected Jason to die and refuses to hand over the Fleece... Now Jason gets the Fleece right? The Task... We interrupt your Adventure to bring you some godly help.... Hera has been the companion goddess from the start.
She asks Aphrodite to have Cupid make the king's daughter, Medea, fall madly in love with Jason. Why is this important? Because Medea is a powerful sorceress! Now back to your scheduled Adventure... Fleece Medea gives Jason an "invincibility" ointment. Medea rebels against her father, lulls the guardian serpent to sleep, and Jason retrieves the Golden Fleece. Hurrah! Medea's brother pursues Jason, but Medea kills him before he can reach their ship. Oh no... Home at Last Jason and Medea sail home with the crew of the "Argo." Medea expects to wed her love after their return. But what is Jason planning? Aftermath Jason and Medea arrive in Greece. Pelias has caused Jason's parents to die. Medea expects to marry him. Medea threatens to harm Jason's new wife. King of Corinth exiles Medea. Medea kills his children and escapes in a chariot drawn by dragons. Jason vows revenge. Medea uses her powers to trick Pelias' daughters into murdering him. Medea bears two of Jason's sons. The couple moves to Corinth. Jason marries the daughter of the King of Corinth...
oops. Remember the wicked cousin? Remember Medea's love for Jason? Remember Medea's magical powers? Medea kills the new bride with a poisoned robe. Jason blames Medea for all her troubles. The Important Stuff! Connections Jason thinks only of power and fame and destroys Medea's life because of his selfish ways.
His obsession with power and fame is similar to that of King Midas and his "golden touch" and has equally disastrous consequences in his life.
The theme of obsession with power is also present in Shakespeare's "Macbeth" because Macbeth's quest for power ends in his death. Mythology Literature Medea sacrifices everything and uses her powers for evil to please the one she loves.
The theme of sacrificing out of love is also present in "Of Mice and Men" in how George sacrifices his security to stick with Lenny and in George's murder of Lenny. Pyramus and Thisbe are two lovers whose parents restricted them from seeing each other. However, they found a wall with a hole through which they could communicate. One night, they planned to meet each other near the mulberry tree. Thisbe arrived, but a lioness came and she had to leave, but the lioness got her scarf. When Pyramus arrived, heaw her bloody scarf, and stabbed himself. When Thisbe returned, she saw him dead, and killed herself, for she could not live without her lover. The tale of Pyramus and Thisbe relates to the Tragedy of Romeo and Juliet. Both involve two lovers who are forbidden from seeing each other, and ends with one killing themself from brash thinking: seeing a presumably dead body and committing suicide out of instant grief. Connections Orpheus and Eurydice Orpheus was a musician whose skill was unmatched by any on Olympus. He met the fair maiden Eurydice and instantly fell in love with her. Unfortunately, she was bit by a viper and died. Orpheus used his musical skill to venture to Hades to bargain for her soul. He took her home, but the condition was that he couldn't look back to see her until he was back to the Overworld. He was too tempted, looked back, and she turned to dust. Connection This tale is similar to the Biblical Story of Lot and his wife. Baucis and Philemon In Mark Twain’s novel, The Prince and the Pauper, the poor boy holds greater compassion for others and is kind and neighborly despite his lower social rank. In both stories, the themes of morality and human kindness are very similar. Connections Ceyx and Alcyone Ceyx was the Son of Lucifer the Lightbearer, and Alcyone was the Daughter of Aeolus, King of the Winds. The two were greatly in love, but Ceyx decided that he needed to journey across the perilous sea to consult the oracle. Upon leaving, Alcyone passed the time by praying to Juno for her husband's goodwill. After hearing these prayers, Juno asked Somnus the God of Sleep to send Alcyone a dream that shows her the truth: Ceyx has long been dead. When she sees this dream, she goes to the shore the next day, and the gods make her a bird, at which point she can see Ceyx ahead. They live happily together, and for 7 days each winter, the seas are calm so Ceyx and Alcyone can mate--the Halcyon Days. Question 3 on the 2010 AP Lit Test is applicable to this story: analyze how a character deals with separation from home or a loved one within the context of a story. Applicable AP Questions Pygmalion and Galatea Pygmalion was a sculptor who decided never to marry, for he hated women. He decided to sculpt a perfect woman to show everyone how deficient all others were. After completing the sculpture, he realized he'd fallen in love with the carved piece of stone. Venus took notice of this as he prayed to her to bring him some form of solace in the matter. Venus gave the statue life once he returned to his house from praying, and he was forever grateful for the pulse she gave to his "perfect woman." This story is relative to the tale of Narcissus and ow he fell in love with his own reflection--Pygmalion falls in love with his own creation, a statue. Connections Endymion Endymion, while
said to have been a king or a hunter, is most well known for being a shepherd. His youth and beauty is said to have caused his fate. While the plots greatly differ, the tale Romeo and Juliet parallels the story of Endymion as Selene’s love for him is forbidden and impossible, forcing her to freeze him in time to keep them together. Connections Daphne 2008: In some works of literature, childhood and adolescence are portrayed as times graced by innocence and a sense of wonder; in other works, they are depicted as times of tribulation and terror. Focusing on a single novel or play, explain how its representation of childhood or adolescence shapes the meaning of the work as a whole.
Daphne, as a young woman, was curious about a life of independence. Living in the woods on her own, she also found terror as exhibited in her encounter with Artemis. By the end of the tale, Daphne had transformed into a tree, symbolic of her growing maturity, wisdom, and evolution.
AP Test Questions Alpheus and Arethusa One of the major themes in both Alpheus and Arethusa and Daphne was independence and escape. This is similar to the The Awakening as Edna like Arethusa and Daphne longed for a freedom from overbearing male influences and societal views. In the end, they all both could not completely break free. Connections Pegasus and Bellerophon Phaethon Daedalus Otus and Ephialtes The Chariot of the Sun
The chariot of the sun is driven by fiery horses none but the Sun can control
The path goes straight up and straight back down- not for anyone scared of heights
Along the way you can run into the Bull, teh Lion, the scorpion, the great Crab, etc
Not even Zeus can ride it! Bellerophon is a demigod. His dad was Poseidon, and his mom was so smart she might have been Athena. The thing he wants most in the world is Pegasus- the famed master of wind and air. Bellerophon is advised that if he prays to Athena, she might help him out. He does, and she gives him a magic bridle of gold that works to catch Pegasus. They become buddies and they are an unstoppable team. Bellerophon agrees, and delivers the letter. The message, it turns out is: KILL BELLEROPHON. King of Lycia, however, decides to not kill him but send him on an impossible quest: Slay the Chimera. Pegasus and Bellerophon suceed, so then they must defeat the Solymi. Then defeat the Amazons. He lives happily ever!
...until Bellephron want to go to Olympus (off limits to all mortals.) Pegasus gets mad and throws
Bellerophon off his back to his death. Pegasus lives happily ever after Otus and Ephialtes are 2 twin giants who like to terrorize Gods for fun.
Zeus is about to strike the down when Poseidon (their dad) says he'll take care of them himself
They agree to behave themselves (ha!)
Instead they plot to capture 2 maidens- Hera for Otus and Artemis for Ephilates
They go hunting for Artemis, but she tricks them into shooting each other.
The End So... kid doesn't listen to his dad, goes up- at 1st it's fun until the horses get out of control, they set the mountains on fire, which then burn all the way down to the valleys and dry up the nile
Mother earth cries in pain- asks for help from the big guys Phaethon was the son of the Sun (Helios)
He would brag to all of his friends about his parentage, but his friends wouldn't believe him
So he went to Helios and asked him to prove that he was his dad. Helios told him he would give him anything in the world.
Phaethon (of course!) ask for the one thing the Sun doesn't want him to have: a ride on his chariot
Zeus strikes out w/ his thunderbolt- Phaethon is dead but the world is saved!
the Heliades (daughters of Helios) mourn and turn into poplar trees Meanwhile, he stops with King Proetus, whose wife falls in love with Bellerophon. When Bellephron refuses her she, out of anger, tells her husband he must die. Proteus doesn't really want to kill him, so instead he asks him to deliver a message to the King of Lycia. By this time the king is out of ideas on how to kill Bellerophon and they just become friends again. Daedelus, a brilliant inventor, creates the laberynth As the labyrinth is thought inescapable, King Minos puts some Athenians he doesn't like in there as punishment. But Daedalus likes them and helps them escape. Daedalus, being clever, figures out a way of escape- travel by land is impossible, but travel by air isn't! Minos finds out Daedalus escaped. He is mad. But he's also clever. Rather than search for the man himself, Minos has a contest for whoever can find a way to thread a string through a contorted shell. Daedalus of course, wins the contest (by tying a string to an ant and letting it crawl through). Minos storms to Sicily to kill Daedalus, but the Sicilian king defends the inventor and Minos is killed instead. In revenge, Minos has Daedalus himself put into the labyrinth with his only son. Daedalus constructs shoes with tiny golden wings on them for him and his son. He gives only one instruction to his son: do not fly too high or the sun will melt the glue on the wings and you will fall! Guess what? The son doesn't listen, falls and dies. But Daedalus makes it safely to Sicily! Literary Connections
The story of Phaethon is one of tragic irony, in which a father is forced to take part in causing his beloved son's own demise.
Phaethon has also sometimes been referred to as the "fallen star", as his self-confidence and pride lead to his death and has even been paralleled with Lucifer of Christian teaching Literary Connections
Pegasus appears many times throughout mythology as a brave and noble creature.
Bellerophon's self-assuming nature, like that of Phaethon, that lead to his demise.
Bellerophon is also sometimes referred to as "The Joseph of Greek Mythology" as Antaea (wife of the king) tempts him and then falsely accuses him afterward.
A "letter of Bellerophon" also refers to letters that are dangerous to the bearer. Literary connections:
Otus and Ephialtes is a classic example of egotism (anyone sensing a pattern here?)
Cleverness can sometimes triumph brute strength. Literary and modern connections:
Daedalus, in the form of "daedalean", can be an adjective meaning "complicated" or "convoluted". The term derives its etymology from the Daedalus Labyrinth or "complicated maze".
The father/son relationship is also important here. Like Helios, who loves Phaethon but cannot save him from his youthful mistakes, Daedalus is rendered helpless in saving his son. For all his ingenuity, Daedalus cannot solve the generational problem that exists between him and his son. The son makes his own mistake, despite his father's advice, and suffers the consequences. Wearing wayfarer clothing, they knocked on each home regardless of the magnitude and asked for food and shelter. Every time, they were refused and dismissed. When Jupiter tired of eating ambrosia, drinking nectar, and watching the Graces dance in Olympus, he would travel down to Earth and disguise himself as a mortal in search for adventure. -Mercury, as the most entertaining, shrewd, and resourceful of the Gods, accompanied Jupiter on his mission and visited the people of Phrygia. There, the two gods inspected the hospitality of the people as all guests seeking shelter were under Jupiter’s protection. Finally coming upon a tiny hut, the two gods were greeted with warm welcomes by an old couple- Baucis and Philemon Philemon set a fire and Baucis prepared cabbage and bacon. Unsatisfied with the meal they had produced, Baucis and Philemon attempted to catch their goose for the gods. Finally exhausted, they gave up the chase. Happy with the efforts, Jupiter and Mercury exposed their godly status to the couple. Outside, the gods had punished all the other villagers by removing the countryside and all its houses and replacing it with a vast lake. The other villagers wept to the old couple that they had previously treated poorly. Then, they realized that Baucis and Philemon’s hut had been transformed into a palace with a golden roof. Jupiter then promised the couple one wish. With that, they wished that they would be able to live long and die together. At extremely old age, the couple began to die but instead they turned into trees- a linden and an oak- which grew from one trunk. Selene, the moon, spotted Endymion and fell in love with his beauty. Coming down to Earth (the glade on Latmus), Selene kissed him and lay beside him. Using magic, she kept him asleep forever so she could always find him well she pleased. Endymion never woke from his slumber, laying immortal but never conscious. Every night, Selene came and kissed him and with her passion, she always felt an underlying pain.
Spark (cc) image by nuonsolarteam on Flickr Apollo then claimed the tree to be apart of his triumphs and shared that they would forever be joined wherever song were sung or stories were told. Daphne’s leaves appeared to wave in a satisfied consent. Daphne, an independent huntress, is said to have been Apollo’s first love. Her father, the river god Peneus, tried to have her married to mortal men but she refused every man that wooed her. Desperately, she wished to be like Diana, off in the forests with her freedom and independence. Spark However, when Apollo spotted Daphne hunting in the forest, he was attracted to her beauty despite her disarray appearance. Daphne fled with rapid speed and swiftness that surprised Apollo. However, in minutes he would have been able to overtake her. When she reached her father’s river, Daphne begged her father for his help. Therefore, God Peneus turned her into laurel tree. She floated peacefully until she felt something stirring beneath her. Springing from the water, she fled the river only to hear a voice questioning why she ran so fast and asked her to stop, claiming to be the Alpheus, the god of the river. Arethusa, a young huntress and follower of Artemis, came across a clear river shaded by silvery willows. Deciding to bathe in the river, Arethusa undressed an swam into the water. Once Arethusa tired, she called to Artemis for help. Artemis then turned Arethusa into a spring of water and made a cleft in the earth that worked as a tunnel under the sea for her to travel in from Greece to Sicily. Arethusa emerged in Ortygia (an island which formed a part of Syracuse), where her spring continued to bubble up as a sacred, holy ground to Artemus. However, Alpheus was said to have transformed back into a river in order to follow Arethusa through the tunnel to Ortygia, where their waters mixed in the fountain. In the spring of water, it is said that Greek flowers were seen emerging from the bottom and that if a wooden cup was thrown into the Apheus river in Greece that it will reappear in Arthusa’s spring in Sicily.