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Cell Organelles

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by

Jennifer Sweaks

on 12 October 2015

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Transcript of Cell Organelles

CONTROL CENTER

Cell Boundaries
Surrounded by Nuclear Envelope (double membrane)
Nuclear Pores
Filled with Nucleoplasm
Nucleus
Structure
Function
Contains/Protects genetic info (DNA)
Manufactures RNA
Chromatin: Uncondensed DNA and Protein

Chromosome: Condensed DNA and Protein
Other Info
Organelles that Build Biomolecules (Endomembrane System)
SMOOTH ER

Peppered with Ribosomes
Continuous with Nuclear Membrane
Structure
FUNCTION
Protein Synthesis
Creates new cell membrane
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
OTHER INFO
Endo = Greek for Within
Plasm -= Fluid
Reticulum = Network
Continuous with RER
No ribosomes

Structure
Function
Carb and Lipid Synthesis
Detoxify chemicals
Golgi Apparatus
Golgi Apparatus
Flattened sacs of membranes
Structure
Function
Process Proteins
Carb Synthesis
Collection, modification, packaging, distribution
secretes Cell wall (plants)
Other Info
most numerous in mucus secreting cells
crumble in Lou Gehrig's Disease


RIBOSOMES
Free and Bound
2 subunits
Structure
Helps make proteins
Function
Other Info
Only organelle in EVERY cell type
Made in Nucleoli
Different sizes in Prokaryotes and Eukaryotes
Some antibiotics attack Pro Ribos
Vacuoles/Vesicles
Single Membrane
Structure
Function
VACUOLE: Storage, waste dump

VESICLES: Transport
Contractile types in protist
Central in plants creates turgor
Other Info
Lysosome
Lysosome
Single Membrane
Function
Contains Digestive Enzymes
recycle, degrade, digest, apoptosis
Other Info
Tay-Sachs: A Lysosomal Storage disease

Cytoskeleton
Composed of Microtubules and Microfilaments (proteins)
Structure
Organelles that Store, Clean-up, Support
Made of Microtubules
Movement of Whole Cell
Movement of Materials
Cilia, Flagella
Centriole
Made of Microtubules
Function during Cell Division
NONE in FUNGI and ADVANCED PLANTS
Organelles the CAPTURE and RELEASE ENERGY
Chloroplast
Double membrane
Structure
Function
Use sunlight to make carbohydrates
Other Info
Chromoplast - stores other pigments (yellow, orange, red)
Leucoplasts - store starch
Mitochondria
Double Membrane
Has its own DNA and ribosomes
Structure
Energy (ATP) creation
Function
Cell Wall
Plants = Cellulose
Fungi = Chitin
Bacteria = Peptidoglycan
Outside of Cell Membrane
Semipermeable
Structure
Function
protection
maintain shape
Cell Membrane
Phospholipid bi-layer
Selectively Permeable
Embedded with proteins, cholesterol and carbs
Structure
Function
Separates in from out
selective barrier
identification and interaction with other cells

Cytoplasm
Mostly water with salts, organic molecules (enzymes, etc.)
Suspends organelles

SER more prolific in addicts = increases tolerance
Other Info
Function
Cell Support
Strengthens Cells
Tracks for Organelle Movements
Nucleolus

Structure
Located in the nucleus
Function

Make Ribosomes
Full transcript