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Anxiety & Stuttering
Transcript of Anxiety & Stuttering
the literature regarding anxiety and
stuttering, and concluded that “the overall
tenor of the findings from the studies
reviewed is that there is little evidence
of a clinically significant, or even
theoretically palpable, relationship
between stuttering and anxiety” Iverach et. al, 2011 "The aims of future research should be to improve research design, increase statistical power, employ multidimensional measures of anxiety, and further develop anxiolytic treatment options for people who stutter." Menzies, 1999 Points of Interest Over a decade later, Menzies et al.
conducted a further review to shed more
light on the poorly understood relationship
between anxiety and stuttering. Anxiety and Stuttering Continuing to Explore a Complex Relationship Define STUTTERING... Stuttering is a speech problem characterized
by repetitions, pauses, or drawn out
syllables, words, and phrases. Stutterers are
different than people experiencing normal
fluency problems because a stutterer's
disfluency is more severe
and consistent than that of
people who do not stutter. [http://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/stuttering] Stuttering: Common Knowledge "The words get stuck."
"My tongue stumbles."
"My brain goes faster than my mouth." Speaking
Anxiety The Multidimensional Nature
of ANXIETY Number
Anxiety Before: Used physiological measures After?
Self-report & Behavioral measures
Anticipation of Social Harm/Negative Evaluation Review: stuttering is likely connected to fear of negative evaluation (especially in older stutterers)
Social anxiety or phobia Before: Single dimensional measures of trait anxiety After?
Recognize, diagnose, and treat specific dimensions of anxiety Results:
State anxiety (NOT trait anxiety) associated with stuttering severity Before:
Insignificant or mixed results After?
Use large groups of participants in research
Avoid statistical errors!
Produce significant and consistent results Results: Larger sample sizes result in less ambiguous conclusions [correlation with multidimensional understanding of anxiety] Before: unaccounted for After?
Determine differences between anxiety/stuttering in non-treated individuals vs. individuals who have received treatment Results: It is very likely that there is a difference between the anxiety levels of treated/non-treated stutterers, BUT sufficient research has not yet been conducted Before: Single speaking task used to assess all participants After?
Individualized tasks to assess each participant
Variety of tasks assessed Results: Stutterers report significantly more anxiety in speaking situations Development of anxiety across the lifespan Specific relationship between anxiety and stuttering severity Assessing treatment for anxiety in stuttering DSM–IV–TR Social Phobia Exclusion Criteria for Adults Who Stutter Increasing evidence for a relationship
between stuttering and anxiety Importance of effective assessment Takes time to prove "common sense" Conscientiousness of anxiety's relationship with stuttering QUESTIONS?