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The Indian Monsoons

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Harish Mahesh

on 10 November 2013

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Transcript of The Indian Monsoons

What are Monsoons???
Monsoon is traditionally defined as a seasonal reversing wind accompanied by corresponding changes in precipitation, but is nowadays used to describe seasonal changes in atmospheric circulation and precipitation. It is also used to refer to the rainy phase of a seasonally-changing pattern, although technically there is also a dry phase. The term was first used in English in British India (now India, Bangladesh and Pakistan) and neighbouring countries to refer to the big seasonal winds blowing from the Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea in the southwest bringing heavy rainfall to the area.
The advancing monsoon
Nearing the end of the month of June, the air pressure over the northern plains keeps lowering, attracting the trade winds of the southern hemisphere. These winds, crossing the equator, blow over warm oceans and carry abundant moisture to the Indian subcontinent, entering through the south-west (the state of Kerala).
The advancing monsoon
The trade winds of the south, blowing at an average speed of 30km/h, cover up the whole country in about a month (except the extreme north-west). Though earlier, the windward sides of the Western Ghats may receive heavy rainfall (above 250cm), the highest rainfall occurs in the north-eastern parts of the country, including Cherrapunji and Mawsynram. The Deccan plateau too receives some amount of rainfall though it lies in the rain shadow area of the Western Ghats. But, Rajasthan and parts of Gujarat receive scanty rainfall.
The retreating monsoon
During the mid October-November time, the shifting of the heat belt towards the south increases the air pressure. By the beginning of the month of October, the monsoons withdraw from the Northern Plains, marking the transition from hot rainy season to dry winter conditions. However, the retreat of the monsoon is marked by clear sky and rise in temperature during the day.
The retreating monsoon
Though there is an increase of temperature, it is only the days that remain a bit hot. The nights are cool and pleasant. The land, however, is moist, inspite of the dry condition during the day. After October 15, the temperature begins to fall rapidly, particularly, in Northern India. The low pressure conditions prevailing over North-western India get transferred to the Bay of Bengal by early November. This shift is associated with occurrence of cyclonic depressions commonly known as tropical cyclones. These cyclones can be very destructive.
The Indian Monsoons
By- Harish Mahesh
Class- 9M

Cyclone Phailin (2013)
The cyclone Phailin was initially a tropical depression, which formed near Thailand. Slowly and steadily, it moved north-west, entering the Andaman Sea on the 7th of October 2013, one day after it moved out of the Western Pacific Basin. Later, it was on the 9th of October, that it was found to be a cyclone storm, which would affect many parts of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh. Odisha's state government said that around 12 million people may be affected. As part of the preparations, 600 buildings were identified as cyclone shelters and people were evacuated from areas near the coast, including Ganjam, Puri, Khordha and Jagatsinghapur districts in Odisha. The cyclone has prompted India's biggest evacuation in 23 years with more than 550,000 people moved up from the coastline in Odisha and Andhra Pradesh to safer places.
Cyclone Thane (2011)
The cyclone Thane, the strongest tropical cyclone of the North Indian Ocean, developed as a cyclonic disturbance, near Indonesia, on the 25th of December 2011. Over the next couple of days, the disturbance gradually developed further while moving towards the northwest, and was declared a cyclonic storm, the next day. After its development had slowed down during December 27, Thane became a Very Severe Cyclonic Storm during December 28, before as it approached the Indian states of Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh, it weakened slightly. Thane then made landfall early on December 30, on the north Tamil Nadu coast between Cuddalore and Puducherry and rapidly weakened into a depression.
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