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Entire course on a mind map

Suzie Blainey

on 7 June 2013

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Suzie Blainey Grade 11 University Biology Origins of life Evolution Diversity Plants Genetics Systems Heavy Bombardment Period Surface of the earth melted and reformed Earth is constantly hit by meteors Atmosphere is limited and mostly CO2 Life Begins Early Life forms were archea bacteria; able to live in extreme environments Acidophiles: lived in acidic environments Thermophiles: lived in hot environments Halophiles: lived in salty environments Methagenes: lived in methane infused environments Life is thought to have started underground Cynobacteria found in stromalities conducts photosynthesis Atmosphere changes from <1% to 21% oxygen gas Ozone layer is formed, protecting us from UV rays Evolutionary Theories Georges Cuiver (1769-1832) Credited with developing science of palaeontology Looked at layers of rock and found how species change throughout layers, proving that species can become extinct Charles Lyell (1797-1875) Geological changes were uniformitarianism (slow and subtle), rather than catastrophic, resulting in substantial changes "Floods in the past had no greater power than floods that occurred today" Jean-Baptiste Lamark Thought that species increased in complexity, until they reached perfection Idea was called "inheritance of acquired characteristics" Noted that an organism's adaptions to the environment resulted in characteristics that could be inherited to offspring Giraffes got longer necks by stretching for leaves Charles Darwin Darwin formed the theory of natural evolution by selection (a theory explaining how life has changed in earth's history) Individuals with traits that helped them survive in their local environments were more likely to survive to pass on their traits to their offspring (survival of the fittest) Darwin explained that his theory didn't demonstrate progress, but merely results from a species ability to survive (decent with modification) Thomas Malthus Proposed that populations produced far more offspring than their environments could support (food and resources) Due to starvation and disease, overpopulation was prevented Stephan Jay Gould and Niles Elderage Argues that there is punctuated equilibrium, that there are long periods of time of no change and then large changes rapidly due to external forces Introduction to Genetics DNA Our genetic code is stored in DNA,responsible for our traits (hair/eye color, diseases etc.) VERY LONG MOLECULE- organized into 46 chromosones in our cells. DNA is further divided into genes Genes Segments of DNA that code for a specific trait When we look at a trait (skin colour) we have variations (white, brown etc.) these variations are alleles Alleles There are 2 alleles for every gene, these alleles “work together” to determine our traits One is from the father the other from the mother Genotype - alleles that code for a trait (PP , Pp , pp) Phenotype - what the code for a trait looks like (white, purple) Homozygous - A genotype with the same alleles (PP , pp) Heterozygous - A genotype with different alleles (Pp) Gene Pool - All the different alleles that code for a trait Allele Frequency - The rate in which Alleles show up in a gene pool Mechanisms for Evolution Mutation Randomly introduces new alleles to a population, changing allele frequencies, and having a potential effect on the gene pool more genetic variation = greater diversity = greater chance of selective advantage in changing environments Gene Flow Occurs between 2 different populations with different allele frequencies interbreeding resulting in genetic diversity Having diversity = better traits (mutation) = survival traits emerge Non-Random Mating Preferred Phenotypes Animals choose mates based on phenotypes Example: Caribou fight for a mate using their antlers Only the individuals who mate will contribute to the gene pool of the next generation. Inbreeding occurs when closely related individuals breed close relatives share similar genotypes, so inbreeding increases the frequency of homozygous genotypes = harmful recessive alleles become more likely to be expressed Example: Flower self-fertilization & pure-bred farm animals and pets Genetic Drift Random changes in genetic variation from generation to generation due to chance, changing allele frequency The smaller the parent population, the less the variation, the smaller the parent population, the less the variation. Founder Effect A change in a gene pool when a few individuals start an isolated population Founders carry some but not all of the previous population’s alleles = diversity in gene pool is limited Previously rare alleles may increase in frequency Bottleneck Effect Large catastrophe reduces population & the survivors only have a few alleles reducing the next generation’s genetic diversity Natural Selection Stabilizing Selection Favors intermediate phenotypes & acts against extreme variants Reduces variation & improves adaption to constant environments Directional Selection Favors one extreme phenotype over another Common during times of environmental change or when a population migrates to a new habitat Disruptive Selection Favors extreme phenotypes over intermediate phenotypes (therefore they can be eliminated) Example: Big fish can fight off competition, small fish are sneaky and small Mechanisms of Evolution Microevolution Macroevolution Small genetic changes to the allele frequency in a population Examples: Mutation, Gene Flow, Preferred Phenotypes, Genetic Drift and Natural Selection. Large changes that create a new species Examples: Allopatric and Sympatric Speciation Artificial Selection Natural (selection done by environment) vs. Artificial (selection done by humans) they both select the most desirable/successfully traits Human involvement Plants: Pesticide & selection of desirable rice traits Animals: Dog Breeding & selection of farm animals Impact Selection of the most beneficial traits Benefit for humans Increased risk of genetic diseases & extinction Speciation - Reproductive Isolating Mechanism Pre-zygotic Mechanisms Prevention of Mating Behavioral Isolation Don't behave/act the same Example:Bird Mating Dances Temporal isolation Don’t mate at the same time Mating season / age is different Environmental Isolation Don't live in the same location Prevention of fertilization Mechanical Isolation “Lock & key” don't fit Gametic Isolation Sperm and egg don’t meet Post-zygotic Mechanisms Prevention of Hybrids Hybrid Inviability Miscarriage Hybrid Breakdown Fertility is lost over multiple generations Example: Sheep goats Hybrid sterility Hybrid is infertile Example: Ligers Speciation - Creation of a new species Sympatric Speciation Same location Caused by a change in the number of chromosomes Allopatric Speciation Population split by a barrier Species adapt to 2 separate environments Evolutionary pathways Divergent Evolution Organisms share a common ancestor & become increasingly different to each other due to different environment pressures Examples: Platypus in Austrailia Convergent Evolution Organisms with different ancestors & adapt similarily to the same environment Example: Mako Shark and Tuna Coevolution 2 species influence each other’s evolutionary development Example: Hover fly & flower, Bats & Moths Human Intervention and biodiversity Impact of our actions Hunting kills and causes species to become endangered and extinct (hunters want elephant ivory causes them to become endangered) Global Warming = Environmental Change = Threatened species Used for human resources (Walia Ibexis majorly endangered, because of use in food) Preserving Biodiversity Challenges include Steps being taken Damage is already done (global warming/mass huntings) Habitats are changing Eco-conscious products Non random mating in watched facilities Rebuilding of habitats How do we classify life? Carl Lineas came up with system we use to classify all organisms sorted by their features 2 reasons why we classify To identify an organsim To determine evolutionary relationships Groups at the top are broad and contain many organisms, while the groups at the bottom become narrower as you go down: Domain
Species Dichotomous key Helps identify unknown species an identification tool using traits, yes/no questions all sorted in a flow chart Viruses Protein coated Particle with a single strand of DNA or RNA protein inside it Very fast rate of evolution Human immune system derives their evolution Pandemic - New evolved dangerous microbe that can cause disease and most derive from animals and are transferred through food Structure of a virus: Domains Domains are the broadest taxa when classifying organisms There are 3 domains: Archea Bacteria Eukarya Prokaryotic Has cell walls Lives in extreme environments Archeabacteria kingdom falls under this domain. Has cell walls Prokaryotic Eubacteria kingdom falls under this domain. Lives in moderate environments Eukaryotic Some have cell walls Lives everywhere Anamalia, Plantae, Fungi and Protista kingdoms falls under this domain. Kingdoms Eubacteria and Archaebacteria Prokaryotic cells Structure of the cell Nucleoid: Stores the genetic material for bacterial cells
Ribsomes: These organelles are responsible for producing proteins
Cell Membrane: This structure is a semi permable membrane that allows certain materials to move freely in and out of a cell
Plasmid: A specialized ring of genetic material that is much smaller than the “nucleus”. This provides special instructions that allows the bacteria to survive extreme conditions.
Capsule: The outermost coating protects the bacteria from being destroyed by the immune system of the host they invade
Cell Wall: Just like plant cells, bacterial cells have this extra layer next to the cell membrane to provide additional support
Flagella: This structure can also be found in animal cells, it helps the bacterial cell move in water Prokaryotic cells are very simple and don’t have a nucleus, only a nucleoid region that stores all genetic material Binary Fission Advantages:Only one partner needed
Faster ProcessDisadvantages:Cells are all generally similar (limited diversity)
Population can be easily wiped out by disease Conjugation Advantages:Greater genetic diversity, that allows the population a better ability to surviveDisadvantages:Takes time to find another cell
Slower Process Protista The Protist kingdom is very diverse; its all of the organisms that don’t fit into other kingdoms They are small, but they are eukaryotic cells so they are larger than prokaryotic cells General Information Protists are single celled organisms They eat either as autotrophs (make own food through photosynthesis) or as heterotrophs (have to eat other organisms) Most reproduce aesexually through binary fission They thrive in moist environments and do not need a living host There is 3 types of protists Plant-like protists Contain chloroplast and perform photosynthesis in the light, but in the dark they are heterotrophs They sometimes can sexually reproduce through conjugation Example: Euglena Animal-like protist Fungi-like protist All of these are heterotrophs and eat their food with pseudopods and oral groves Some of these cause diseases making them parasites Example: Amoeba and Paracium Live in cool, moist environments like forest floors Very wide variety of types Example: Slime mould Animalia and Plantae Cells (Eukaryotic) These cells are true membrane bound nucleus Compared to prokaryotic cells they are very large and have a more complex structure They reproduce asexually with the process of mitosis and sexually through meiosis The Evolution of Classification of Plants Vascular vs. Non-vascular Seeded vs. Seedless Seedless plants do not have seeds but spread by windblown spores Ferns Horsetails Seeded plants contain an embryo (an ovule fertilized by sperm) surrounded by a seed coat. Inside the seed is nutrients that helps feed it as it grows Trees Flowers Gymnosperm vs. Angiosperm The angiosperms are seed bearing plants whose seeds are contained in an ovary inside a fruit. The gymnosperms are those whose seeds are exposed and not enclosed in an ovule. The angiosperms are those plants that have triploid tissues while the gymnosperms have haploid. The leaves of the angiosperms are flat while those of the gymnosperms are cone bearing or needle like. The gymnosperms are known as softwood as they have the ability to last during the winter while the angiosperms are known as hardwood and usually changes color during and die. Monocot vs. Dicot Classified by the number of cotyledons present in the seed of a plant Comparison Root Monocots have xylem and phloem in a ring Dicots have phloem between arms of xylem Stem Monocots have vascular bundles scattered Dicots have vascular bundles in a distinct ring Leaf Monocots have veins that form a parallel pattern Dicots have veins that form a net pattern Flower petals Monocots have multiples of 3 Dicots have multiples of 4 or 5 Plant growth and developmental hormones Stimulatory hormones Auxins Simulates cell division Cell expansion towards light/gravity Cytokinins Prevents aging Gibberellins Elongs cells Seed germination Inhibitory hormones Ethylene Ripens fruit Abscisic Acid Stimulates the closure of stomata Structure of a Root All roots have the following features in common Provide anchorage Absorb minerals Store Minerals Two types of roots Fibrous root system A network of branches that spread throughout the soil Taproot Modified to store food. Example: Radishes and Carrots 4 major regions in a growing root and they are as follows: Root Cap - A cap that protects the apical meristem behind it. Meristematic Region - The growing point containing the meristem. Elongation Region - The zone where cells increase and elongate in size. Maturation Zone - The zone where most of water uptake occurs through root hairs Structure of a Stem Stems have 4 Basic funtions Transport food, water and minerals from the ocean Support Storage of food Photosynthesis There are 2 types of stems Herbaceous stems Woody stems They are soft, green and contain large amounts of water Their hardness or turgidity comes from water pressure against the cell wall of the stem Most dicots produce woody stems These stems are a result of secondary growth, which permits the plant to live for many years Xylem is formed on the inside and becomes wood Phloem is formed on the outside and becomes bark Structure of a Leaf Function of leaves: photosynthesize In photosynthesis, water and carbon dioxide are converted using sunlight in chlorophyll into sugars for energy and building blocks for the plant Characteristics of leaves Leaves are relatively thin to allow light to reach all cells Waxy coating prevents water loss (cuticle) Openings allow for gas exchange (stomata) Size and structure of leaf will vary due to biotic/abiotic factors in their environment Low light = Broad leaves Hot/dry environments = thinner cuticle & fewer stomatas Parts of a leaf Epidermis The outermost layer of cells on a plant Cells fit like puzzle Cells are clear One cell thick Mesophyll Cells found between upper and lower epidermises There are 2 types Palisade Mesophyll Found beneath the upper epidermis Tightly packed Primary site of photosynthesis Spongy Mesophyll Found between the palisade mesophyll and the lower epidermis Irregular shaped Not tightly packed, lots of air spaces Vein Found in the mesophyll Contains vascular tissue Guard cell Epidermal, kidney shaped cell Regulates the opening and closing of the stomata Stomata Scattered through epidermis Small openings that allows gas exchange Carbon dioxide for photosynthesis and the release of oxygen Allows water vapor to escape DNA and RNA DNA Contains genetic information, that is passed from one generation to the next Found in the nucleus The sides of DNA are made up of alternating deoxyribose and phosphate molecules The “rungs” of the DNA “ladder” structure are made up of 4 nitrogen bases Adeline (A) Thymine (T) Guanine (G) Cytosine (C) Certain bases are always paired together: Adeline & Thymine and Guanine & Cytosine Between each pair there are hydrogen bonds (attractive forces that exist between molecules) Adeline & Thymine have 2 hydrogen bonds Guanine & Cytosine have 3 hydrogen bonds RNA Takes the information from the DNA in the nucleus to other parts of cell Found in the ribosomes, cytoplasm & nucleus RNA is made up of only one chain of nucleotides that twists around into a helix The structure of RNA is made up of alternating ribose sugar and phosphate molecules The “rungs” of the RNA “half ladder” structure are made up of 4 bases Adeline (A) Guanine (G) Uracil (U) Cytosine (C) The Cell Cycle Cells that make up our bodies are called somatic cells and have varied lifespans Cells divide for 3 reasons Mitosis Cytokinesis Cancer Growth of the organisms Repair of the tissue and organs that have been damaged Maintenance to replace dying or dead cells Plants Animals Begins in Anaphase Cell plate is formed first with the use of cellulose, the cell plate then forms a cell wall Begins in telophase Cell membrane pinches to form 2 new cells Cancer is uncontrolled and unregulated growth of cells Cancer cells divide at rates that far exceed normal cells Many types of cancer Leukemia = Blood Cancer
.Sarcomas = Cancers that begin in the muscle, fibrous tissue, bone, cartilage or fat
.Lymphomas = Cancer that originates in the lymphatic system a filtering system of the body
.Carcinomas = Organ related cancers (prostate, skin, breast, colon etc.)
.Other = Melanomas and some brain tumors are classified in this category Meiosis Meiosis is a process used by our gamete cells to create haploid cells that contain 23 chromosomes In Meiosis I we divide the homologous chromosomes apart into two new cells, notice how each chromosome has sister chromatids In Meiosis II the sister chromatids are split apart, forming 4 daughter cells Non-disjunction is an error that can happen during meiosis A process where chromosomes are not properly during meiosis resulting in cells with less or extra chromosomes Types of Disorders Down’s Syndrome Turner's Syndrome Kleinfelter’s disease Has an extra chromosome 21 Physical features More likely to have Upward slanting eyes Flattened profile Short stature Protruding tongue Heart defects Hearing/vision problems Leukemia Thyroid problems Only 1 X chromosome in females Physical features Puffy hands and fingers Shortened 3rd and 4th toes Short stature Low set ears Implications of this syndrome Infertility Need estrogen to promote breast development Have 2 X chromosomes and one Y chromosome in males (XXY) Features include Low testosterone Tall stature No sperm Excessive tissue on breats Meiosis vs. Mitosis Mendelian Genetics Gregor Mendel is known as the “father of genetics” as his experiments started the discovery of genetic studies He experimented with many different traits within the pea plant Mono-hybrid crosses: Mendel explained what he observed in the experiment Di-hybrid crosses He crossed two different kinds of plants one with a Yellow pod and one with a green pod. This experiment was used to demonstrate monohybrid inheritance (single-trait crossing) He looked at dihybrid inheritance (double trait crossing) He helped with genetic inheritance and punnett square There are variations of genes called alleles Each organism inherits 2 alleles, one from each parent If the 2 alleles are different, then the dominant allele is expressed over the recessive allele Mendel crossed pea plants again focusing on inheritance patterns for two traits Resulted in many options for possibilities Non-Mendelian Genetics Incomplete Dominance Incomplete dominance is when there is no dominant allele, but the traits are equal so they mix to form the next generation Example: Red flower + White flower = Pink flower Co-dominance Co-dominance is when there is no dominant allele, but the traits are equal so they both form the next generation Example: Black Bird + White Bird = White and Black Birds Sex-linked traits Sometimes a trait can only appear in certain gendered offspring and through this technique of genetic we can tell the odds of a disorder in a specific gender Respiratory System Circulatory system Digestive System The function of this system is to carry oxygen from the lungs to the rest of the body. What happens in the Heart? Oxygen-poor blood flows from the body into the right atrium.

Blood flows through the right atrium into the right ventricle through the triscupid valve.

The right ventricle pumps the blood to the lungs, through the pulmonary valves where the blood releases waste gases and picks up oxygen.

The newly oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart and enters the left atrium.

Blood flows through the left atrium into the left ventricle through the mitral valve.

The left ventricle pumps the oxygen-rich blood to the aorta through the aortic valve to the rest of the body. Our respiratory system is made up of the organs in your body that help us breathe. The Function of this system is to deliver oxygen to the body and to disgard carbon dioxide. This process begins by inhaling into the nose and mouth into the trachea, which divides into air passages called bronchial tubes, which divide into even smaller bronchioles.

The bronchioles end in tiny balloon-like air sacs called alveoli.

The alveoli are surronded by cappiliries that tansfer inhaled oxygen with carbon dioxide through the alveoli walls and into the blood.

We then exhale the Carbon dioxide. Teeth- Starts tearing and crushing the food down into small pieces

Saliva- Helps soften the food in the mouth so that it is easier to swallow.

Tongue- The tongue is a muscle that works with the food and saliva to form a "ball" that can be swallowed.

Esophagus- Transports food from the mouth to the stomach.

Stomach- Uses chemicals to break down food. When it is done in the stomach, the food is now a cream-like liquid called chyme.

Liver/Gall Bladder- Food is enfused with bile to break down fats.

Pancreas- The pancreas adds enzymes as the food leaves the stomach which break down carbohydrates and proteins

Small Intestine- As the food passes through, it is mixed with the new chemicals and is now digested small enough to be put to use by the body. Along the walls of the intestine are thousands of tiny fingers called villi. Capillaries in the villi can absorb the tiny food molecules and send them off to the rest of our body through the blood.

Large Intestine - Removes water from food, to become feces and later leaves the body through the rectum
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