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Chapter 25- Noncommunicable Diseases and Disabilities

Lessons 1-4
by

Ebonie Ogletree

on 6 November 2013

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Transcript of Chapter 25- Noncommunicable Diseases and Disabilities

*Noncommunicable Disease
-
a disease that is not transmitted by another person, a vector, or the environment

*Cardiovascular Disease
(
CVD)- a disease that affects the heart and the blood vessels

Types of CVD-

*Hypertension
- h
igh blood pressure
damages the heart, blood vessels, and other organs if uncontrolled for a long period of time
No symptoms- "the silent killer"
Common in adults 35+ but can occur at any age- affects 1/3 of adult population
Treatment: weight management, physical activity, nutritious diet, medication

*Atherosclerosis-

a disease characterized by the accumulations of plaque on the artery walls
at birth the artery walls are smooth as elastic
smoking, HBP, high cholesterol levels, consuming foods high in saturated fat can cause damage and plaque build up in the arteries and cause
*arteriosclerosis-

hardened arteries with reduced elasticity
if a blood clot forms near the site of plaque build up the artery could become blocked and result in a heart attack or stroke.
Diseases of the Heart
your heart pumps 100,000 times per day moving blood that is carrying oxygen and nutrients throughout the body
when blood supply is restricted, the heart can't do its job and a heart attack ( insufficient blood supply) or cardiac arrest(heart stops beating rhythmically) may occur

Types of Heart Diseases
*Angina Pectoris-

chest pain that results when the heart does not get enough oxygen
pain only last a few seconds to a few minutes
caused by atherosclerosis
treated by medication

*Arrhythmias-
i
rregular heart beats
heart beats too fast, too slow or skips
common and usually don't cause problems
ventricular fibrillation- rapid or irregular electrical impulses... common in cardiac arrest
CPR (Cardiopulmonary resuscitation) and automated external defibrillator can help individuals in cardiac arrest

Heart Attack-
reduced or restricted blood flow to the heart muscles
may cause intense chest pain
Shortness of breath
25% no symptoms
In women the symptoms are milder-
If the following warning signs occur--- Call 911 immediately
pressure, fullness or aching in chest
pain in chest spreading to arms, neck, jaw, abdomen or back
chest discomfort, with shortness of breath
Congestive Heart Failure
The heart gradually weakens and can no longer maintain its regular pumping rate or force
Can not be cured but can be treated with medications and a healthy lifestyle
Heart transplant may be recommended based on age, other health concerns, lifestyle

*Stroke
- an acute injury in which blood flow to the brain in interrupted
a blood vessel bursts in the brain- cerebral hemorrhage
warning signs- severe headache, numbness on one side of the body, dizziness, trouble seeing,
may cause paralysis
severeness of injury is based on how long the brain was deprived of oxygen
Treatment during a stroke- clot busters- break up the clots and restores blood flow.
Diagnosing and Treatments
Diagnostic Test-
Electrocardiogram EKG- graph of heart electricity activity
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)- powerful magnets produce images
Angiography-flexible - thin tube placed in heart through vessels to place dye in heart to show motion x-rays
CT Scan- multiple images are taken that show artery and vessel blockages

Treatment-

Coronary Bypass- healthy vein is used to detour around the blocked artery
Angioplasty- balloon tube inserted in blocked artery and inflated against the walls then deflated and removed... and metal tube may be inserted to keep artery open
Pacemaker- a devise inserted into heart to help regulate beats
laser Intervention- laser fiber vaporized blockage in artery and restores blood flow
What Teens Need to Know!!!
CVD starts to develop during adolescence/childhood
1 in 6 autopsy results show evidence of CVD in adolescence
History of smoking, diabetes -->leads to increased risks of vessel damage
Damaged vessels may not show symptoms until later in life- by then it may be too late

Risk Factors-
Heredity-
Gender- men--> greater risk... elderly women* are less likely to survive a heart attack
Age- 85% of deaths over age 65 ---> CVD

Avoid
- tobacco use, HBP, High Cholesterol, sedentary lifestyle, excess weight, stress, alcohol & drug use... to reduce risk of CVD
Cancer
Chapter 25 Lesson 2
Lung Cancer Cells
Cardiovascular Disease
Chapter 25 Lesson 1
What is Cancer?
There are over a trillion cells in your body...growing, dividing, dying and replacing themselves
Most times this happens normally...
Sometimes abnormal cells reproduce rapidly and build up in normal tissue
*Cancer-
the uncontrollable growth of abnormal cells

How Cancer Harms the Body
*Tumor-
an abnormal mass of tissue that has no natural role in the body
Tumor does not always mean cancer...

Two types of Tumors
*benign-

noncancerous---> grows slowly, surrounded by a membrane that keeps it from spreading, it can disrupt normal body functions by blocking passages, cramping organs, etc...

*malignant
- cancerous--->
does not stay in one place, which means it
*metastasis
- the spread of a cancer from the point where it originated to other parts of the body.
as cancer cells spread throughout the body they divide and form new tumors
it can affect tissue, blood and/or lymph system
cancer cells kill normal cells and compete for nutrients
Types of Cancer
Lymphomas-
immune system
Leukemias-
blood forming organs
Carcinomas
-glands and body linings- skin, digestive track, lungs, etc...
Sarcomas-
connective tissue- bone, ligaments, muscles
Risk Factors of Cancer
*Carcinogens-

a cancer-causing substance

Tobacco-use
-
43 carcinogens-
smoking and smokeless is the #1 in cancer death in USA-->
lung cancer- 87% caused by smoking,
secondhand smoke is dangerous
oral cancer is a major risk of smokeless tobacco
Radiation-

UV radiation from the sun and tanning beds
main cause of skin cancer
Sexually Transmitted Diseases-
some STD's have the ability to cause cancer
HPV- human papilloma virus- cervical cancer
Hepatitis B- liver cancer

Dietary Factors
Fats-

increase the risk of colon cancer... it causes more rapid cell division
Inadequate amounts of dietary fiber
-
slows the waste removal process and allows more time for the waste to act on body cells
Reducing Your Risk
Avoid tobacco and alcohol use
Practice abstinence from sexually activity to reduce risk of STD's
Be physically active
Maintain a healthy weight
Eat nutritious food- high in fiber--> fruits, veggies, whole grains
Consume foods low in saturated fats
Recognize the warning signs of cancer
fever, fatigue, pain and discoloration of skin
change in bowel habits or bladder function
sores that won't heal
unusual bleeding or discharge
thickening or lumps in breast or other body parts
indigestion or trouble swallowing
changes in a wart or mole
nagging cough or hoarseness
Detecting and Treating Cancer
Successful cancer treatment depends on on early detection and the right type of treatment
**Pay attention to your body**
Self-examination:
checking your body for changes, lumps and bumps- breast, testicles, skin
Medical-examination
- doctor checks for early signs of cancer during routine checkups
if cancer is a possibility the doctor orders a
*biopsy-
the removal of a small piece of tissue for examination
Treatment options
Surgery-
removal of cancer/tumor
Radiation therapy-
radioactive substances kill and shrink mass
Chemotherapy-
chemicals are used to destroy cancer cells
Immunotherapy-
activates the immune system to recognize specific cancer cells
Hormone therapy-
uses medication to interrupt hormone production in order to kill the cancer
When the treatment works and the cancer is under control the patient is in
*remission-
a period of time when symptoms disappear
Allergies, Asthma, Diabetes, and Arthritis
Chapter 25 Lesson 3
*allergy-
a specific reaction of the immune system to a foreign and frequently harmless substance

Allergies affects 40-50 million Americans

Allergens are substances that cause allergic reactions--> pollen, foods, dust, mold spores, chemicals, insect venom, dander from animals, medicines

Allergic reaction 4-step process---> sneezing and runny nose...
1. Allergen enters the body and is treated as a foreign invader
2. Antigens on the allergens attach to immune cells in the nasal passage
3. The immune cells release
*histamines
-chemicals that can stimulate mucus and fluid production
4. Histamines cause sneezing, itchy eyes, runny nose, and other allergy symptoms

Severe Allergic reactions:
severe hives
itching or swelling---> insect bites or stings
difficulty breathing or swallowing
swelling of tongue, mouth, or eyes
sharp drop in blood pressure, may cause dizziness
Allergies
Diagnosing Allergies
Self-diagnosing
- noticing a rash or reaction after exposure to an allergen

Doctor diagnosing
- blood test, skin test- a small amount of allergen is scratched into the skin- if the person is allergic the skin will react- red and puffy
Treating Allergies
Avoiding the allergen
Antihistamines- control/block allergy symptoms-
Epi Pen- single dose injectable antihistamine shot
In Cases of a severe allergic reaction call 911
Asthma
*Asthma
- an inflammatory condition in which the small airways in the lungs become narrowed, causing difficulty in breathing

Managing Asthma
Monitor the condition: recognize warning signs--> shortness of breath, chest tightness/pain, coughing, or sneezing
Manage your environment- avoid triggers- cigarette smoke, dirty bedding, pets dander,pollen, dust mites, poor air quality. Be careful when exercising...
Manage stress- stress can trigger an attack
Take medication properly- inhalers it helps to relieve the inflammation-
Diabetes
*Diabetes-
a chronic disease that affects the way the body cells convert sugar into energy
Symptoms:
frequent urination, excessive thirst, unexplained weight loss, sudden changes in vision, tingling in hands and feet, sores that are slow to heal, more infections than usual
if the disease is not managed properly it could cause blindness, kidney failure, limb amputation, heart disease,and stroke
Type 1
*autoimmune disease-
a condition in which the immune system mistakenly attacks itself, targeting cells, tissue and organs of a person's own body

The pancreas does not produce enough insulin, glucose builds up, and cells don't get the energy they need
high blood sugar can damage the eyes, kidneys, nerves and heart
5-10% of all cases
must take insulin daily though injection or pump

Type 2
90-95 % of all cases- doctors fear an epidemic
usually appears after age 40
the body can
'
t make enough insulin or use it properly
obesity, inactivity,and poor diets are the main culprits of type 2 diabetes
It can be managed with:
Low-fat and low calorie-foods
Regular physical activity
Arthritis- is a group of more than 100 different disease that cause pain and loss of movement in the joint

Two main types

1.
*osteoarthritis-
a disease of the joints in which cartilage breaks down

causes pain and soreness especially when moving

Risk reducers:
control weight, stay active, prevent sports injuries, protect your self against Lyme disease

2.
*rheumatoid arthritis-
a disease characterized by the debilitating destruction of joints due to inflammation
symptoms- usually first appear between the age of 20-50
joint pain, inflammation, swelling, stiffness
deformed joints- cant function properly
possible fever, fatigue, and swollen lymph nodes

Caused by an autoimmune disease- affects the joints in the hands, feet, elbows, shoulders, neck, knees, hip and ankles and usually on both sides of the body.

Treatment:
anti-inflammatory and pain relievers , rest, exercise, joint protection, physical therapy
Physical and Mental Challenges
Chapter 25 Lesson 4

Physical Challenges
*Disability-
any physical or mental impairment that limits normal activities including seeing hearing walking or speaking

Sight Impairment-
40 million blind- world wide
1.3 million blind and 5 million - sight impairment - United States
Causes of blindness:
Complications from diabetes
Macular degeneration- retina degenerates- main cause in adults 55+
Glaucoma- a disease damages optic nerve
cataracts- a condition that clouds the lens

Hearing Impairment-
30 million Americans
*Profound deafness
- hearing loss so severe that a person cannot benefit from a mechanical amplification such as a hearing aid.
Causes of deafness:
heredity, injury, disease (infection, tumor, measles), obstruction, nerve damage
Motor Impairment-
range of motion and coordination affected by brain injury or nervous system disorder

Treatments to help individuals cope/adapt:
Physical therapy- keep joints flexible and muscles stretched to improve movement
Occupational therapy- helps people to learn to do daily tasks
Assistive devises- wheelchairs, computers, artificial limbs, animals, etc...
Mental Challenges

*Mental retardation-
below-average intellectual ability present from birth to early childhood and is associated with difficulties in learning and social adaptation.

Injury, disease, and brain abnormality are factors that can lead to MR as well the following:
Genetic Disorders- Down Syndrome, Fragile X
Behaviors during pregnancy- A.T.O.D use- fetal alcohol syndrome, MR, low birth weight
Rubella infection-
Restricted oxygen supply- head injury, stroke, meningitis

Accommodating Differences
*Americans with Disabilities Act
(ADA)- a law prohibiting discrimination against people with physical or mental disabilities in the workplace, public accommodations and telecommunications

Provisions
- 15 or more employees
-State or LocalGoverments
- Telephone Companies
Full transcript