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Transcript of Gifted Education
IEP includes accommodations for breadth and depth
Compacting of curriculum
Full inclusion, with a possible combination of acceleration and curriculum compacting Children Who Are
Gifted & Education Teaching Students Who Are Intellectually Advanced How Do We Determine Who Is Gifted? "students who are advanced in one or more subject area" or "developmentally advanced in specific domains" (Hutchinson, 2010) References Hutchinson, Nancy L. 2010. Inclusion of Exceptional Learners in Canadian Schools
Council for Exceptional Children. 2013. http://www.cec.sped.org/Special-Ed-Topics/Exceptional-Learners?sc_lang=en
Gallagher, James J. 2008. Psychology, psychologists and gifted students. In, Handbook of Giftedness in Children, Ed Stephen I. Pfeiffer, 2008.
Robinson, Nancy. Social Needs of Gifted Children. In, Handbook of Giftedness in Children (see above)
Ministry of Education. 2001. Special Education: A Guide for Educators.
Association for Bright Children in Ontario www.abcontario.ca
Kaufman, Scott B. & Sternberg, Robert J. 2008. Conceptions of giftedness. In In, Handbook of Giftedness in Children, Ed Stephen I. Pfeiffer, 2008. Which Children are Considered Gifted in Ontario Schools? A student who is gifted has "an unusually advanced degree of general intellectual ability that requires differentiated learning experiences of a depth and breadth beyond those normally
provided in the regular school program to satisfy the level of educational potential indicated"
- Special Education, A Guide for Educators (2001) In the Toronto District School Board, students who are gifted are identified using the WISC-IV (personal communication)
About 2% of students in the TDSB were identified as gifted and receiving special education in 2010. Why Provide Special Education for Students Who Are Gifted? Helping students who learn differently
Developing student potential: beneficial to the individual
Developing our country's potential: beneficial to society
Students who are gifted and do not receive special education are likely to be disruptive, display poor behaviour, and become disengaged in school (Bauer) Controversy & Issues IQ testing (including WISC-IV) may not be appropriate to test students who are ELL and ESL, or from "culturally diverse backgrounds" (Hutchinson, 2010)
White and Asian students are over-represented in identified gifted populations (ABC Ontario)
IQ testing does not consider Multiple Intelligences, higher executive function, or advanced meta-cognition (Kaufman & Sternberg, 2008) Advanced verbal ability and vocabulary
Learns more at a younger age than peers
Strength in higher order thinking (sees patterns, cause-and-effect, can think abstractly)
Great sense of humour
Works well independently
Has strong interests
Likes to share what they know Challenges Adapted from Winebrenner, 2001 May get frustrated when pace is too slow, or when progress is hard to perceive
May be bossy or monopolize class discussion
Perfectionistic or underacheiving
May be impatient or "overly sensitive"
Usually out of step in some ways with same-age peers (Robinson, 2008) My own research TDSB research report: SPECIAL EDUCATION: STRUCTURAL OVERVIEW AND STUDENT DEMOGRAPHICS, Robert Brown & Gillian Parekh. 2010. Self-Perception of Students Who Are Gifted What does being gifted mean to you? “The only thing gifted kids have in common is a superior ability to grasp concepts and make connections,” -Mary Slade, Professor I interviewed a congregated class of students who are gifted, to try and understand their perception of giftedness, of themselves, and of their social relationships. "The non-gifted kids call me a 'giftie' which I think is a silly term. They call themselves 'normies' which I think is even worse" "You have to be teached differently" "To me it means that in some way I think differently...and I might to better in some areas" "I don't think being gifted is that much different...I just think that we learn more advanced stuff" "working differently" "I sometimes find that expressing my feelings into what I say is hard" "Somebody called me a giftard" "We just have a different title but everybody expects more from us. They expect us to have a photographic memory, and be like, have a calculator installed in our brain but sometimes it's hard for us." "we do more projects" What do you think about being in a congregated class? "There are some drawbacks about being in a gifted [class]. Sometimes it is a power struggle, pretty much everyone wants to be on the top of the class because parents push them" "we get less homework" Downsides Students with an intelligence quotient of 130 or higher, according to the Stanford-Binet IQ test (Gallagher, 2008) "Gifted and Talented means students, children, or youth who give evidence of high achievement capability in areas such as intellectual, creative, artistic, or leadership capacity, or in specific academic fields, and who need services or activities not ordinarily provided by the school in order to fully develop those capabilities." (Council for Exceptional Children, 2013) Renzulli: motivation, creativity, and exceptional ability (Kaufman & Sternberg, 2008) Same social needs as all children: friends, caring parents, teachers with high but realistic expectations
Need environments that match their intellectual level, interests, and maturity
tension between aspirations and wanting to "be like everyone else"
mismatch between intellectual & emotional age and "emotional regulation, social skill and motor skill ability"
May mask their giftedness to make friends, or alienate potential friends through insensitivity or arrogance caused by frustration within their environment (Robinson, 2010) "What is good for the gifted is good for most" - Rosemary Callard-Szulgit Students who are gifted need daily intellectual challenge! Using different grade level texts
Hands-on and exploratory learning
Creating real-world problems and applications
Open ended math problems (Puddle Math, Van De Walle, Small) Brain Teasers & Daily Challenges
Vocabulary challenge, spelling bees, word games
Logic Puzzles, Magic Squares Students who are gifted respond well to self-directed learning Individual projects
Inquiry Based Learning for Science
Use contracts to guide these types of projects
Teach time management explicitly Compacting: Most Difficult First
International Baccalaureate Program
Have experts visit your classroom
Use higher order thinking in assignment and test construction
Use primary sources for social studies and language
Use Shakespeare and Poetry for Drama and the Arts exploration
Expose students to innovators and leaders from all aspects of history, math, science, and the arts
Teach students social skills and emotional regulation
Use ability groups Math & Science:
Breadth and Depth Things to Avoid Mixed ability grouping
Having students who are gifted tutor students who need help
Giving more of the same kind of work
Giving more homework
Not giving a reason for units of study or assignments "The expert projects and the music projects were the highlight of my year" - grade 5 gifted student