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Italy's Ecosystem

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Lauren DeCarlo

on 27 March 2015

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Transcript of Italy's Ecosystem

Ecosystem
In Italy, their ecosystem is Temperate Grassland
ITALY
All your Dreams will come true
Vegetation consists of drought-resistant, hard-leaved, low growing woody shrubs and trees like eucalyptus, olive, juniper, and mimosa.
Characteristics of Italy's ecosystem
Rainfall in the temperate grasslands is moderate. Rain in the temperate grasslands usually occurs in the late spring and early summer and the yearly average is about 10 - 35 inches a year. The amount of rainfall influences the height of grassland vegetation with taller grasses in wetter regions.

Soil
Temperate grasslands have some of the richest soils in the world.
People who live in grassland regions often use the soil for farming. The soil of the temperate grasslands is very fertile due to the nutrient-rich from the growth and decay of deep, many-branched grass roots. The rotted roots hold the soil together and provide a food source for living plants.

Fires
Periodic fires keep the grasslands full of short vegetation rather than larger trees and shrubs.

The biotic factors of the grassland's ecosystem include the autotrophs and the heterotrophs. These are the producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers and the tertiary consumers.
Primary producers:The primary producers include the autotrophs that can photosynthesize which include the grasses, sedged, rushes, cyanobacteria. lichens, mosses, trees etc.
The primary and the secondary consumers include the rabbits, moles , hares, elks, small deers. In some places along with the phytophagous insects, snakes, preying birds, insect feeders are found. Some grassland ecosystems, like in Africa, you will find carnivores like panthers. lions, foxes, wild dogs, etc.
The bacteria , fungi, and other microorganisms form the detritus food chain that is involved in the nutrient cycling of the grassland.
Biotic factors
Abiotic factors
Food Web for Temperate Grassland
Producers/Autotrophs:
Energy Providers. The producers, plants in the case of a temperate grassland, are the energy providers and were able to get this name through converting sunlight into glucose, a form of energy needed to retain bodily functions.
The
primary consumers
are herbivores, meaning their diet only consists of greens, or plants.
The
Secondary Consumers
: meaning they are known to only eat meat, no plants. Once consuming, the primary consumers are charged with energy from the producers they ate. Then energy (glucose) from the primary consumers move into the bodies of the secondary consumers. The Secondary Consumers are now supplied with energy (glucose).
The
Tertiary Consumers
are at the top of the biotic system meaning they have the ability to eat whatever they wish to consume.
All organisms are broken down into organic material and this is possible due to the existence of
decomposers
.The role of decomposers is extremely important for without these organisms, there would be nothing to improve the qualities of where the producers are housed: the soil. Without rich soil, producers can not be grown and this would call for the biotic system to crash since the primary consumers have nothing to eat and so the secondary consumers run out of a reliable food source and then the tertiary consumers are unable to sustain themselves.The cycle continues, and the presence of decomposers is able to illustrate the dependence each organism has on each other and the ecosystem.
Grasslands cover 40% of the Earth's surface on 6 continents. They are a primary habitat for diverse organisms in each domain and are an important element in the carbon cycle. The plant communities are as diverse as the grasslands in which they are found, but some commonalities remain.
Trees and shrubs are also commonly found in mixed grassland communities and their contribution to the carbon balance must be considered in any gas exchange measurement campaign. Trees typically have lower rates of net photosynthesis than other C3 plants, though there are some notable exceptions. Trees frequently are slower to respond to sudden biotic or abiotic changes.


Photosynthesis and chemosynthesis
Autotrophs use light or chemical energy to change it so they can use it. Heterotrophs have to consume autotrophs to get the necessary energy.
The physical cycle of carbon through the Earth's biosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere and atmosphere that includes such processes as photosynthesis, decomposition, respiration and carbonification.
Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis
The energy in a temperate grassland can be described using three levels. The bottom level (grass) keeps 100% of the energy. The second level (gazelle) receives 10% of the grass' energy. The third level (lion) only receives 1% of the grass' energy. The energy is lost at each level because the organism uses most of the energy for itself. The higher up the energy pyramid, the more the organism has to eat to gain energy.
Energy Flow
The natural tendency of any system is to move toward disorder or entropy. energy in the system becomes so dispersed that it is no longer available to do work. so as free energy in a system decreases entropy increases
Second law of Bioenergentics
Grassland soil is rich, and almost anything can be grown there. But poor agricultural practices can ruin soil and turn grassland into lifeless, barren spaces. If crops are not rotated properly, nutrients in the soil are stripped out, and nothing can be grown for several years. Compared to grassland, cropland provides few or no resources for breeding birds. Grazing livestock destroy grassland as well. Only 5 percent of the original prairie in the United States remains.
Continued global warming could turn current marginal grasslands into deserts as rainfall patterns change.
Threats
To change this, the ecosystem would have to start to take more care of the pants and water them more. this would be better because then animaks would be happy and alive and we would have food.
By: Lauren DeCarlo
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