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Transcript of Personality Disorders
What Am I?
Types of Personality Disorders
Causes & Risk Factors
Personality disorders were also known as Character disorders, involve patterns of behavior, mood, social interaction and impulsiveness that cause distress to the one experiencing them, as well as the people in their lives. People with a personality disorders can have more than one personality disorder, which would be often called Multiple Personality Disorder.
There are three personality disorders that describe people with social avoidance or low sociability issues:
• Paranoid Personality Disorder, which is a tendency to mistrust others and to suspect that their motives are hurtful
• Schizoid Personality Disorder, which a tendency to not be able to relate to other people and to have a restricted range of emotional expression
• Schizotypal Personality Disorder, which is a tendency to feel very uncomfortable in close relationships, and to have odd or distorted thoughts or perceptions
Cluster A: paranoid, schizoid and schizotypal personality disorders. These are characterized by feeling paranoid, distrustful and suspicious.
The causes of personality disorders are not known, but research has begun to explore such potential factors as genetics, childhood trauma, verbal abuse, high reactivity/oversensitivity and peer influences.
There are another four types of personality disorders that describe those who appear to be highly emotional and dramatic in social situations, and react to feelings with impulsive or spur-of-the-moment behavior.
• Antisocial Personality Disorder, which is seen when one persistently ignores and violates the rights of others
• Borderline Personality Disorder, which is a tendency to have unstable relationships, intense mood changes, rapidly shifting self-image, high levels of anxiety, including chronic worrying and intense panic, and noticeably impulsive behavior
• Histrionic Personality Disorder, which is a tendency to be highly emotional in social situations
• Narcissistic Personality Disorder, with its pattern of feeling overly important, needing admiration from others and having a lack of empathy
There are three other personality disorders that describe people who seem very cautious and fearful:
• Avoidant Personality Disorder, which includes extreme shyness, feeling inadequate or ‘not good enough', and being very sensitive to criticism
• Dependent Personality Disorder, which involves a tendency of needing to be led in making decisions, clinging to others and having an extreme need to be taken care of
• Obsessive-Compulsive Personality Disorder, which is a pattern of constantly needing things to be orderly and of wanting to be in control
Cluster B: impulsive personality disorders, such as borderline, narcissistic, histrionic and antisocial personality disorders. These are characterized by having difficulty controlling emotions, fears, desires and anger
Cluster C: anxious personality disorders, such as obsessive-compulsive, dependent and avoidant personality disorders. These are characterized by experiencing compulsions and anxiety.
People with personality disorders are at increased risk for self-harming behaviours and suicide. They may also have more difficulty getting along with others than do people without personality disorders.
Personality disorders are considered to be among the most difficult mental health disorders to treat. However, some therapies have proven to be quite effective. For example, dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is the most researched psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder.
By: Navneet Singh and Thamilinie Balaganesan