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Transcript of Chapter 18
The Progressive Era
Growth of America
1900-1910: Economic output of U.S. rose 85%
Slight move back to farming
-1900-1910: Texas, Oklahoma population increased by 2 million
-Kansas, Nebraska, Dakotas: 800,000
U.S. government was giving away land; building new irrigation systems in Arizona, California
Change of Leadership
-Sept. 6, 1901, William McKinley is assassinated in Buffalo, New York.
-Shot by Leon Czolgosz (anarchist)
-McKinley died eight days later
-Trial began 11 days after the assassination and he was executed 45 days later
-Theodore Roosevelt becomes the 26th President of the United States
-Youngest man to become President (age 42)
-Considered the first modern President
-The first 'superstar' President
We will return to Roosevelt...
-For the last time in American history, the first decade of the 20th century saw the growth of farms and cities both
-Agriculture recovered from the depresssion of the 1890s
-The city became the focus of American culture
-Artists, writers, poets became fascinated with the American city
-New breed of journalists and writers begin exposing the ills of industrial and urban life
and the sale of
into prostitution in
Between 1901 -
1914: 13 million
immigrants in the
-Rising life expectancy
Men: 1901: 47 1920: 54
Women: 1901: 51 1920: 55
-In 1900, median age was 23
-Death rate drops
1901: 17 per thousand
1920: 13 per thousand
-Infant death rate remained high
68 per 10,000 births
-Child labor: 1.75 million between ages of 10-15
-Emergence of kindergartens
-Federal government begins addressing social issues: pamphlets on child-rearing; hosting conferences
-Improved methods of contraception lowered birth rate
In 1800, 7 children per family; by 1900: 3.6
-More entering the work force, but not at the top
-1.5% attorneys; 6% doctors
-Women factory workers: 10 hours per day, six days per week
-Unions saw women as threat to men’s jobs
-International Ladies Garment Workers Union
-Changes in fashion as petticoats and corsets begin disappearing
-Women show their ankles and arms in public
-Alice Roosevelt, daughter of the President, smoked in public
-Began using cosmetics regularly
-Divorce rate increased, but still rare
4 in 1,000 in 1900
-Ragtime was the music of the young
A Nation of Consumers
-Henry Ford introduces the Model T Ford
-1908: 5,986 on the road
-1912: 78,611 on the road
-Henry Ford's assembly line production
-At first, took 93 minutes to produce one car
-By 1920, produced one per minute
-By 1914, Ford had lowered the price of the Model T to under $500
-Announced in 1914 he would pay his workers $5 per day; national average was $1.60
-Needed his workers to be able to afford his cars
-Made working at Ford a sign of success
-Promoted from within
However, Ford is the exception...
-Most workers still languish in low paying jobs
-Especially immigrants, women and children
-And it takes a major disaster to awake the nation completely about the hazards of unregulated industry
The Promise of Abundance
-As America grows economically, personal fulfillment begins to include being able to afford material goods
-The demand for higher wages is now spurred not only about just being able to survive but to flourish
-Earning a living wage comes to be viewed as a right fundamental to citizenship
-Growth of unions and attempts to unionize are also seen as a fundamental American right, an essential principle of freedom (free speech, peaceably assemble)
-Management/ownership sees it differently
Two Large Labor Unions
AFL (American Federation of Labor)
1.6 million members by 1904
Believed good-faith negotiating with management was the key
AFL was generally all skilled labor and white male
Industrial Workers of the World (IWW)
"A fraternal hand to every wage worker, no matter what his religion, fatherland or trade"
Included immigrants, women and even the Chinese
Growth of Personal Freedoms
-Women in the workforce brings sex to the conversation
-Margaret Sanger and birth control
-Articles about sex and relationships start appearing in magazines around the country
-Sigmund Freud brings his ideas on psychiatry and psychology to the forefront
Officially changed the name of Presidential residence to the White House
-Avid sportsman and very active physically
-Saw the Presidency as the voice of the people
1. Wanted to limit the power of big business
2. Improve working conditions for all Americans
3. Make daily life safer
4. Organize conservation of natural resources
Created by Theodore Roosevelt
Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906
Required labeling, Meat Inspection Act, mandated sanitary conditions at packing plants
Established U.S. Forest Service, National Park System
Placed 230 million acres under federal control; created five national parks; 51 bird sanctuaries, 4 game preserves, 150 national forests
Established Department of Commerce to oversee relations between management and labor
Transformed American foreign policy (covered in Chapter 19)
William Howard Taft
Roosevelt's hand-picked successor
More conservative than Roosevelt
Was a strict Constitutionalist
Not as personable as Roosevelt
Would later become Chief Justice of the Supreme Court (only man in U.S. history to do both)
Largest President (more than 300 pounds)
Last President elected with facial hair
Progressives were not as enamored with Taft as they were with Roosevelt
The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several states, and without regard to any census or enumeration.
This split the Republican Party
In addition, Taft decided that Roosevelt had overstepped his authority in placing land in forest preserves and returned it to the open market.
Progressive Republicans turned away from him
Election of 1912
Roosevelt decides to run for Republican nomination in 1912 vs. Taft
Democrats nominate Woodrow Wilson
The Socialist Party emerged with Eugene V. Debs
Taft wins Republican nomination; Roosevelt forms new party, the Progressive (Bull Moose) Party
I was born into wealth and was wealthy my
I love fast cars and pushing them to their limits
to see how faster I can go.
As a teenager, I was diagnosed with a potentially
fatal heart condition. My doctor told me to live a
sedentary lifestyle. Instead, I embarked on a vigorous exercise program and became a Golden Gloves boxing champion.
I have a photographic memory and can read a book
and write a letter on an unrelated subject at the same time.
I was fascinated with history and wrote the first
comprehensive book on the history of the U.S. Navy.
My wife died giving birth to our daughter.
My mother died on the same day.
As police commissioner of New York City, I
cleaned up the corruption in the department and
made it one of the most efficient police forces in the
I was undersecretary of the U.S. Navy, but
resigned my post to become a soldier so I could
fight in a war.
I bought a cattle ranch in Montana and while
living there became an expert horseman and hunter.
I served as sheriff in the region of Montana in
which I lived. While living there, I authored several books on hunting, horseback riding and marksmanship.
One of my favorite memories was traveling
to Africa to hunt big game. Many of the animals
I killed were stuffed and shipped back to the
United States and are on display in the
Museum of Natural History in Washington, D.C.
I served one term as Vice-President of the U.S.,
was elected President twice and after taking four
years off, I ran for President a third time.
A review of the Progressive Era...