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Development

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Ana Mexia

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Transcript of Development

Development
design by Dóri Sirály for Prezi
Mauritius

Norway
General details
Southern Africa
Island in the Indian Ocean
East of Madagascar
Location:
Area
Total: 2,040 sq km
Land: 2,030 sq km
Water: 10 sq km

Currency
Mauritian Rupee (MUR), which is divided into 100 cents
Population
1 330 803
Government
Parliamentary Democracy with a Government elected every five years
Education
Government provides free education from primary to tertiary level.
Historical Details
1812-1968
1968
2005- 2013
1991- 2003
1598-1810
1598 - Dutch claim the uninhabited island and rename it after their head of state,
Maurice, Prince of Orange and Count of Nassau.

1638-58 - Dutch settlement begins, but colony soon fails.

1664-1710 - Second Dutch attempt at colonisation fails. The Dutch withdraw permanently.

1715 - French East India Company claims Mauritius for France, renames it Ile de France.

1721-67 - Settlement begins; Port Louis founded as a base for attacking the British in India.

1767 - French East Indies Company sells Mauritius; control of island transferred to French government.

1796 - Settlers break away from French control when the government in Paris attempts to abolish slavery.

1810 - British forces land in Mauritius after defeating the French in battle at Cap Malheureux.

British Rule
1812 - Colonel Draper founds the Mauritius Turf Club, which opens the first racecourse in the southern hemisphere and the second oldest in the world.

1814 - Mauritius, Seychelles and Rodrigues ceded to Britain under Treaty of Paris.

1834 - British abolish slavery. It is phased out on the island under a transition period known as "apprenticeship".

1835 -
Indentured labour system introduced. In subsequent decades hundreds of thousands of workers arrive from India.

1866-68 - Malaria epidemic kills more than 40,000 people after Anopheles mosquito accidently introduced.

1876 - Indian rupee becomes official currency.

1910 - Indentured labour system abolished. Between 1834-1910, 451,776 Indians were brought to Mauritius to work on the sugar estates, of which 157,639 returned to India.

1926 - First Indo-Mauritians elected to government council.

1937 - Rioters demand better economic conditions and participation in government.

Independence
1968 - 12 March - Independence.


1969 - Opposition Mauritian Militant Movement (MMM) founded, advocates socialism, led by Paul Berenger.

1971 - First Export Processing Zone created. Textiles sector develops. Between 1971-77, 64,000 jobs are created.

1971 - MMM, backed by unions, calls a series of strikes. State of emergency declared, lasts until 1976. MMM party's leadership imprisoned.

1979 - Cyclone Claudette devastates island.

1979 - Mauritius approaches IMF and World Bank for assistance. Country has deficit of $111 million

Republic
1991 December - Legislative Assembly approves the transition of the nation to a republic within the Commonwealth.

1992 March - Prime Minister Jugnauth declares Mauritius a republic. Legislative Assembly redesignated National Assembly and incumbent governor, General Ringadoo, becomes president.

1992 June - MMM member Cassam Uteem elected president.

1994 - Cyclone Hollanda leaves 1,400 people homeless and causes $81million in damage.

1995 December - MLP leader Navin Ramgoolam becomes prime minister.

2000 - Mauritius secures a seat on the United Nations Security Council for the first time.

2000 - September - MSM leader Sir Anerood Jugnauth becomes prime minister.

2002 February - Cassam Uteem resigns as president, refusing to sign controversial anti-terrorism bill. Vice president also refuses to sign and resigns. Head of legislature becomes acting president and passes legislation into law.

2002 - Karl Hoffman elected president by National Assembly.




Labour in power
Early Settlement
2005 July -
Navin Ramgoolam wins general election, returns as prime minister
.

2006 April - One hundred former residents of the Chagos Archipelago - claimed by Mauritius - make a return visit nearly 40 years after being evicted by Britain to make way for a US military base on the island of Diego Garcia. Their legal battle with Britain continues.

2010 May - Ruling coalition of PM Navin Ramgoolam wins general election.

2010 June - Mauritius, France agree to jointly manage Tromelin, a tiny Indian Ocean island owned by France but claimed by Mauritius.

2010 December - Mauritius launches a legal action contesting Britain's creation of a Marine Protection Area around its Indian Ocean territory of the Chagos Islands, after the website Wikileaks revealed that a UK official thought setting up a marine reserve should end any possibility of displaced islanders being allowed back.

2011 August - Militant Socialist Movement (MSM) quits the ruling coalition in a row over corruption allegations. Its leader Pravind Jugnauth is later arrested.

2012 March - President Anerood Jugnauth steps down saying he wants to return to party politics and challenge the prime minister.

2013 March-April - At least 11 people die as sudden rains flood the capital Port Louis. Prime Minister Navin Rangoolam blames climate change.

Economical Context
“The island nation of Mauritius has claimed Africa's top spot in the annual Global Competitiveness Report for 2013-14.”

Road to Growth
How
Sugar Boom 1970's
Mauritius had a very good trade and development strategy.
"Since the mid-1980s, the volume of goods imported and exported by Mauritius has grown rapidly, at annual rates of 8.7 percent and 5.4 percent, respectively"
Why?
Liberal trade policies
Trade policies that, although interventionist, did not distort incentives in favor of the import-competing sector. ( Export Processing Zone)
Openness to foreign direct investment.
Strong institutions
Three different governments of divergent ideological persuasions
In the financial sector they have built a regulated and well-capitalised banking and financial system.
Special Factors.
Ethnic Diversity
The Good
Mauritius transformed from a monocrop that based its economy on sugar to an dynamic industrialized economy. It now bases its economy on sugar, textile, tourism and financial services.
"1970's after years of stagnation Mauritian economy attained record levels"
The Bad
High Rates of growth led to unprecedented increases in government consumption.
Imports increase to rates that could not be sustained.
Government had to adopt a structural adjustment programme form 1979 to 1986

Before the adjustment period
The Good
During the adjustment period
GDP growth rate rose from 4% to 9%
Current account deficit improved into a surplus.
Budget deficit declines from 15% to less than 5% of GDP.
Double digit inflation went down to 1.8 %.
The Bad
During the adjustment period
Adjustment programme did not include wide ranging liberalization policies.
Attention was paid specially to institutional improvements in the export sector and lower attention was paid to liberalizing imports and no attention to the foreign exchange and financial market.
No removal of price controls or subsidies, no reform of tax system, no privatization, no liberalization of the labour market.
Today
1990's --> Liberalization Methods were widened because policy makers believed they could be sustained.
Current and Capital transactions have been freed.
Credit Ceilings on commercial bank credit removed.
Setting up of a stock market.
Development Indicators
GNI per Capita PPP($)
2009 -
12820
2010-
13670
2011-
14350
2012-
15060
Population
2009
- 1,275,032
2010-
1,280,924
2011-
1,286,051
2012-
1,291,456
GDP (current Us $)
2009-8,834,661,042
2010-9,718,331,362
2011-11,250,559,552
2012-10,486,037,633
Life expectancy at birth.
2009-
72.8
2010-
72.9
2011-
73.3

Steady increase
in the past few
years .
Steady increase
Steady increase from
2009-2011.
Decrease in 2012.
Steady increase
Conclusions
Mexico
General Details
Development Indicators
Location
South of USA
North of Guatemala and Belice
Caribbean
Area
Total
-1,972,550 km2 (761,610 sq mi)
Land
-1,923,040 km2 (742,490 sq mi)
Water
-49,510 km2 (19,120

Currency
Mexican Peso
Population
120.8 million
Government
Federal presidential representative democratic republic whose government is based on a congressional system.
President
Head of the state Rajkeswur Purryag(2012)
Prime minister
Head of the Government assisted by a council of ministers Nacin Ramgoolam (2005)
Therefore the absolute power is divided between the president and the prime minister.

GNI per Capita PPP ($)
2009
-13,800
2010
- 14,600
2011
- 15,800
2012
- 16,450
Population
2009
- 116,422,752
2010-
117,886,404
2011
- 119,361,233
2012
-120,847,477
GDP ($)
2009
- 895,354,565,567
2010
- 1,047,368,841,686
2011
- 1,159,889,566,239
2012
- 1,178,126,184,343
Life Expectancy at Birth
2009
- 76.46
2010
-76.69
2011
- 76.91
There is a steady increase similar to Mauritius. Yet Mexico has greater numbers.
Mexico has a ´population much greater than Mauritius and because of that it has a much greater increase in population.
Mexico has a greater increase in GDP than Mauritius as well as greater number of GDP. Yet it is not GDP per Capita so it is harder to compare
Mexico and Mauritius have very similar life expectancy at Birth.

Development Rank
Human Development
Corruption
Rank

Rank
Information Taken from BBC website

Human Development
0.775
Gender inequality index.
Index
Corruption
Rank
C02 emmisions per capita
2009- 3.8 metric tons
2010- 3.8 metric tons
Index
Rank
61/186
Recent changes
5 places down in ranking from 2011 to 2013
Mexico is ranked higher than Mauritius. Yet, Mexico's recent activity is not as favourable as Mauritius's
Index
Rank
0.737
80/186
Recent Changes
Mauritius went down 2 places from 2011- 2013
0.382
Gender inequality index is very similar to Mauritius. Mexico has higher gender inequality.
Rank
86/186
Gender Inequality
Index
88/186
0.377
General Details
Location

Western part of the Scandinavian peninsula



Area
Government
Constitutional Monarchy



Land area: 118,865 sq mi (307,860 sq km);
total area: 125,181 sq mi (324,220 sq km)



Currency
Norwegian Krone
Population
5,063,709 (growth rate: 0.3%);
Development Indicators
37
ICAC
The Independent Commission Against Corruption (ICAC) is the Anti-corruption agency of Mauritius.
Investigation
: enforcement of the laws against corruption.
Prevention
: elimination of opportunities for corruption from systems and procedures.
Education
: prevention of corruption through public education and support.
85
In the absence of adequate government institutions, corruption flourishes as personal connections often matter more than laws.
Why so bad ?
GNI per Capita
2009
-55,090
2010
- 58,130
2011
- 61,390
2012
-66,960
GDP Current (us $)
2009-
378,849,392,446
2010-
421,236,092,715
2011-
491,064,821,429
2012-
499,667,211,001
Population
2009
-4,828,726
2010
-4,889,252
2011
- 4,953,088
2012
- 5,018,869
Life expectancy at Birth
2009
- 81
2010
- 81
2011
- 81
Human Development
0.955
Corruption
"Norway remains one of the world’s least corrupt countries. Well-established anti-corruption measures reinforce a cultural emphasis on government integrity. Transparency is a key institutional asset."

http://www.heritage.org/index/country/norway

Gender Inequality
"Norway has topped a league of countries in closing the gender gap, followed by three other Nordic nations, a survey by the World Economic Forum says." - bbc

CO2 emissions per Capita
2009 -
9.75 metric tones
2010
- 11.7 metric tones
Mexico has corruption levels that are much higher than Mauritius.
Income is at much higher rates than both Mauritius and Mexico and is continually growing. Shows it is a developed country.
Mexico has greater GDP than Norway because of the population. Norway has greater GDP than Mauritius
Norway has a greater population than Mauritius but a smaller population than Mexico. This provides no trend.
Life expectancy at birth has kept been constant at an age greater than both Mauritius and Mexico. This is probably because of better healthcare.
Index
Rank
1/186
Here we can see that Norway is at a much better human development rank than both Mauritius and Mexico because Norway is a fully developed country.
Rank
5th
MDG !!
CO2 Emissions per Capita
2010
- 3.0
metric tons
2010
- 3.2

Emissions are increasing as the economy moves more towards the secondary sector.
Mexico has higher number of emissions than Mauritius because the economy is more based on secondary and tertiary sectors.
Negative Externality
Norway has 3 times more CO2 emissions than Mauritius and Mexico showing that the tertiary sector is expanding. And that in this case developed countries have more negative externalities of production.
An area within which goods may be landed, handled, manufactured or reconfigured, and reexported without the intervention of the customs authorities
Euro area is the country´s main export destination and it had fallen into a recession.
External Debt and Balance of payments
External Debt
We can clearly see that Mauritius has decreased its external debt by a fair amount which could support the fact that Mauritius is developing.
Balance of Payments
Goods and services (29,176) (36,341) (44,716) (44,112)
Income 825 (274) (1,845) 4,303
Transfers 6,909 5,629 3,475 4,260
Capital and Financial Account 11,049 22,924 35,193 37,916
Overall balance of payments 10,393 8,062 7,893 (2,366)

Net Errors and Omission 12,103 1,885 5,247 6,041
Net international reserves 105,748 107,984 109,588 N/A

Overall balance of payment surplus which is a very favorable situation as the country is receiving more payments than it is paying. This could be the reason why the country has been able to reduce its debt and is therefore a good sign for development .
External Debt
Mexico´s external debt has been increasing and is at a much higher place than Mauritius. Such high foreign debt may result in even more corruption and worse policy managing that could affect the road in developing.
y= mxn billion
y=Mur Million
External Debt
Norway has no external debt which is a clear indicator that Norway is a developed country. It contrasts with both Mexico and Mauritius.
Mauritius and Mexico have very similar development indicators even when they are in different geographical locations with different populations and geographical area.
Norway contrasts in many of the indicators with both Mexico and Mauritius
Overall, Mauritius has taken a good road towards growth but must continue addressing the key issues such as external debt
Overall, Mexico must work specially in the corruption aspects in order to fix external debt to be able to address the development goals.
Overall, Norway is at the peak of development but must still work to continue with this trend.
Bibliography
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13882731
http://www.tradingeconomics.com/mexico/external-debt
http://www.heritage.org/index/country/mauritius
http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/05/24/mauritius-surplus-idAFL5E8GO30F20120524
http://www.reuters.com/article/2012/05/24/mauritius-surplus-idAFL5E8GO30F20120524
http://www.infoplease.com/country/norway.html
http://databank.worldbank.org/data/home.aspx
http://statsmauritius.gov.mu/English/News/Pages/-2011-Housing-and-Population-Census-.aspx
http://www.nationsonline.org/oneworld/mauritius.htm
http://www.africareview.com/Business---Finance/Seychelles-Mauritius-top-Africa-ICT-rankings/-/979184/2025374/-/q69mmo/-/index.html
http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/fandd/2001/12/subraman.htm
http://website1.wider.unu.edu/lib/files1/JID-11-3-99-7-Bundoo.pdf
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