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Fifteen Books that Changed the World!
Transcript of Fifteen Books that Changed the World!
9. 1984 - George Orwell
10. The Feminine Mystique - Betty Friedman
11. How the Other Half Lives - Jacob Riis
12. The Jungle - Upton Sinclair
13. Twenty Years at Hull House - Jane Addams
14. To Kill a Mockingbird - Harper Lee
15. The Gilded Age - Mark Twain & Charles Dudley Warner
March 9th, 1776
November 24, 1859
1787 & 1788
1867, 85, 94
September 27, 1962
Febuary 19, 1963
Fifteen books that changed the world by Jerri Patricia Phipps!
Adam Smith's The Wealth of Nations is written in five separate books. Each of these books set out to tell a new understanding of economics, one told in Adam's point of view, a supporter of the Laissez-faire (belief that the government should not be in control of economic activities.) In Smith's writings, he objects the Mercantile System but encourages a deeply rooted social dynamic, human nature economic system. Within books one and two, Smith primarily focuses on the division of labor and how it leads to surpluses within the society. He adds in that the division of labor also creates technological innovation. By this, Smith means that by giving each individual their on task it allows them to think to a larger range making tasks more efficient. Book three depicts other nations explaining how they acquired their wealth and progress; for example, he writes about Great Britain explaining how going through agricultural stages lead them to international commerce. The Fall of Rome is also included. Book four describes the systems of political economy. In more detail, Smith is saying that if the government was in control of the economy it would result in higher prices and efficiency. The last book, book five, is where Smith makes his objection to mercantile commerce known. One way Smith criticizes it is by saying it effects the value along with wealth placed on metals. In his opinion wealth is based upon the service production and line of goods a nation produces. Smith also states that by placing taxes on citizens would not do the economy any good because it will result in the poorer becoming poorer and the richer obtaining more money. Overall, Smith aimed to tell labor is an important aspect because it increases production.
Wealth of Nations by Adam Smith is categorized as a book that changed the world because it opened the eyes of many people including middle class workers by creating a new outlook on the way economics work. It enlightened self-interest, a limited government, and gave people a choice of selling/trading goods as they pleased, free trade.
In The Origin of Species by Charles Darwin, Darwin introduces his theory of evolution, the belief that organisms evolve over time in order to survive in a process called natural selection. In other words, species change over time given traits that will allow them to adapt and survive, ones who do not acquire the beneficial traits perish meanwhile, the ones who do pass the trait on to their offspring creating another branch separate from the parent species. "Survival of the fittest." Within the book Darwin presents a body of evidence that the diversity of life arose by common descent through a branching pattern of evolution, he gathered this information from the 1830s Beagle expedition along with information found from research, correspondence, and experimentation. Charles Darwin's theory lead to Herbert Spencer's Social Darwinism which is the same case scenario but it applies to human sociology.
Charles Darwin's Origin of the Species is a book that changed the world because not only did it cause a debate between evolution and creationism by "contradicting the bible" but it also became a spotlight belief of modern evolutionary theory and today unifying concept of the life sciences.
Thomas Paine's Rights of Man is a thirty one article book that defends the natural right of man declaring the government does not offer it. Defending the French Revolution against Edmund Burke's attack in Reflections on the Revolution in France (1790), Paine's words come together to form an argument that the interests of the monarch and his people are merged and he insists that the French Revolution should be understood as a war that attacked the despotic principles of the French monarchy.
Thomas Paine's Rights of Man was quickly sold and read aloud when published. It's a book that changed the world due to the fact it damaged Burke's case and restored credit to the French both in America and Great Britain. It also served as an philosophical cornerstone for the American citizens by granting them their natural rights which are still believed in today.
Written by not only Alexander Hamilton but by John Gay and James Madison, the Federalist Papers consist of eighty five articles and essays elevating the ratification of the United States Constitution. Overall, the contents in this book laid down the basic outlines for the arguments on specific constitutional points and political theories. Three main concepts are wrote about and explained throughout this book: the first one being 'what the Federal Government should provide?" the second, "what is the amount of power necessary to carry out government positions?" and last, "who in the government should do this?". Hamilton believes the Unions purpose is to defend its members, peace to the public, the regulation of commerce, and the conducting of foreign affairs. To create such a defense, Hamilton justifies a strong military and that it have no limitations because we can not foreshadow what dangers are to come in the future. When requests failed to give men and money no limitations to direct operations when the importance of a military were recognized in the Articles of Confederation because the states did not have common interests Hamilton suggested that "we must extend the laws of the federal government to the individual citizens of America." Later, he also said that the government must have the power to "pass all laws and make all regulation"
preserve common safety of the union.
The Federalist Papers by Alexander Hamilton helped change the world because it ratified the United States Constitution and established a new government system in which the government focused more on the rights of people. The Federalist Papers helped shaped America into what it is modern day.
Mein Kampf "My Struggle" by Adolf Hitler is an autobiographical manifesto written in two volumes that describes his political ideology of nationalism, German expansion, antisemitism, anti-communism, anti-parliamentarianism, and his future plans for Germany. The first volume of Hitlers book is written during his time spent in prison, he primarily was writing to Rudolf Hess, his deputy. A main concept of Mein Kampf is "the Jewish peril", a Jewish conspiracy to gain leadership worldwide. His time spent in Vienna is also written about as he tells of himself becoming more antisemitic and militaristic and the stuggles he faces with money, education, and family as he was expected to follow his fathers footsteps. He never came in contact with a Jew before until Vienna where he accepted anti-semitic views, which were crucial in his program of the national reconstruction of Germany. As the book carries on Hitler makes his hatred towards the Jews known. He did not believe in the mix of races and believed the Aryan race was the most superior... later resulting in the Holocaust.
Mein Kampf by Hitler is a book that changed the world because it let people into the mindset of Hitler and allowed them to understand why he believed in the things he did. It gave the perspective from a racial point of view.
Harriett Beecher Stowes Uncle Toms Cabin is an anti-slavery book that served as an underlying cause for the Civil War.The book begins in Kentucky as a farmer/slave owner, Arthur Shelby, is forced to sale two slaves due to financial issues. The two chosen slaves are Harry and Uncle Tom, they will be sold to Haley, a slave owner in New Orleans. Since Harry is a young child, child of Eliza, Shelby's house slave, he is taken away with his mother as she escapes avoiding the risk loosing another child by a broken promise her owner made to her. Going through with the process, Uncle Tom is obtained by Haley. Traveling on a Mississippi river boat, Tom meets a little white girl by the name of Eva St. Clare, as they are sailing along Eva slips and falls into the river, Tom jumps in and rescues her from drowning. Eva's father buys Tom from Haley at Eva's request, and Tom accompanies the family to their New Orleans home. When he arrives, he meets Eva's mother, a nasty personalized person, and other slaves owned by the household. He and Eva form a close relationship; by reading to Tom from his Bible, Eva herself grows to perceive and love Christianity. Back in Kentucky, Tom's wife is plotting to buy Toms freedom. After living on the plantation for two year, Eva becomes terminally ill, when her death approaches and she perishes, inspired by God, St. Clare promises Tom freedom, signs Topsy (recently bought young slave girl) over to Ophelia legally, and begins to make provisions to protect all of his slaves from sale but before all this is finale St. Clare is suddenly killed, resulting in his wife selling most of his servants, including Tom. Tom's new owner is Simon Legree, a brittle man who has Tom working to pick cotton. Under Legree's ownership Tom faces many beatings and his faith is on the edge of being broken but still he spreads it to the slaves amongst him. After two slaves have escaped and Tom refuses to tell where they hid he is beaten to death. With his last words he forgives Legree and his two whippers. Around this time George Shelby arrives to purchase Tom but their arrival is too late as they watch Tom die. Meanwhile, Eliza is on a riverboat where she discovers she is Cassie's (one of the escaped slaves) long lost daughter. Back at the Kentucky plantation George Shelby returns to his farm, tells Toms wife of Toms tragedy, and frees all his slaves, telling them to remember that they owe their freedom to the influence of Uncle Tom.
Uncle Tom's Cabin is a book that changed the world because not only was it a cause of the Civil War but it aided the abolitionist cause in the 1850s. It also brought out Christian beliefs more thoroughly, it made slave owners think that if they were really following Gods words, is God proud of the way they treat other human beings of a different color and are those actions of a true Christian? Going along with that, it brought attention to how slaves where being treated by there owners and how brutal some of the beatings were which lead to people opposing slavery.
Karl Marxs Das Kapital is a book of economics, sociology and history focusing mainly on capitalism, a system where the country's trade and industry is controlled by private owners for profit. The book contains three separate volumes; the first volume is a critical analysis of political economy revealing contradictions of the capitalist mode of production and struggles in the capitalist social relations of production. Inside this book Marx attempts to depict an account based on nature, development, and future of the capitalist system.To do so, Marx addresses the nature of commodities, wages, and the worker-capitalist relationship. He presents the ways workers are exploited by the capitalist mode of production and the history of past exploitations to back up the fact that workers are exploited. In an argument, Marx announces that the capitalist system is ultimately unstable due to the fact it cannot sustain constant profit.
Das Kapital by Karl Marx is a book that changed the world because it served as a scientific foundation for the politics of the present day labour movement. The book also resulted in the Communist Manifesto.
In Silent Spring, Rachel Carson explains how the environment is chained together in fifteen different chapters. In the first chapter Carson explains the title of her book "Silent Spring" by giving the setting of a community,a place where people are able to enjoy the spring season including humans, work together, and wildlife nature. Chemical poisons are introduced to the environment which results in the life of organisms ending or "the spring being silenced". The rest of her book depicts the way chemical poisons or pesticides was harming and/or killing humans, animals, plants, and polluting the air, soil, and water.
Silent Spring by Rachel Carson is a book that changed the world because it helped with launching the contemporary American environmental movement and concerned people worldwide about pesticides and pollution of the environment. The book also made the prohibition of the pesticide DDT for agricultural use more clearer in the United States in 1972.
Nineteen eighty-four by George Orwell is book about Winston Smith, the protagonist, Winston is a member of the Outer Party in London, in the nation of Oceania and works for the Ministry of Truth. The Outer Party watches everything the people under its rule does and controls everything about them including what they do and the language they speak, prohibits free thought, sex, and any expression of individuality. Winston dislikes the party he is under and feels frustrated under its control. To store his thoughts, he illegally purchases a diary and begins to record his criminal thoughts. At the same time, Winston becomes interested in a powerful Party member named O’Brien, who he believes to be a secret member of the Brotherhood, a mysterious, legendary group that works to overthrow the Outer Party. Meanwhile while working in the Ministry he comes across a coworker by the name of Julia that he finds interests in. Torn from his assumptions of her being an informant she writes him a notes stating her name and "i love you"; soon after Winston and Julia form a relationship and eventually rented a room above the secondhand store in the prole district where Winston bought his diary. Later on Winston receives a message from O'Brien that he had been waiting in requesting that they meet. Winston tags along Julia and the two of them go to visit O'Brien in his luxurious apartment. There, O’Brien tells Winston and Julia that he also hates the Outer Party and confirms he works against it as a member of the Brotherhood. He welcomes both Winston and Julia into the Brotherhood giving Winston a copy of Emmanuel Goldstein’s book, the manifesto of the Brotherhood. Winston and Julia return to the rented room when troops barge in and seize them both. Turns out, O'Brien was a member of the Thought Police all along and told of Winston's request to change parties. He is taken away to the Ministry of Love where he is tortured and brainwashed then taken to room 101 where he faces his worst fear- rats. This is when Winston cries out to do this to Julia which is what O’Brien wanted all along. Winston is then released to the outside world accepting the Outer party.
1984 by George Orwell is a book that changed the world because it showed how an omniscient, strict governed world would be. It placed different views on the government and media/communication.
The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedman is a fifteen chapter book written to express the popular notion that woman in the 1950s and early 1960s could only find fulfillment in working within the home and being a wife and mother, also known as "the problem that has no name". Within the book Friedman discusses the lives of many women from the United States who were unhappy serving as a housewife and being married with children. She draws attention to the fact that the average age of marriage was dropping and the birthrate was increasing for women throughout the 1950s and the unhappiness of women continued. During this time mainly men agreed and portrayed women to be happy when staying home during the day attending the home and also having a family; which came about the "feminine mystique" (the idea that women were naturally fulfilled by devoting their lives to being housewives and mothers). Friedman begged to differ in her quote "We can no longer ignore that voice within women that says: 'I want something more than my husband and my children and my home." Sigmund Freud is criticized by Friedman because he described women to be destined to being a mother, wife, and housewife and immature, along with him she criticized functionalism. Education was another big topic in Feminine Mystique, it is written that women obtaining large educations made them appeal less attractive by spoiling their femininity and capacity for fulfillment in sexual ways. Ending her book, Friedman suggests a new life plan for women to not view housework as a career, not to try to find total fulfillment through marriage and motherhood alone but to set out and find a meaningful, interesting job that uses their full mental capacity.
The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedman is a book that changed the world because it sparked the beginning of second-wave feminism in the United States and progressing the contemporary Women's Movement in 1963 and as a result transforming and inspiring women to become something more than and housewife and mother.
How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis is an early publication of photojournalism, a way of spreading news by photos etc.. It is categorized as muckraking journalism which means it told news about things people really did not notice before. It told the life and living conditions of poor people in New York City tenants during the 1880s. In his writing, Riis divided the poor into two categories one deserving of assistance generally being women and children and the other undeserving, typically the unemployed and criminals. He also wrote about racial discrimination against foreigners such as Jews, Italians, and Irish.
How the Other Half Lives by Jacob Riis is a book that changed the world because it served to influence muckraking journalism for the future and told the unrevealed facts about the less fortunate people living in New York City tenements and laid down a solution to fix problems relating to those he explained.
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair portrays the lives of immigrants, Jurgis Rudkus and Ona Lukoszaite,coming from Lithuania into the state Chicago in the United States. The couple brought along several relatives in search of a better life, unfortunately, Packingtown, the town they settled in is the center of Lithuanian immigration and of Chicago’s meatpacking industry. Packingtown is full of filth and people have a hard/dangerous time trying to find a job. When the story begins, Jurgis, Ona, and other guest are attending a wedding feast, afterward money is needed to cover the costs but they do not have enough so Jurgis, a strong believer in the American Dream, pledges to work harder to make more money. The story goes on to tell how the immigrants make a new life in Packingtown, Chicago consisting of the absence of social programs, poverty, unpleasant living, working conditions, and the hopeless expansion of the working class, in opposition to the deeply rooted corruption of people in power. The book not only focused on the immigrant life in the United States and poverty but also on the meatpacking industry linking to the bad working conditions in the early twentieth century.
The Jungle by Upton Sinclair is a book that changed the world because it explained the life of poor immigrants, the unsanitary within Chicago stockyards, the political corruption and wage slavery. This book was also a form of muckraking journalism and helped advance passage of the 1906 federal Pure Food and Drug Act.
Twenty Years at the Hull House by Jane Addams is an autobiography of her life as a child then on to her life founding and running Hull House (settlement house for immigrants) in Chicago beginning 1889. It informs the reader of poverty and misuses from the Industrial Revolution. A part from many American's opinion during this time Addams believed that immigrants were an influence on the country and benefited American society. It brought attention to labor laws - social reform, sanitation in the city and sociology.
Twenty Years at Hull House by Jane Addams is a book that changed the world because she influenced sociology and helped bring issues such as public health - sanitation, peace, and needs of children into concern of United States citizens, especially mothers. She stood as a role model for middle class women and promoted women's rights as well as bring child labor to a stop.
To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee is a story of a six year old girl named Scout Finch living with her brother Jem, and their widowed father, Atticus, in Maycomb, Alabama. The story takes place between 1933 and 1935 and within those years Scout learns four valuable lessons about people and life. The first lesson learned in the story is you do not know someone until you have placed yourself in their shoes, in other words, do not judge someone before knowing them. This lesson comes about when suspicion is brought upon a man named Arthur or "Boo" who lives in a spooky house on their street called the Radley Place. Arthur is a man in his thirties who does not visit the outside very often because once when he was a teenager he got in trouble with the law for his inappropriate behavior; after this his father would not allow him to go outside. Now, his father is dead and he lives with his older brother. Since he has not been seen outside the house for years the children gave him the nickname "Boo" and believe him to be a creepy man. Over a course of time Boo does nice things for the children such as leaving out candy, fixing Dill's (a friend of Jem and Scout) pants, and placing a blanket over Scout one night when there is a house fire; it's not until this point until the children realize Boo is actually a nice man. The second lesson learned is you never kill a mocking bird, metaphorically you do not take advantage of someone weaker than you. The third lesson is that even if you think or know you are going to loose, keep fighting. The story behind this lesson is a black man by the name of Tom is accused of raping a white woman and is taken to jail. Atticus is a lawyer and is fighting this case on behalf of Tom even though he knows he going to lose due to racism; the truth behind this is the woman was trying to seduce Tom and her father beat her because they were discovered, to hide her shame she lies and says Tom tried to rape her. Physical evidence is on Atticus and Toms side as the woman has bruises on the right side of her face; Tom is able to use his left arm but her father is left handed meaning he could have cause the bruises. As thought, the jury accused Tom because they aren't going to defend a black man being accused of raping a white woman. The last lesson is the world is an unfair place. Scout learns this when a sheriff insists Ewell tripped over a tree root and fell on his own knife when really he was killed by Boo when he tried attacking Scout and Jem.
To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee is a book that changed the world because it demonstrated racial injustice and the destruction of innocence in the United States and it held responsibility in the Supreme Court decision ending Racial Segregation in Brown vs. Board of Education, "An American Dilemma".
The Gilded Age by Mark Twain and Charles Dudley Warner is a book that informs people of greed and political corruption following the Civil War in America in the era now known as the Gilded Age. The term Gilded Age was coined my Twain and Warner because they said it resembled something covered in gold but had a cheaper material on the inside or in other words America seemed to sparkle or be a great, happy, fortunate place to be but underneath its appearance was corruption, greed, crime, poverty, and despair. The theme of the book is getting rich through land, telling the story of efforts put in from a poor rural Tennessee family to grow affluent by selling the 75,000 acres of unimproved land taken from the male leader of their family. The family fails to sell the land after several adventures in Tennessee and Si Hawkins, the patriarch dies. The rest of the story focuses on their adopted daughter, Laura. She travels to Washington, D.C. in the early 1870s, to become a lobbyist. On the other hand, Warner writes a story about two young upper-class men, Philip Sterling and Henry Brierly, who look for their fortunes in land in an orderly way. The two of them travel with a group intent on surveying land in Tennessee in order to acquire it for speculation.
The Gilded Age by Mark Twain and C.D Warner is a book that changed the world because it brought attention to corruption, greed, desire for wealth, and facts about the Market Place from 1868 to the turn of the twentieth century.
1. Wealth of Nations - Adam Smith
2. Origin of Species - Charles Darwin
3. Rights of Man - Thomas Paine
4. The Federalist Papers - Alexander Hamilton et.al
5. Mein Kampf - Adolph Hitler
6. Uncle Tom’s Cabin - Harriett Beecher Stowe
7. Das Kapital - Karl Marx
8. Silent Spring - Rachel Carson