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Ch. 9 - Difficult Interactions

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K Low

on 2 April 2013

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Transcript of Ch. 9 - Difficult Interactions

Resistance Conflict: A struggle that occurs when individuals, interdependent with others, perceive that those others are interfering with their goal attainment. Causes of Conflict One major cause of conflict occurs when two individuals want different outcomes but must settle for the same outcome. Resistance: A defense mechanism that prevents individuals from undertaking change that is too risky for their sense of safety. Causes of Resistance Resistance is an emotional response based on a rational or irrational fear or concern related to whatever change is proposed or occurring. Conflict Difficult Interactions - Conflict continues to be an uncomfortable situation to address between school professionals. The growing concept of working together, sharing data, and creating common assessments in today's schools. Another major conflict occurs when professionals all have the same goal, but not all of them can access it. Conflict may be about each person's perceived sense of power instead of goals. Another cause of conflict is an internal discrepancy that you perceive within your own goals which can pose as a very serious job stressor for professionals. The conflict you encounter is influenced significantly by the organization and administration of your school. Influences of Conflict: Another critical organization variable that affects conflict is the pattern of communication among the individuals in various parts of the organization. Conflict Response Styles Competitive Style
{associated with the use of power/overpower which can damage collaborative relationships} Avoidance Style {the individual tries to ignore the discrepancy between their own goals and those of others} Accommodative Style {individuals who set aside their own needs in order to ensure that others' needs are met} Compromising Style {the individual gives up some of their ideas related to an issue and insists that others do the same} Consensus Through Collaboration Style {the most satisfying approach to resolving conflict. It often includes developing a completely new alternative to resolve the conflict situation} Resolving Conflict Through Negotiation Focus on issues, not people. Keep the conflict focused on issues that have potential to be agreed on. Reduce the emotional component of the conflict. Give yourself the option to adapt to the issue or exit the situation. Resolving Conflict Through Mediation A specialized form of negotiation, mediation, is a process in which a third party who is neutral in regard to the issue at hand guides the individuals in conflict through a voluntary discussion with the goal of settling the dispute. -Preparation is essential -Mediation begins with an orientation. -Each party explains his/her perspective. -Critical step: needs & interests are explored. -Strategies of negotiation and problem solving are used. -Clearly articulated agreement. -Follow-up meeting to review progress. Conflict and Diversity When in conflict consider culture and the persons beliefs, perceptions, and preferences Recognize your own point of view and how it is influenced by your culture. Resistance sometimes leads to an appropriate decision not to participate in an activity or change. Resistance becomes a barrier to effective interactions and needed innovation. Fear about the personal impact of change. Professionals' and parents' perceptions of the anticipated outcomes associated with change. Concern may be directed at the person initiating the change. The threat of changing in your relationships with others. Homeostasis The tendency of some individuals and systems to prefer sameness to change. When working in a school settings, some professionals quickly state that their schools were difficult places to initiate new programs because staff members simply did not like change. (MCESA) Change fatigue - too much change. Indicators of Resistance - Refusing to participate
- Supporting a change with words but not actions.
- Displacing responsibility.
- Deferring change to a future time.
- Relying on past practice. Your role in working with others is to distinguish between legitimate problems and resistance and to base your actions on such distinctions. Assessing Whether to Address Resistance... Appropriate Resistance - If the change will place too great a burden on the person resisting, resistance may be a positive reaction and should not be addressed. Addressing it is Warranted - In some instances, the best response to resistance, even if it is not rational, may be no response at all. Others' commitment to Change - Individuals are more likely to participate in a change if they feel they have a moderate or low level of positive or negative feeling about the nature of the change. Persuasion Approaches Behavioral Approach - provide positive reinforcement to resistant individuals. Consistency Approach - individuals are more likely to change if they have a sense of cognitive dissonance. Perceptual Approach - a means for persuading others. Functional Approach - the process of convincing someone to change must take into account adult learning characteristics. Persuasion Strategies Seek ways to provide incentives. Relate the proposed change issue to a positive image. Provide opportunities for others to become familiar with the change through observation. Create discrepancies that can be brought to the attention of resistant individuals. Link the proposed change with the resolution of the discrepancy Relate the change to others' knowledge and experience. Propose changes within the value system of others. Gain public commitment. Involve others early in the planning stages. Be sensitive to adult learning preferences. Clarify ownership of the task or activity. Obtain and use feedback from participants. Quiz Q1. Refusing to participate is an indicator of conflict?
True or False? Q2. The use of power when dealing with conflict is considered:
A. Avoidance Style C. Compromising Style
B. Accommodative Style D. Competitive Style Q3. What is one cause of conflict?
____________________________________________ Q4. What is one way to persuade someone who is being resistant? Q5. What is one example of conflict or resistance that you have experienced?
___________________________________________ 1. Mazzotta, R. T. (1997). Conflict in schools and possible resolution strategies. University of Alberta (Canada)). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 64-64 p. Retrieved from http://login.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/304395695?accountid=4485. (304395695). Journal Article Reviews Conflict is natural and easy to begin. Although there are many types of conflicts they are usually resolved using the same strategies and techniques. Conflict is not always negative. It may be verbal or non-verbal and may involve physical force but that is in extreme cases. There are four main sources for negative conflict: communication problems, organizational structures, human factors and limited resources. Conflict can be destructive and disruptive but it can also be a source of creativity and constructive action. Mazzotta talks about 5 strategies to combat conflict: competing, withdrawing, smoothing, compromising, and collaboration. 2. Fisher, A. (2009). Exceptionality and parent-professional conflict: Causes, prevention and resolution. The University of Arizona). ProQuest Dissertations and Theses, , 151. Retrieved from http://login.ezproxy1.lib.asu.edu/login?url=http://search.proquest.com/docview/304844200?accountid=4485. (304844200). Five promising approaches and strategies were identified for preventing or resolving conflicts about special education. First, identify systemic problems, initiate school-wide dialogues, and implement a change process to reform problems through legislation, policies, organizational structures, and operating procedures. Second, follow ten basic principles of dialogue and collaboration while communicating with each other. Third, engage in positive dialogue where each party reflects and takes responsibility for reaching a mutually shared alternative solution by understanding the other person's point of view and conversing as equals. Fourth, train professionals to adopt an interest-based approach to dispute resolution by engaging all stakeholders in a school-wide dialogue, addressing underlying interests or needs rather than reacting to demands. Fifth, use third party intermediaries such as parent-to-parent assistance, dispute resolution case managers, individualized education program facilitators and intervene at the onset of the conflict Interviews Mr. Williams: Elementary School Principal 22 years, 6 schools in total.
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