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Transcript of Chapter 6
Sex Stereotyping- Is the attribution of behaviors abilities, interest, values, and roles to an individual or group on the bias of sex.
Sex Discrimination- Is the denial of opportunity, privilege, role, or reward on the basis of sex. Key Terms •Early part of 19th century women became part of the labor force in textile factories or selling fruit and vegetables. Most women stayed home and tended to family/home.
•Instruction came in the form of: Drawing, painting, elegant penmanship, music, and grace of motion. It wasn't wise to allow females to seek amusement for themselves.
•In 1762, Rousseau's Emile was published. The story was of a boy who was removed from society and was taught by experiencing things or objects.
•Consequently, children began to be taught the same way. Boys were taught to saw, dig, bookbinding, and such. Girls were likely to learn spinning, weaving, cooking, sewing, and moral instruction. Historical Roles of women in CTE •During the Civil War, women were being employed as clerks for the first time. They were being trained differently from men and being paid differently.
•In 1864, Congress set a cap of $600 per year for female clerks. This was half the salary of the male clerks, completing the same work.
•This act set a standard for companies as well. Working Women •In 1870, 88% of women who were employed were only in 10 occupations. (Domestic servant(maid), seamstress, teacher, milliner(hat maker), and nurse)
•By 1900, 90% were now in only 25 different occupations.
•Sex segregation was so customary that it took until 1950's equal-opportunity legislation before it became illegal to advertise the sex of applicants for job openings. The jobs that women were offered were small in selection. •During the Civil war, WWI, and WWII there was a shortage of male workers. This created new job opportunities for women in factories, sewing rooms, and munition plants.
•It provided the first federal funding for public school programs in agriculture, trade, industrial, and home economics education.
•This provided education for homemaking and occupations relating to the female homemaker role. The Smith-Hughes Act of 1917 Vocational Education created programs that were intentionally sex typed. This continued until the Equal Pay Act of 1963.
•This act is considered the first significant legislation relating to vocational equity.
•It called to end discrimination on the basis of gender in payment of wages for equal work. Equal Pay Act of 1963. •It prohibits the discrimination in employment on the basis of sex, race, color, religion, and national rights.
•It was more extensive than the Equal Pay Act. Civil Rights Act of 1964
(Title VII) •Banned discrimination based on gender in education.
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance... Title IX of the Education
Amendments of 1972 •This Public Law provided funding of projects to advance education between women and men.
•This act provided expansion and improvement of programs for women in vocational education and career education. The Women's Educational
Equity Act of 1974 (PL 93-380) Unfortunately, the 1970's and 80's did not experience much change from these two laws. There was not enough attraction for students to enter non-traditional programs. •These funds required development and implementation of programs to eliminate sex discrimination, sex bias, and sex-role stereotyping.
•In order to receive funds, schools must employ a full-time sex equity coordinator, provide leadership to eliminate barriers, offer technical assistance to educators, and develop a public relations program. Educational Amendments of 1976 Again, the enrollment remained relatively unchanged because of the culture and gender-transitional influence. •States were directed to expend 8.5% of vocational funds to educate single parents, homemakers. and displaced homemakers.
•Also directed to set-aside 3.5% to eliminate sex bias and stereotyping and to increase sex equity in vocational programs.
•Largest federal provision ever made for vocational preparation of females and support of males in nontraditional roles. Carl D. Perkins Vocational
Education Act of 1984 Reauthorization of vocational education amendments of 1990 provided a similar amount of funding to eliminate gender inequality. Business
Home Economics. CTE programs
typed by women: CTE programs
Technology Education. Marketing Education was the only program not sex typed
•In 1978 females in nontraditional vocational programs found their biggest obstacle was males in the same program.
•In 1991-96 sexual harassment claims grew from 52% to 72%
•School-to-Work Opportunities Act required schools to show how they planned to increase opportunity for in careers in non-traditional fields. •Vocational teachers gave more support to traditional students
•Parents gave more support to nontraditional students Lack of support •Is a national nonprofit 501(c)3 organization founded in 1994 under the incorporated name of New Traditions for Women, Inc.
•Help for teachers of career and technical education and administration to help women in less represented, nontraditional fields with success. Institute for Women in Trades,
Technology, and Science (IWITTS) •Title IX required education programs receiving federal financial assistance to provide opportunities for females.
•The National Women’s Law Center (NWLC) discovered gender segregation still exists.
•2005 Keynote Speaker Senator Barack Obama with NWLC Co-President Marcia Greenberger and Nancy Duff Campbell
•The NWLC filed 12 Petitions for Compliance Review.
•Investigations and demands for reform for women’s equality in nontraditional fields. Revisitation of Title IX: Gender
Segregation in CTE at the High School Level Male/female ratio in developing countries still weigh heavy on education for males and not for females.
Education is the females way out, but the road is still partially blocked.
Access for training is not available for those in low income situations. Workforce participation
of women in developing
countries There is a need to provide individual development as well as the need to serve society.
Women often are not consulted during the development process of projects and often fail because of it.
More research needs to be conducted on the women's role in developing countries, and this has caused a lack of data on what women do. Implications for
workforce education Harassment Westinghouse (more than 70 years later) stipulated this wage differential in their manuals(1938) stating the lowest male job was not to be paid a wage below that of the highest paid female, regardless of the job content and value to the firm.