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Surrogacy Debate 3/21/2013
Transcript of Surrogacy Debate 3/21/2013
in the 21st century Finances The Political Side International countries: Contract for surrogacy: States that do and don't ban surrogacy The Boost Requirements India Cost of Surrogacy In U.S. Social Interactionist Theory and Surrogacy Why Surrogacy over Adoption? Reasons people
consider surrogacy Creating a family Infertility - Less false starts
-Far less likelihood of carrier rescinding
-Power to choose healthy donor and surrogate
-Connection during pregnancy
-surrogacy is more accepted now than at any other time. -Average $110,000-$150,000 -Surrogate mothers must be 21-35 years of age -Costing a fifth of the price in the United States, India had become the number one country for surrogacy. -$3,000,000,000 Doesn't allow surrogacy:
Iceland- under NO circumstances
Switzerland The most important things that couples look at when they make a contract with the surrogate mother:
~ Health insurance
~Privacy concerns States that ban:
District of Columbia The significance of family Types of Surrogacy
Surrogacy arrangements are categorized as either commercial or altruistic. In commercial surrogacy, the surrogate is paid a fee plus any expenses incurred in her pregnancy. In altruistic surrogacy, the surrogate is paid only for expenses incurred or is not paid at all.
Traditional surrogacy uses the surrogate's egg with donor or intended father's sperm.
Gestational surrogacy uses either the intended mother's egg or a donor's egg, and the intended father's sperm or a donor's sperm. The surrogate is not genetically related to the baby. Family Values
-portraiture in the media
-defining "normal" Infertility
Ineligibility for adoption
Mother's medical issues
Long wait for adoptable infants
Greater difficulty with international adoptions due to bans and suspensions.
Only option for a genetically related child History of Surrogacy
Many developments in medicine, social customs, and legal proceedings worldwide paved the way for modern commercial surrogacy:
1870s: It became common practice in China for couples to pay for an adopted son. All ties to the natal family would be severed, and the child would become an heir and full member of the adopted family.
1930s: In the US, pharmaceutical companies Schering-Kahlbaum and Parke-Davis started the mass production of estrogen.
1944: Harvard Medical School professor John Rock broke ground by becoming the first person to fertilize human ova outside the uterus.
1953: Researchers successfully performed the first cryopreservation of sperm.
1971: The first commercial sperm bank opened in New York, which spurred the growth of this type of business into a highly profitable venture.
1978: Louise Brown, the first test tube baby, was born in England. She was the product of the first successful in vitro fertilization procedure.
1980: Michigan lawyer Noel Keane wrote the first surrogacy contract. He continued his work with surrogacy through his Infertility Center, through which he created the contract leading to the Baby M case.
1985: A woman carried the first successful gestational surrogate pregnancy.
1986: Melissa Stern, otherwise known as “Baby M,” is born in the US. The surrogate and biological mother, Mary Beth Whitehead, refused to cede custody of Melissa to the couple with whom she made the surrogacy agreement. The courts of New Jersey found that Mary Beth Whitehead was the child's legal mother and declared contracts for surrogate motherhood illegal and invalid. However, the court found it in the best interest of the infant to award custody of Melissa to her biological father William Stern and his wife Elizabeth Stern, rather than to the surrogate mother, Mary Beth Whitehead.
1990: In California, gestational carrier Anna Johnson refused to give up the baby to intended parents Mark and Crispina Calvert. The couple sued her for custody (Calvert v. Johnson), and the court upheld their parental rights. In doing so, it legally defined the true mother as the woman who intends to create and raise a child. By: Janice T.
Stephanie P. Families portrayed
through the decades Celebrities who have added to
their families with surrogacy and
have shared their stories publicly. Surrogacy
families Forms of Family
-Gay or Lesbian parents
-Blended Jane and Billy sitting in
a tree, k-i-s-s-i-n-g.
First comes love, then
comes marriage, then
comes baby in a
baby carriage! Rock a Bye Baby, in the Tree Top surrogate mother n.
1. A woman who bears a child for another person, often for pay, either through artificial insemination or by carrying until birth another woman's surgically implanted fertilized egg.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a reproductive technology in which an egg is removed from a woman, joined with a sperm cell from a man in a test tube (in vitro). The cells fuse to form single cell called a zygote, which then starts dividing, becoming an embryo. When the zygote/embryo is only a few cells large, it is implanted in the woman's uterus, and, if successful, will develop as a normal embryo. Family life
portrayed in art One out of 6 couples in the US suffer from infertility. NSFG (National Survey of Family Growth) estimated over 2 million couples were infertile in 2002 and over 7.3 million American women experienced difficulty conceiving or bringing a pregnancy to term.
There are many causes: alcohol
STDs -Carrier Compensation $40,000-$45,000 -Legal Services $7,500 -Egg Donor fee, Program fee, Travel expenses, Medical tests, Insurance. -Already have at least one child and be married -Husband must agree with the decision -Screening must be done:
Insurance -$22,000-$35,000 -Women here do not want the child -Women and families making $50 a month -Highest success rates at 45% Dr. Nayna Patel -Originally a Gynecologist -In 2003 she began working with IVF's -Only accepts infertile clients -Infants born from surrogacy rose 89% from 2004 to 2008 -$445,000,000 Surrogacy provides financial opportunity for women and families in many countries. With many of the families in poverty, the money they recieve from surrogacy allows them to move up in society. Resulting in an economic boost that effects all of society. Functionalism. States that allow:
Utah States that are unclear or undecided:
Virginia, Texas, and Tennessee allow surrogacy only to married couples Does allow surrogacy: India
South Africa Allows altruistic only: Australia
France *Altruistic surrogacy is when the surrogate mother does not get paid for her services. End.